Pakistan Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project (pipip) Environmental and Social Assessment Directorate General Agriculture (Water Management), Agriculture Department Government of Punjab, Lahore November 2011

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b.2The World Bank Operational Policies

The WB Operating Policies (OPs) relevant to the proposed project are discussed in the following sections.

b.2.1Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01)

The World Bank requires environmental assessment (EA) of projects proposed for Bank financing to help ensure that they are environmentally sound and sustainable, and thus to improve decision making.11 The OP defines the EA process and various types of the EA instruments.

The proposed project consists of activities which can potentially have environmental and social consequences, including:

Changes in land use,

Damage to crops

Deterioration of air quality,

Water contamination and consumption,

Damage to top soil, land erosion,

Cutting of trees

Safety hazard.

Since none of the potential impacts of the project are likely to be large scale, unprecedented and/or irreversible, the project has been classified as Category B, in accordance with OP 4.01. Furthermore, the present ESA is being carried out in accordance with this OP, to identify the extent and consequences of these impacts, and to develop an EMP for their mitigation.

b.2.2Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.12)

The WB’s experience indicates that involuntary resettlement under development projects, if unmitigated, often gives rise to severe economic, social, and environmental risks: production systems are dismantled; people face impoverishment when their productive assets or income sources are lost; people are relocated to environments where their productive skills may be less applicable and the competition for resources greater; community institutions and social networks are weakened; kin groups are dispersed; and cultural identity, traditional authority, and the potential for mutual help are diminished or lost. This policy includes safeguards to address and mitigate these impoverishment risks.12

The overall objectives of the Policy are given below.

Involuntary resettlement should be avoided where feasible, or minimized, exploring all viable alternative project designs.

Where it is not feasible to avoid resettlement, resettlement activities should be conceived and executed as sustainable development programs, providing sufficient investment resources to enable the persons displaced by the project to share in project benefits. Displaced persons should be meaningfully consulted and should have opportunities to participate in planning and implementing resettlement programs.

Displaced persons should be assisted in their efforts to improve their livelihoods and standards of living or at least to restore them, in real terms, to pre-displacement levels or to levels prevailing prior to the beginning of project implementation, whichever is higher.

No land will need to be acquired and no resettlement will need to be carried out for the proposed project, hence this OP is not triggered. Small tracts of land may be needed for the watercourse improvement works, however this land will be voluntarily donated by the beneficiaries.

b.2.3Forestry (OP 4.36)

The objective of this Policy is to assist the WB’s borrowers to harness the potential of forests to reduce poverty in a sustainable manner, integrate forests effectively into sustainable economic development, and protect the vital local and global environmental services and values of forests.

None of the project components would be located inside any forested areas. Hence the OP 4.36 is not triggered.

b.2.4Natural Habitat (OP 4.04)

The conservation of natural habitats, like other measures that protect and enhance the environment, is essential for long-term sustainable development. The Bank therefore supports the protection, maintenance, and rehabilitation of natural habitats and their functions … 13

All of the proposed project components would be located in areas where the natural habitat has already been significantly modified, as a result of cultivation and associated activities. Therefore the OP 4.04 is not triggered for the proposed project.

b.2.5Pest Management (OP 4.09)

Through this OP, the WB supports a strategy that promotes the use of biological or environmental control methods and reduces reliance on synthetic chemical pesticides.

The high efficiency irrigation methods such as drip system generally results in reduction in the usage of pesticides and fertilizers. Other project components such as water course improvement and laser land leveling though related to cultivation, do not have any bearing on the need or quantity of chemical inputs for cultivation. The capacity building component of the proposed project will nonetheless include aspects such as integrated pest management, judicious use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, and minimizing the chemical inputs.

b.2.6Safety of Dams (OP 4.37)

The Policy seeks to ensure that appropriate measures are taken and sufficient resources provided for the safety of dams the WB finances. However this OP is not relevant since the proposed project does not involve construction of dams.

b.2.7Projects on International Waterways (OP 7.50)

This OP defines the procedure to be followed for projects the WB finances that are located on any water body that forms a boundary between, or flows through two or more states. However, no project components will be located on any such waterways. Hence this OP is not triggered.

b.2.8Cultural Property (OP 4.11)

The World Bank’s general policy regarding cultural properties is to assist in their preservation, and to seek to avoid their elimination. The specific aspects of the Policy are given below. 14

The Bank normally declines to finance projects that will significantly damage non-replicable cultural property, and will assist only those projects that are sited or designed so as to prevent such damage.

The Bank will assist in the protection and enhancement of cultural properties encountered in Bank-financed projects, rather than leaving that protection to chance. In some cases, the project is best relocated in order that sites and structures can be preserved, studied, and restored intact in situ. In other cases, structures can be relocated, preserved, studied, and restored on alternate sites. Often, scientific study, selective salvage, and museum preservation before destruction is all that is necessary. Most such projects should include the training and strengthening of institutions entrusted with safeguarding a nation’s cultural patrimony. Such activities should be directly included in the scope of the project, rather than being postponed for some possible future action, and the costs are to be internalized in computing overall project costs.

Deviations from this policy may be justified only where expected project benefits are great, and the loss of or damage to cultural property is judged by competent authorities to be unavoidable, minor, or otherwise acceptable. Specific details of the justification should be discussed in project documents.

This policy pertains to any project in which the Bank is involved, irrespective of whether the Bank is itself financing the part of the project that may affect cultural property.

Since the project activities will be carried out in the cultivated fields, it is unlikely that any sites of cultural, archeological, historical, or religious significance will be affected. However, in case of discovery of any such sites or artifacts during the project implementation, the work will be stopped at that site and the provisions of this Policy will be followed. Additionally, the provincial and federal archeological departments will be notified immediately, and their advice sought before resumption of the construction activities at such sites.

b.2.9Indigenous People (OP 4.10)

For purposes of this policy, the term “Indigenous Peoples” is used in a generic sense to refer to a distinct, vulnerable, social and cultural group possessing the following characteristics in varying degrees:15

self-identification as members of a distinct indigenous cultural group and recognition of this identity by others;

collective attachment to geographically distinct habitats or ancestral territories in the project area and to the natural resources in these habitats and territories;

customary cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that are separate from those of the dominant society and culture; and

an indigenous language, often different from the official language of the country or region.

The OP defines the process to be followed if the project affects the indigenous people.

No indigenous people  with a social and cultural identity distinct from the dominant society that makes them vulnerable to being disadvantaged in the development process – are known to exist in the Province. Therefore this OP is not triggered.

However if such groups are identified during the project implementation, the proponents will develop an Indigenous People Development Plan, in compliance with the OP and get it approved by the Bank.

b.2.10Projects in Disputed Areas (OP 7.60)

Projects in disputed areas may raise a number of delicate problems affecting relations not only between the Bank and its member countries, but also between the borrower and one or more neighboring countries. In order not to prejudice the position of either the Bank or the countries concerned, any dispute over an area in which a proposed project is located is dealt with at the earliest possible stage.

The Bank may proceed with a project in a disputed area if the governments concerned agree that, pending the settlement of the dispute, the project proposed for country A should go forward without prejudice to the claims of country B. 16

This OP is not triggered since no part of the Punjab Province is located in any disputed territory.

b.2.11Applicability of Safeguard Policies

Applicability of the WB safeguard policies – on the basis of the discussion in Sections 2.2.1 to 2.2.10 above  with respect to the environmental and social issues associated with the proposed project is summarized below.

Operational Policy


Environmental Assessment (OP 4.01)


Involuntary Resettlement (OP 4.12)


Forestry (OP 4.36)


Natural Habitat (OP 4.04)


Pest Management (OP 4.09)


Safety of Dams (OP 4.37)


Projects in International Waters (OP 7.50)


Cultural Property (OP 4.11)


Indigenous People (OP 4.10)


Projects in Disputed Area (7.60)


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