Annex A: National Environmental Quality Standards
Annex B: Environmental and Social Baseline Details
Annex C: Consultation Details
Annex D: Sample Contracts
List of Figures and Tables
Figure 3.1: Cropping Pattern in Punjab 3-2
Figure 3.2: Efficiency under Various Methods of Irrigation 3-5
Figure 5.1: Punjab Province 5-10
Figure 6.1: Conceptual Framework for Consultations 6-9
Table 3.1: Average Annual Canal Diversions in IBWS (MAF) 3-4
Table 3.2: Targets for Different Sizes of HEIS Units 3-7
Table 5.1: Groundwater Quality of Rawalpindi District 5-11
Table 5.2: Groundwater Quality of Sheikhupura District 5-11
Table 5.3: Groundwater Quality of Bahawalpur District 5-12
Table 5.4: Protected Areas in Punjab 5-12
Table 5.5: Land Use Statistics of Punjab 5-14
Table 5.6: Farm Size Statistics 5-15
Table 5.7: Cultural Heritage Sites in Punjab 5-15
Table 6.1: Participation Framework 6-8
Table 6.2: Key Issues Discussed during Grass Root Consultations 6-10
Table 7.1: Environmental Screening 7-1
Table 8.1: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Drip Irrigation 8-4
Table 8.2: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Sprinkler Irrigation 8-7
Table 8.3: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Laser Land Leveling 8-10
Table 8.4: Environmental and Social Guidelines – Watercourse
Table 8.5: Environmental and Social Training Plan 8-15
The provincial government of the Punjab, Pakistan, through its Directorate General Agriculture (Water Management), Agriculture Department, is planning to undertake the Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project (PIPIP) (referred to as the Project in rest of the document) in various parts of the Province, and seeking the World Bank assistance for this purpose. In line with the prevailing legislation in the Country, and WB safeguard policies, an environmental and social assessment (ESA) of the Project has been carried out. This document presents the report of this assessment.
Irrigated agriculture is central to Pakistan’s economy; because of its arid climate, the annual evaporation far exceeds the rainfall, making irrigation essential for growing crops. Pakistan relies on the largest contiguous irrigation system in the world, namely the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) to provide basic food security (90 percent of food production and 25 percent of the Gross Domestic Product). Agriculture is the single most important source of employment and exports (two thirds of employment and 80 percent of exports) and irrigation represents more than 95 percent of the total consumptive use of water. However, this massive infrastructure is deteriorating and in need of modernization along with reforms to improve the allocation of water as well as the efficiency of its use. Moreover, competition for water is growing among the provinces and across the increasing needs for irrigation, industrial and domestic use, and the environment. Yet there remains a need for significant new investment, not only in irrigation but in other uses of water as well, including power generation and urban-industrial and domestic supplies (50 percent of the population is not served by a formal supply system and sanitation and water treatment reaches less than ten percent of the population). At the same time, there is uncontrolled pollution of surface and groundwater from agriculture, industry and rapidly growing cities.
The key irrigation sector issues are: (i) low surface water delivery efficiency (only about 35-40 percent from the canal head to crop root zone); (ii) water distribution inequities; (iii) lack of storage capacity and control structures; (iv) wasteful on-farm water use; (v) water-logging and salinity; (vi) poor operation and maintenance (O&M) and low cost recovery; and (vii) a constrained investment climate. These issues are a manifestation of institutional weaknesses due to near exclusive control by the public sector entities characterized by the usual inefficiencies of centralized bureaucracies, lack of corporate skills and poor client (farmer) focus and accountability.
Watercourse improvements have repeatedly shown to yield an economic rate of return of more than 25 percent, and benefits to laser land leveling and drip irrigation are even higher. These high efficiency irrigation systems typically reduce input costs by 20-35 percent, increase yields by 20-100 percent, lower irrigation labor up to 30 percent, diversify cropping patterns, and save up to 75 percent water. For example, experience in Punjab has shown an increase in yields for citrus to be 44 percent, for mangos 100 percent and for tomatoes to be 150 percent. In addition, water saving for these crops has been 22 percent, 36 percent and 50 percent for citrus, mangos, and tomatoes, respectively. The laser land leveling results in water savings of 30 percent and yield increases of 20 percent.
The Government of Pakistan as well as the Government of the Punjab has been initiating projects in the past to address the key irrigation sector issues described in Section 1.1 above. These include the National Program for Improvement of Watercourses in Pakistan (The Punjab Component), originally planned for 2003-04 to 2007-08, which has been extended for four years (2008-09 to 2011-12); Pilot Project for Promotion of Cotton Cultivation in Thal Region with Drip Irrigation, 2010 to 2011; Strengthening of Laser Land Leveling Service in Punjab, 2005-06 to 2007-08; and Water Conservation and Productivity Enhancement Through High Efficiency (Pressurized) Irrigation Systems (The Punjab Component), 2008-09 to 2011-12.
Owing to the similar nature of the activities under the proposed project, it is essentially a continuation and extension of the earlier projects mentioned above. By the same token, the present study is essentially a continuation and extension of the earlier environmental study (PERI, 2004)5 carried out for the proposed Punjab On Farm Water Management-IV Project (OFWM-IV).