Pakistan Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project (pipip) Environmental and Social Assessment Directorate General Agriculture (Water Management), Agriculture Department Government of Punjab, Lahore November 2011

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Modified Nature of Habitat

Major parts of the original habitats described above have been modified into new habitats, primarily as a result of extensive cultivation and expanding urban centers as well as rural settlements. These new habitat types are briefly discussed below.

Rakhs and Irrigated Plantations

Rakhs are areas where inundation water reaches and the trees grow in good condition. Usually Prospis spiciger may grow with closed canopy. Chichawatni Rakh is one such plantation in the project area. Other irrigation plantations in the area are located at Sama Satta and Lal Suhanra. The tree species in such plantations include Shisham, Mulbery, Kikar and Euclayptus. Large number of bird nest in all the plantations. These are also the habitats of Wild Boar, Porcupine, Jackal, Jungle cat, Bengal fox and Monitor Lizard.


The wetlands of the region include rivers, canals, ponds and water logged areas. These areas provide great resources for human needs, while providing good habitat for water related species as well. Reeds, water reeds, Typha, Lotus, Water nut and Bladderworts grow in these habitats. These habitats also support a large variety of fish.

Some of the threats these wetlands currently face include: polluted waters in rivers and canals; burning of reed; and cutting of typha for commercial purposes.

Agricultural Habitats

Most parts of the Punjab are under very intensive irrigated cultivation. In addition, livestock rearing is also practiced extensively, and milk animals are common. The use of the chemical fertilizers and pesticides is very common. Several species of wildlife have adapted to the changed habitat. These include: Jackal; Jungle Cat, Bengal Fox, Small Indian Mongoose, Shrew, Rodent pests including Porcupine, Fruit Bats and Wild Boar. The avifauna which survived the modified habitat include Doves, Black Partridge, Cuckoos, Koel, Woodpeckers, Parakeets, Bulbuls, Babblers, Black Drongo, Bee-eaters, Finches and House Sparrow. The reptilian species of this modified habitat include Krait, Cobra, Saw-scaled Viper, Rat Snake and Monitor Lizard.

In these modified habitats, the winter bird species from Himalayas have reduced due to the extensive use of pesticides in these areas, since these species feed on the insects. These birds play an important role in controlling insects particularly in the forests.

Almost all of the project interventions will be undertaken in this habitat type.

Rural and Urban Habitats

These include human habitations within agriculture areas, as well as the urban centers. Scavengers like Jackals are attracted to the garbage dumps and human feces for food. House Sparrows breed in the houses. Bank Mynas and Cattle Egrets feed on grasshoppers in the rangelands with cattle and buffalos. Banyan and Peepal trees still grow in villages. Green Pigeons and barbets feed in these trees.

Some of the oldest trees still stand in the old British era colonies. Some rare species of birds such as hornbills, Green Pigeon, Barbets still live on them. Large populations of Pigeons breed in urban houses. Kites, Crows, Mynas, House Sparrows, and Alexandrine Parakeets breed in the urban areas.

Usually Shisham and Acacia trees are planted alongside the roads and canals. Mostly Doves breed on such trees.

Table B.1: Fauna of Moist Temperate Forest Ecozone


White-toothed Shrew Crocodura pullata, Dark Whiskered Bat Myotis muricola, Common cerotine bat Eptesicus serotinus, Rhesus Monkey Macaca mulatta, Jacal Canis ayreus, Hill Fox Vulpes vulpes, Yellow - throated Marten Martes flavigula, Palm Civet Paguma larvata, Leopard cat Prionailurus benagalensis, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Large red flying squirrel Petaurista petaurista, Small grey flying squirrel Hylopetes fimbriatus, Indian Porcupine Hystrix indica, Turkistan Rat Rattus turkestanicus, and Murree Vole Hyperacrius.


Feather-toed Hawk Eagle or Mountain Hawk Eagle Spizaetus nipalensis, Koklass Pheasant Pucracia macrolopha, Slaty Headed Parakeet Psittacula himalayana, Common Hawk Cuckoo Hierococcyx varius, Eurasian Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, White-throated Needle-tail Swift Hirundapus caudacutus, Pacific Swift or Asian White-rumped Swift Apus pacificus, Little Swift or House Swift Apus affinis, Great Hill Barbet Megalaima virens, Scaly-bellied Green Woodpecker Picus squamatus, Black-naped Green Woodpecker Picus canus, Himalayan Pied Woodpecker Dendrocopus himalayensis, Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis, Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica, Long-tailed Minivet Pericrocotus ethologus, Black Bulbul Hypsipetes madagascariensis, Indian Blue Chat or Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brunnea, Orange flanked Bush Robin Tarsiger cyanurus, Dark-grey Bush-Chat Saxicola ferrea, Chestnut-bellied Rock Thrush Monticola rufiventris, Blue Whistling Thrush Myiophoneus caeruleus, Dusky Thrush Turdus naumanni, Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca, Grey-headed Flycatcher Warbler Seicercus xanthoschistos,



Large Crowned Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus occipitalis, Large-billed Leaf Warbler Phylloscopus magnirostris, Yellow-browed Leaf Warbler Phyllosopus inornatus, Goldcrest Regulus regulus, Rufous-bellied Niltava Niltava sundara, Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubeculoides, Verditer Flycatcher Muscicapa thalassina, Sooty or dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica, Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa latirostris, Slaty-blue Flycatcher Ficedula tricolor, Ultramarine Flycatcher Ficedula superciliaris, Grey-headed Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis, White-throated Fantail Flycatcher Rhipidura albicollis, Variegated Laughing-thrush Garrulax variegates, Streaked or Himalayan Laughing-thrush Garrulax lineatus, Black-capped Sibia Hetrophasia capistrata, Red-headed long-tailed Tit Aegithalos concinnus, Black Crested Tit or Simla Tit Parus rufonuchalis, Crested Black Tit Parus melanolophus, Great Tit Parus major, Green-backed Tit Parus monticolus, White-cheeked Nuthatch Sitta leucopsis, Bar-tailed or Himalayan Tree-creeper Certhia himalayana, Fire-capped Tit Cephlopyrus flammiceps, Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosa, Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, Ashy Drongo Dicrurus leucophaeus, Jay Garrulus glandarius, Lanceolated Jay Garrulus lanceolatus, Yellow-billed Blue Magpie Urocissa flavirostris, Himalayan Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos, Jungle Myana Acridotheres fuscus, Cinnamon Tree Sparrow Passer rutilans, Spotted Munia Lonchura punctulata, Brambling Fringilla montifingilla, Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, Plain Mountain Finch Leucosticte nemoricola, Red-mantled Rosefinch Caprodacus grandis, Black and Yellow Grosbeak Mycerobas icterioides, and Spotted-winged Grosbeak Mycerobas melanozanthos.


Garden Lizard Calotes versicolor, Rock Agama Agama tuberculata, Kumaon Mountain Lizzard Japalura kumaonensis, Yellow-bellied Mole Skink Eumeces taeniolatus, Himalayan Skink Scincella himalayana, and Monitor Lizard Varanus bengalensis.


Royle’s Snake Spalerosophis atriceps, Diadem Snake Spalerosophis diadema, Rat Snake or Dhaman Ptyas mucosus, Dark-headec Dwarf Snake Eirenis persica, Afro-Asian Sand Snake Psammophis schokari,Flat-headed Keelback Amphiesma platyceps, Russet Kukri Snake Oligodon arnensis, Common Wolf Snake Lycodon aulicus, Russell’s Viper Vipera russelii, and Himalayan Pit-viper Agkistrodon himalayanus.


Himalayan Toad Bufo himalayanus, Common Asian Toad Bufo melanostictus, and Murree Hill Frog Paa vicina.

Table B.2: Fauna of Cheer Pine Forest Ecozone

Hedgehog Hemiechinus collaris, Shrew Suncus murinus, Fruit Bat Rousettus leschenaultii, Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus, Serotine Eptesicus serotinus, Rhesus Monkey Macaca mulatta, Jackal Canis aureus, Hill Fox Vulpes vulpes, Yellow - throated Marten Martes flavigula, Palm Civet Paguma larvata, Leopard cat Prionailurus benagalensis, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Grey Goral Naemorhedus goral, Small grey flying squirrel Hylopetes fimbriatus, Indian Porcupine Hystrix indica, Palm Squirrel Funambulus pennantii, Grey Mongoose Herpestes edwardsi, Small Mongoose Herpestes javanicus, and Pangolin Manis crassicaudata.

Crested Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus, Indian Kite or Pariah Kite Milvus migrans, Bearded Vulture or Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus, Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus, Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinis, Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina, Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Kestrel Falco tinnunculus, Black Partridge Francolinus francolinus, Kaleej Pheasant or White-crested Kaleej, Blue Rock Pigeon Columba livia, Spotted Dove or Chinese Dove Streptopelia chinensis, Little Brown Dove Streptopelia senegalensis, Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon Treron sphenura, Blossom-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala,



Pied Crested Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus, Common Hawk Cuckoo Hierococcyx varius, Indian Cuckoo Cuculus micropterus, Himalayan Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus, Koel Eudynamys scolopacea, Indian Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena, Spotted Scops Owl Ottus spilocephalus, Himalayan Barred Owl Glaucidium cuculoides, Allied Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis, Little House swift Apus affinis, White-breasted Kingfisher Halcyon smyrensis, Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis, Little Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis, Kashmir Roller Coracias garrulous, Hoopoe Upupa epops, Blue-throated Barbet Megaliama asiatica, Wryneck Jynx torquilla, Sindh Pied Woodpecker Dendrocopos assimilis, Himalayan Pied Woodpecker Dendrocopos himalayensis, Brown-fronted Woodpecker Dendrocopos auriceps, Crested Lark Galerida cristata, Plain Sand Martin Riparia paludicola, Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica, Kashmir House Martin Delichon dasypus, Pipits Anthus and Wagtails, Common Wood Shrike Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus, White-cheeked Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys, Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer, Black Bulbul Hypsipetes madagascariensis, Accentors Prunella, Indian Blue Robin Luscinia brunnea, Orange-flanked Bush Robin Tarsiger cyanurus, Redstarts Phoenicurus, Plumbeous Redstart Rhyacornis fuliginosus, Chat Saxicola, White-capped Redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephala, Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata, Rock Thrushes Monticola, Blue Whistling Thrush Myiophoneus caeruleus, Grey-winged Blackbird Turdus boulboul, Dark-throated Thrush Turdus ruficolli, Fan-tailed Warbler Cisticola juncidis, Warblers Prinia, Booted Warbler Hippolais caligata, Warblers Sylvia, Grey-hooded Warbler Seicercus xanthoschistos, Leaf Warblers Phylloscopus, Goldcrest, Regulus regulus, Rufous-bellied Niltava Niltava sundrs, Blue-throated Flycatcher Cyornis rubiculoides, Flycatchers Muscicapa, Grey-headed Flycatcher Culicicapa ceylonensis, Fantail Flycatchers Rhipidura, Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi, Rusty-cheeked scimitar Babbler Pomatorhinus erythrogenys, Black-chinned Babbler Stachyris pyrrhops, Babblers Turdoides, Streaked Laughing Thrush Garrulax lineatus, Red-headed long-tailed Tit Aegithalos concinnus, Tits Parus, Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch Sitta castanea, European Nuthatch Sitta europaea, Bar-tailed Tree Creeper Certhia himalayana, Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica, White-eye Zosterops palpebrosa, Golden Oreole Oriolus oriolus, Isabelline Shrike Lanius isabellinus, Bay-backed Shrike Lanius vittatus, Rufous-backed Shrike Lanius schach, Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor, Black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, Indian Tree-pie Dendrocitta vagabunda, Himalayan or Grey Tree-pie Dendrocitta formusae, Himalayan Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos, Buntings Emberiza, Crested Bunting Melophus lathami.

Garden lizard Calotes versicolor, Tree Gecko Hemidactylus brooki, House Gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis, Bengal Monitor Lizard Varanus bengalensis, Mabuya dissimilis, Ptyas mucosus, Xenochrophis piscator, Bunganus caeruleus, Vipera russelii and Echis caninatus.

Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Tomopterna brevicep, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Paa vicina, Microhyla ornate, Uperodon systoma, Bufo stomaticus, Bufo melanostictus and Eublepharis macularius.

Table B.3: Fauna of Sub-tropical Forest Ecozone

Pangolin Manis crassicaudata, Jackal Canis aureus, Wolf Canis lupus, Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Porcupine Hystrix indica, Hare Lepus nigricolis, Monkey Macaca mulatta, Fox Vulpes vulpes, Civet vivericula indica, Urial Ovis wigenei and Chinkara Gazelle Gazella gazelle.

Little Grebe or Dabchick Tachybaptus ruficollis, Little or Javanese Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger, Cinnamon or Chestnut Bittern Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Paddy bird Ardeola grayii, Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis, Little Egret Egretta garzetta, Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia, Large Egret Egretta alba, Purple Heron Ardea purpurea, Grey Heron Ardea cinerea, Black Stork Ciconia nigra, Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus rubber, Wigeon Anas Penelope, Gadwall Anas strepera, Common Teal Anas crecca, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos,



Pintail Duck Anas acuta, Shoveler Anas clypeata, Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca, Tufted duck Aythya fuligula, White-headed Duck or Stiff-tailed Duck Oxyura leucocephala, Crested Honey Buzzard Pernis ptilorhynchus, Black-shouldered or Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus, Pariah Kite Milvus migrans, Brahminy Kite Haliastur Indus, Pallas’s Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus, Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus, Scavenger Vulture Neophron percnopterus, Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus, Eurasian Black Vulture or Cinerous Vulture Aegypius monachus, Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus, Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus, Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucus, Goshawk Accipiter gentiles, Eurasian Sparrow Hawk Accipiter nisus, Shikra or Indian Sparrow Hawk Accipiter badius, White-eyed Buzzard Butastur teesa, Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinis, Black Eagle Ictinaetus malayensis, Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina, Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax vindhiana, Steppe Eagle Aquila rapex nipalensis, Bonnelli’s Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus, Osprey Pandion haliaetus, Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus, Red-headed Merlin or Turumtee Falco chiquera, Northern Hobby Falco subbuteo, Laggar Falcon Falco jugger, Saker Falcon Falco cherrug, Peregrine or Shaheen Falcon Falco peregrinus, Chukar Partridge or Chukor Alectoris chukar, See-see Partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis, Black Partridge Francolinus francolinus, Grey Partridge Francolinus pondicerianus, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Black-breasted Quail or Rain Quail Coturnix coromandelica, Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus, Water Rail Rallus aquaticus, Brown Crake Amaurornis akool, White-breasted Water-hen Amaurornis phoenicurus, Moorhen Gallinula chloropus, Purple Moorhen Porphyrio porphyrio, Coot Fulica atra, Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo, Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus, Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus, Small Indian Pratincole Glareola lacteal, Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius, Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrius, Red-wattled Lapwing Hoplopterus indicus, Green Plover or Lapwing or Peewit Vanellus vanellus, Timminck’s Stint Calidris temminckii, Ruff (& Reeve) Philomachus pugnax, Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus, Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago , Painted Snipe: Gallinago stenura, Spotted or Dusky Redshank Tringa erythropus, Redshank Tringa tetanus, Greenshank Tringa nebularia, Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus, Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola, Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus, Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos, Great Black-headed Gull Larus ichthyaetus, Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus, Common Gull Larus canus, Herring Gull Larus argentatus, Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica, Caspian Tern Sterna caspica, Indian River Tern Sterna aurantia, Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus, Indian Skimmer or Scissorbill Rhynchops albicollis, Painted Sandgrouse Pterocles indicus, Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus, Blue Rock Pigeon Columba livia, Wood Pigeon or Cushat Columba palumbus, Indian Ring Dove Streptopelia decaocto, Little Brown Dove Streptopelia senegalensis, Spotted Dove or Chinese Dove Streptopelia chinensis, Large Indian Parakeet Psittacula eupatria, Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri, Blossom-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala, Pied Crested Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus, Eurasian Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, Little Cuckoo Cuculus poliocephalus, Koel Euedynamys scolopaceus, Common Crow-pheasant Centropus sinensis, Pakistan Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena, West Himalayan Barred Owlet Glaucidium cuculoides, Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus, Spotted Owlet Athene brama, Allied Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis, Sindh Nightjar Caprimulgus mahrattensis,

Eurasian Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis, Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis, Little Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis, Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops superciliosus, Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus, European Bee-eater Merops apiaster, Kashmir Roller Coracias garrulous, Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis, Hoopoe upupa epops, Crimson-breasted Barbet Megalaima haemacephala, Wryneck Jynx torquilla, Golden-backed Woodpecker Dinopium benghalensis, Sindh Pied Woodpecker Dendrocopos assimilis, Yellow-fronted Woodpecker Dendrocopos mahrattensis, Singing Bush Lark Mirafra cantillans, Rufous tailed Finch-lark Ammomanes phoenicurus, Eastern Calandra Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata, Crested Lark Galerida cristata, Small Skylark Alauda gulgula, Barn or Common Swallow Hirundo rustica, Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica, Richard’s Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae, Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris, Long-billed Pipit Anthus similes, Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta, Wagtails Motacilla species, Small Minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus, White-cheeked Bulbul Pycnonotus leucogenys, Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer, Indian Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis, Redstarts Phoenicurus sp.,



Collard Indian Bush-Chat Saxicola torquata, Pied Bush-Chat Saxicola caprata, Pied Wheatear Oenanthe picata, Warblers Prinia species, Scotocerca species, Orthotomus species, Locustella species, Acrocephalus species, Hippolais species, Sylvia species, Phylloscopus species, Flycatchers of Muscicapa species, Rhipidura species, Asian Paradise Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi, Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus, Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus, Tits of Aegithalos sp., Parus sp., Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica, Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosa, Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus, Shrikes Lanius sp, Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, Indian Tree Pie Dendrocitta vagabunda, House Crow Corvus splendens, Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris, Rosy Pastor or Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus, Myanas Acredotheres sp. House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Bayas or Weaver birds Ploceus sp., Red Munia or Avadavat Estrilda amandava, Silverbill or White-throated Munia Lonchura malabarica, Rosefinches Caprodacus sp., and Buntings Emberiza sp.

Lissemys punctata, Kachuga smithii and Kachuga tecta. Lizards of the ecozone include Eublepharis macularius Cyrtodactylus dattanensis, Hemidactylus brooki, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, Laudakia agrorensis, Uromastvx hardwickii, Calotes versicolor, Mabuya dissimilis, Eumeces taeniolatus, and Varanus bengaiensis.

Ptyas mucosus, Xenochrophis piscator, Naja naja, Bunganus caeruleus, Vipera russelii, Echis caninatus, and Amphisma stolatum.

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Paa hazarensis, Paa vicina, Microhyla ornate, Uperodon systoma, Bufo stomaticus and Bufo melanostictus.

Socioeconomic Profile

Administrative Setup

Punjab is divided into nine divisions: Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Lahore, Multan, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, and Sahiwal. These divisions are further divided in 36 districts shown in Figure B.1. The divisions are headed by the commissioners, and the districts by the District Coordination Officers.

Healthcare Facilities

Punjab has a reasonable network of healthcare services in the public sector ranging from primary to tertiary and even up to specialized healthcare facilities. There is good number of tertiary level healthcare hospitals (teaching) in the province. The Province has 308 hospitals and 1,333 dispensaries. Table B.4 presents status of healthcare facilities in the Punjab. There are more than 59,000 registered doctors, 45,000 nurses, nine thousand lady health visitors, 7,000 midwives, and 500 hundred dais (female birth assistants). 62 The mortality rates in the province are generally higher than accepted international standards and health indicators present a dismal status as shown in Table B.5. On the lines of the PESRP, Government of the Punjab is implementing a reform program in the health sector, “Punjab Health Sector Reforms Program” for improving and upgrading healthcare facilities in the province63.

Awareness about personal hygiene is very low. According to the MICS64, only 41 percent households use soap to wash their hands before eating and only 55 percent wash their hands adequately after attending toilet. Only 52 percent households are aware of the need of iodized salt.

Educational and Literacy

The educational facilities in the province range from primary level masjid-maktab65 schools up to universities and specialized institutions. There is a separate stream of technical and vocational institutions as well as teachers’ training colleges. Educational facilities for the disabled children are provided by a separate Department of Special Education66. The province has 52,000 primary schools, 7,000 middle schools, 5,000 high schools, and 672 intermediate and degree colleges. More than 25 universities, both in the public and the private sector, are catering for higher education and research67. Public sector enrolments at primary level are 5.85 million, at middle level 2.1 million, at high school level 0.85 million, and at college level 0.66 million. The percentage share of Punjab’s enrolments to country’s total enrolments is 27.4 percent for primary, 45.3 percent for middle, 44.9 percent for high, and 65.5 percent for college grades. Literacy rate in the province has recorded steady uphill trend from 27.4 in 1951 to 55.2 in 2005-06. The combined literacy rate in urban areas is 70.2 with male literacy rate at 78 and female literacy rate at 66. The literacy rate in rural areas is 59 for males and 35 for females68.

The literacy in the Province has significantly increased over the years, from 20.7 percent in 1972 to 79.7 percent in 2008.


There are wide variations in the availability of infrastructure facilities in the urban and rural areas as well as in different regions of the province. Whereas, availability and condition of roads in the cities is fair, it is deplorable in rural areas69. As a part of its developmental agenda, the Government is focusing attention on the construction of farm-to-market roads (FMR) in the province and building of infrastructure under the Annual Development Program (ADP) and the Public Sector Development Programs (PSDP). Construction of the roads under various programs has substantially improved agricultural marketing and timely transportation of the farm produce to markets70.

Labor and Employment

Country’s labor force is estimated as 43 million, out of which nearly 55.9 percent is in Punjab. About 70 percent of Punjab’s labor force is in rural areas and 30 percent in urban areas71. Migration of people from rural to urban areas for employment opportunities and better socioeconomic conditions is an unending phenomenon in the province. Growth of urban centers, development of Lahore as a metropolis, and establishment of industrial estates / enterprises have all contributed towards increased employment opportunities in the province. The number of employed people has doubled between 1972 and 2002. However, the number of unemployed people has recorded eightfold increase during the same period, mainly because of high population growth rate72. Investments in social sectors such as education, health, housing, water and sanitation, agriculture, transport, infrastructure, and communications, etc. have not kept pace with rapidly growing population73. The province of Punjab has over 18,000 large and medium industrial units, 59,126 small factories, and 90, 995 cottages units absorbing a total labor force of 62,000 persons74.

Culture, Religion, and Customs

The province of Punjab is rich with magnificent cultural heritage of ancient times and of early Islamic period, reflected through specimens of art and craft, literature, and architect. Bhangra and Luddi are two popular dances. The population predominantly consists of Muslims. Punjabi is the native language and spoken widely, particularly in rural areas. However, other languages like Hindkoh, Balochi, Potohari, and Saraiki are also spoken in certain areas.

People generally respect chadar and chardewari, i.e. they do not mingle up with women publically and stay away from others houses and respectfully wait to be called in or the residents to come out from their houses. A reasonable proportion of womenfolk observe the purdah etiquette, i.e. they remain secluded from outsiders. However, womenfolk do participate in almost all sort of social, cultural, economic, educational, and service activities75.

Joint family is generally prevalent, especially in rural area. However, nucleus or small family is fast emerging in metropolis and urban centers because of socio economic compulsions and attitudinal shifts in the youth.

Gender Aspects

Women in Pakistan are among the poorest and the most vulnerable sections of society. Women’s access and control over productive resources is limited, which ranks Pakistan amongst the highest in the world for maternal and infant mortality rates. Vulnerability of women to discriminatory treatment varies across classes, region, and the urban / rural populations. The 2007 Human Development Report ranks Pakistan at 135 out of 177 countries in terms of human development index and at 107 out of 140 in the gender related index76. The dependency and vulnerability rates estimated to be around 47 percent. However, the actual dependency is believed to be much higher than the official figures because approximately 69 percent population comprises women, children, and the aged who all can be classified as vulnerable. Another reason of dependency is low participation of women in economic activities. Presently, women comprise less than 5 percent of public sector employees in the province. Those who are employed have limited horizontal mobility and are limited to social sector departments like education and health. Representation of women at the decision making level is only 3 percent77.

The Government’s major initiative of empowering the women is the Gender Reform Action Program (GRAP), which is designed to trigger actions that will result in gender mainstreaming. GRAP focuses primarily on institutional change to achieve gender equity78.


Incidence of poverty in the province is estimated at 32 percent (36 percent urban and 26 percent rural), which is quite high79. Despite government’s interventions, poverty is increasing with passage of time. In case of urban areas, poverty is more evident in slums and katchi abadis80. The southern Punjab has higher prevalence of poverty compared to central and upper Punjab. The main causes of poverty are traditional agricultural practices, fragmented landholdings, non-availability of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities, low literacy rate, inadequate institutional arrangements for addressing social sector problems, and lack of access to social justice system.

Table B.4: Number of Public Sector Healthcare Facilities and Bed Strength in Punjab



Number of Beds







Rural Health Centers (RHC)



Basic Health Units (BHU)



T.B. Clinics



Sub Health Centers (SHC)



Maternity and Child Health Centers (MCHC)



(Source: Punjab Development Statistics, 2007)

Table B.5: Health Indicator Status in Punjab

Health Indicator

Level per thousand

Child Mortality (under 5 years)


Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) (under 2 years)


Infant Mortality Rate (under 1 month)


Neonatal Mortality Rate (under 1 week)


Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)


Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

40 %

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

12.5 %

(Source: Punjab Sustainable Development Strategy, 2008)

Figure B.1: Districts of Punjab

  1. Attock

  2. Bahawalnagar

  3. Bahawalpur

  4. Bhakkar

  5. Chakwal

  6. Chiniot

  7. Dera Ghazi Khan

  8. Faisalabad

  9. Gujranwala

  10. Gujrat

  11. Hafizabad

  12. Jhang

  13. Jhelum

  14. Kasur

  15. Khanewal

  16. Khushab

  17. Lahore

  18. Layyah

  19. Lodhran

  20. Mandi Bahauddin

  21. Mianwali

  22. Multan

  23. Muzaffargarh

  24. Narowal

  25. Nankana Sahib

  26. Okara

  27. Pakpattan

  28. Rahim Yar Khan

  29. Rajanpur

  30. Rawalpindi

  31. Sahiwal

  32. Sargodha

  33. Sheikhupura

  34. Sialkot

  35. Toba Tek Singh

  36. Vehari.

Consultation Details

C.1. List of Grass Root Stakeholders Consulted

5 April

M Aslam

M Akhtar Kamboh – Regional Deputy Project Manager

M Tariq

M. Iqbal – DO Attock

M Shahid

M. Farrukh – DDO Attock

M Ramzan

Muslim Shah – JBL Rep

WC 40477L

Qamar uz Zaman

M Riaz

Ansar Khan

Baba Anwar

Mother of Qamar

M Yasin

Wife of Ansar Khan

M Aslam

Ahsan Khan and others

M Tufail

M Arshad Khan and others

M Sarwar

Malik Ghulam Hussain and others

Abdur Rahim

Khursheed A Khan and others

M Karim

Moazam Javed and others

M Ramzan

Abdul Latif

6 April 2011

M Sarwar

Iqdidar Amir

Manzoor Ahmed

Javed Aiqbal

M Ashraf

Mukhtar Hasan

M Imam

M. Asghar

Khan Mohammad

Tahira Nadeem

M Ali

Chaudhry Gulistan.

M Hussain

M. Hayat

M. Nawaz

WC 6072 JR

M. Sadiq

Haji Shahbaz Ahmed

M. Zaheer

M Yaqub

Khizer Hayat

M Azam

Abdul Rahman

M Aslam

Mian Liaqat – DDO Talagang

Munawar Hussain

Zia ul Haq - DDO Chakwal

M Ashraf

Mian Asghar – DO – Chakwal

Malik Hammad Hyder and others (farmers)

Fayyaz Ahmed – DO Rawalpindi

Rao Tajammul Hussain – AE Rawalpindi

WC (Chichwatni)

Abdus Sattar – AE Rawalpindi

Brig (R) Shabir Ahmed

Col (R) Akhtar Abbasi

7 April 2011

Liaqat Ali

Malik M Akram – Prov. Project Director, HEIS

Raja Kamran

Tariq Maqbool – DO, Lahore

Talat Saleem

Ch M Hussain – DDO City

Fida Hussain

Faiz A Kachhi – DDO Cantt.

Noor Mohammad

Aurangzeb BAdar – AAE Cantt.

Abdus Sattar

Syed Ajaz Hussain Qureshi – WMO

Khalid Mahmood

Syed Qamar Abbas Shah – Sub Engineer

Tauseef Zafar

Nisar Ahmed - Sub Engineer

Ghulam Mohiuddin

M Khalid BAshir - Sub Engineer

Syed Kosar Ali Shah – Rod Man

Sarwar Butt – Rod Man

9 April 2011

Zahir Ahmed - Sub Engineer

Ch M Hanif (Chairman – WUA)

Fayaz Ahemd - Sub Engineer

Ch Wali

Rashi A Zafar – Deputy Project Dirctor

M Mansib

Haji Ramzan

Khwaja Faqir (WC)

Malik Ashiq

M Ishtiaq

Haji Ali Mohammad

M Ishaq

M Jamil

Khushee Mohammad

M Akbar

M Saleem

M Ishfaq

M Mushtaq

M Ramzan

M Ashraf

M Rab Nawaz

M Fayaz

M Aslam

M Rashid

Ch Gul Mohammad

M Qasim

Ch Idrees

Mahmood Ahmed

Ch Ilyas

Sardar Mohammad

Khizer Hayat

Khalil Ahmed

Taqi Pur (WC)

Ali Buksh

Ch Abdul Ghani - DO

Haji Ajaz Ahmed (Chairman QUA)

Shah M Asghar – DDO

M Ibtahim

Malik Nazar Abbas


Ch Ishtiaq Ahmed – WMO

Ch M Arshad – Supervisor

Wahgah (WC)

Malik Khizer Hayat – Supervisor

Mehdi Hasan

Malik Shahbaz – Rod Man

M Tayab

Muneer – Rod Man

Roshan Khan

Saeed Akhtar Gardezi – Supervisor

Qari Ahmed Khan

M Ramzan – Chairman WUA

Ghulam Mutaza – Polo Abiari (SSC)

Rana Ghulam Nabi

Shabir Hussain and others (farmers)

Rana Ashraf

Shah Nawaz

Akbar Khan

Tahir Iqbal – GM Countryside Natural Products (farm) and others

Khan Baig

Arif Khan

8 April 2011

Makhan Khan

Ahmed Ali – DO Okara

Jamal Khan

Gulzar Ahmed – DDO Okara


Hafiz M Abbas – PWMC (Consultants)

Rana Nadeem

Adnan – AE

Habib Khan

Rana Altaf – Agronomist, Sahiwal

Manzoor Balooch

Ch Sadfar – DO Sahiwal


Kazim Sattar - AAE


Rana Waqar Ahmed – DDO

Ali NAwaz

M Farukh Irshad – AAE

Allah Rakha

Shahbaz Hussain - Supervisor

M Arshad

Safdar Ali DO

Allah Bukhsh

Waqar A Khan DDO

M Jawaid

M Ayub - Supervisor


Haji Riaz Ahmed - Supervisor



M. Ashiq Babar and others (farmers)

Malik Ghulam Shabir – PD – Thal Cotton Project

WC 79430 L

Mahar Bagh Ali – DDO

M Ramzan

Javaid Hussain – WMO

Abdul Mannan

M ashiq Babar

Ahmed Mujtaba

Saif ur Rahman

Ghulam Kibria and others

Abdur Rahman

M. Asad Imran


Hasan Imran

M Akbar

Riaz Hussain

Abdus Sattar

Fayyaz Hussain

Maqsood Ahmde

Bashir A. Khan

M. Anwar

M Jahangir and others

Abdul Khaliq

M. Manzoor

10 April 2011

M. Mansha

Rana Munawar and others

M. Shaukat

M. Hussain and others

M. Mushtaq

Sardar Nasir Abbas Magsi and others

C.2. Participants of Consultation Workshops

Workshop in Islamabd on 4 May 2011.

Name of Participants


Department / Organization

Mr. Natiq Hussain

Chief, Planning & Evaluation Cell

Agriculture Department

Asad Ullah Sayed

Director General

Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad

Dr. Aurangzeb Khan

Chief (Environment)

Pakistan Planning Commission

Mr. Zia-ul-Islam

Director, PEPC

Ministry of Environment, Islamabad

Mr. Tahir Anwar

Director General, FWMC

Ministry of Food & Agriculture

Dr. Shagufta Shahjahan


Environmental Protection Department, Punjab

Dr. Manzoor Ahmed Malik

Director (Research)

Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR)

Dr. Muhammad Ashraf


Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR)

Mr. Muhammad Baqir Mufti

Assistant Chief (Agriculture)

Planning & Development Department, Punjab

Ch. Khalid Jamil Gujar

District Officer Agriculture (Extension), Rawalpindi

Agriculture Department

Mr. Fayyaz Khurshid

District Officer (OFWM), Rawalpindi

Agriculture Department

Mr. Akhtar Ali

Regional Deputy Project Director, HEIS Project

Directorate General Agriculture (Water Management) Punjab

Dr. Bashir Ahmed

Director, Soil Conservation, Rawalpindi

Director General Agriculture (Field) Punjab

Mr. Basharat Javaid

Director (Training)

Water Management Training Institute, Lahore

Mr. Muhammad Javaid

Technical Advisor

Environment Protection Department

Malik Shabbir Ahmed

Project Director, Small Dams Organization

Irrigation & Power Department

Dr. Javaid Afzal

World Bank

Ms. Samina Islam

World Bank

Dr. Muhammad Tariq

Director, Soil & Water Conservation Research Institute, Chakwal

Directorate General Agriculture (Research) Punjab

Dr. Muhammad Yasin

Head, Water Resources Research Institute

National Agriculture Research Centre

Dr. Abdul Quddoos

Director, Punjab Economic Research Institute

Planning & Development Department

Dr. Muhammad Irfan Khan

Chairman, Environment Department

International Islamic University, Islamabad

Dr. Tariq Mehmood

Chairman, Environment Department

University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi

Dr. Safdar Ali

Professor, Soil Science Department

University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi

Dr. Shahid Masood

Director, Plant Gene Resources Institute

National Agricultural Research Centre

Dr. Qaiyum Suleri

Executive Director

Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad

Mian Naseer Ahmed (Sprinkler System on Tubewell)


District Khushab

Malik Ghulam Hussain (Sprinkler on Mini Dam)


District Attock

Mr. Khalid Ahmed Khan (Drip on Mini Dam)



Agha Muhammad Tariq (Watercourse Improvement on Dam)


District Rawalpind

Workshop in Multan on 18 May 2011.



Department / Organization


Dr Zahoor Ahmed

Chief Guest

Ex- Director CCRI, Multan


Ch. Arshad Ahmed

Director Headquarters

Directorate General Agriculture (WM) Punjab, Lahore


Malik Muhammad Akram

Provincial Project Director

(HEIS), PC&IU, Punjab, Lahore


Mr. Muhammad Yasin Gill

Assistant Director Tech.

Directorate General Agriculture (WM) Punjab, Lahore


Mr. Muhammad Ashraf Nadeem

Assistant Director Tech.

Directorate General Agriculture (WM) Punjab, Lahore


Hafiz Muhammad Qasir

Assistant Director Tech

Directorate General Agriculture (WM) Punjab, Lahore


Dr. Bismillha Khan


Agriculture Collage Baha-ud-Din Zakria University, Multan


Dr. Nazim Hussain Labar

Associate Professor

Baha-ud-Din Zakria University, Multan


Ch Abdul Ghani

District Officer

OFWM, Multan


Sardar Akbar Hayyat

District Officer

Agriculture Extention, Multan


Dr Dilbagh Ahmed


CCRI, Multan


Dr. Sagheer Ahmed

Cotton Botonist

CRS, Multan


Mr.Ghulam Shabbir

Project Director (cotton Thal)

OFWM, Punjab


Malik Zafar Iqbal

District Officer (environment)

District Govt. Multan


Mr. Mahmood A Sheikh

Agronomist Team Leader

M/s Jaffar Brothers


Javid Qadarl

Project Assistant Director Tech.

Directorate General Agriculture (WM) Punjab, Lahore


Mr. Liaqat Ali

Deputy District Officer

OFWM Jalapur Pirwal


Mr. Omer Khalid


World Bank


Lt.Col.(R) Muhammad Rafique

Chief Executive

Commander Agro (Pvt) Ltd.


Muhammad Ishaq Shehzad

Assistant Director(IT)

Media Lison Unit Agri.


Mr. Muhammad Sohail Khakwani




Mr. Younas Khan Khakwani




Mr. Safdar Ali


F&UDP, Multan


Mr. Raees Ahmed Raees

Irrigation Engineer

F.A.O, United Nation


Dr. Ghulam Abbas

Assistant Director(PP)

Pest Warning, Khenewal


Mr. Riaz Rashid

Suprientending Engr.

Haveli canal circle, Multan


Dr. Habibulha Habib

District Officer

OFWM, Lodhran


Mr. Ejaz Saleem

Deputy District Officer

OFWM, Lodhran


Dr. Muhammad Razaq

Assistant Professor

Baha-ud-Din Zakria University, Multan


Mian Ejaz Ahmed


Agri. Engineering, Multan


Mr. Muhammad Asghar Rana

Associate Professor

Baha-ud-Din Zakria University, Multan


Mr. Muhammad Yousaf

Agri. Chemist

S F(LAB), Multan


Engr. Muhammad Sultan


Baha-ud-Din Zakria University, Multan


Mr. Jalil-ur- Rehaman Drishak




Mr. Abdul Sattar


Irrigation Dept. Multan


Dr. Unsar Naeem-Ullah

Water Management Officer



Mr. Bashir Ahmed Khan




Mr. Muhammad Akram Shahid




Farid Khan Khakwani

Vice President

Multan Mango Growers (Regd.)


Mr. Ahmed Mujtaba Khan



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