Pakistan Punjab Irrigated-Agriculture Productivity Improvement Project (pipip) Environmental and Social Assessment Directorate General Agriculture (Water Management), Agriculture Department Government of Punjab, Lahore November 2011

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f.3Forests, Habitat, and Ecologically Sensitive Areas

The forests resources of the province include Coniferous Forests, Scrub Forests, Riverine Forests, Irrigated Plantations, Linear Plantations, and Rangelands45. These are discussed in Annex B.

f.3.1Protected Areas

There exist one national park, nineteen wildlife sanctuaries and five game reserves in the project area. A list of these protected areas is provided in Table 5.4.

f.4Socioeconomic Profile

The salient social and socioeconomic features of the Province are described below; further details are presented in Annex B.

f.4.1Demographic Profile 46

The population of the province is estimated to be more than 81 million in 2010 and is home to over half the population of Pakistan. The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi and Punjabis comprise the largest ethnic group in country. The language is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at National level. Punjabis themselves are a heterogeneous group comprising different tribes, clans and communities (qaum in Urdu). In Pakistani Punjab these clans and communities have more to do with traditional occupations such as blacksmiths or artisans as opposed to rigid social stratifications.

The biradari, which literally means brotherhood is an important unit of Punjabi society, and includes people claiming descent from a common ancestor. The biradaris collectively form larger units known as quoms or tribes. Historically, these quoms were endogamous, but latterly, especially in the large cities, there is considerable intermarriage between members of different quoms, and differences are getting blurred. Important quoms within Punjab include the Gondal, Arain, Niazi, Paracha, Aheer, Awan, Dogar, Gakhars, Gujjars, Jat, Kamboh, Khokhar, Khattar, Mughal, Rajputs, Sheikh and Syeds. Other smaller tribes are the Khateek, Maliar, Rawns, Pashtuns, Baloch, Khetran, Rehmanis and the Maliks.

In addition to the Punjabis, the province is also home to other smaller ethnic groups in the province include the Siraiki, Hindkowan, Kashmiris, Sindhis, and Muhajirs. The Muhajirs are Urdu speaking Muslim migrants from India and settled in Pakistan after independence in 1947. Three decades of bloodshed in neighboring Afghanistan have also brought a large number of Afghan refugees to the province.

As per the census of Pakistan 1998, linguistic distribution of the Punjab province is: Punjabi (75.23 percent), Saraiki (17.36 percent), Urdu (4.51 percent), Pashto (1.16 percent), Balochi (0.66 percent), Sindhi (0.13 percent) others (0.95 percent). The population of Punjab (Pakistan) is estimated to be between 97.21 percent Muslim with a Sunni Hanafi majority and Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority. The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians and make up 2.31 percent of the population. The Other minorities include Ahmedi, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, and Bahá'í.

The dialects spoken in different regions of the land have a common vocabulary and a shared heritage. The people of Punjab have also a shared spiritual experience, which has been disseminated by Tasawwaf and can be witnessed on the occasion of the remembrance-fairs held on the Urs of Sufi Saints.

f.4.2Economy 47

Punjab has always contributed the most to the national economy of Pakistan. Punjab's economy has quadrupled since 1972. Its share of Pakistan's GDP was 54.7 percent in 2000 and 59 percent as of 2010. It is especially dominant in the service and agriculture sectors of the Pakistan economy, with their contributions ranging from 52.1 to 64.5 percent and 56.1 to 61.5 percent, respectively. It is also major manpower contributor because it has largest pool of professionals and highly skilled (technically trained) manpower in Pakistan. It is also dominant in the manufacturing sector, though the dominance is not as huge, with historical contributions raging from a low of 44 percent to a high of 52.6 percent. In 2007, Punjab achieved a growth rate of 7.8 percent and during the period 2002-03 to 2007-08, its economy grew at a rate of about 7 percent to 8 percent per year, and during 2008-09 grew at 6 percent against the total GDP growth of Pakistan at 4 percent.

Despite lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialized province of Pakistan; its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, cement, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, cement plants, agriculture machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90 percent of the paper and paper boards, 71 percent of the fertilizers, 69 percent of the sugar and 40 percent of the cement of Pakistan.

Despite its dry climate, extensive irrigation makes it a rich agricultural region. Its canal-irrigation system is the largest in the world. Wheat and cotton are the largest crops. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, millet, corn, oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, and fruits such as kinoo. Livestock and poultry production are also important. Despite past animosities, the rural masses in Punjab's farms continue to use the Hindu calendar for planting and harvesting. Punjab contributes about 76 percent to annual food grain production in the country. 51 million acres (210,000 km2) is cultivated and another 9.05 million acres (36,600 km2) are lying as cultivable waste in different parts of the province.

Cotton and rice are important crops. They are the cash crops that contribute substantially to the national exchequer. Attaining self-sufficiency in agriculture has shifted the focus of the strategies towards small and medium farming, stress on barani areas, farms-to-market roads, electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity.

Punjab has also more than 68 thousand industrial units. The small and cottage industries are in abundance. There are 39,033 small and cottage industrial units. The number of textile units is 14,820. The ginning industries are 6,778. There are 7,355 units for processing of agricultural raw materials including food and feed industries. Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods.

Punjab is also a mineral rich province with extensive mineral deposits of coal, gas, petrol, rock salt (with the second largest salt mine in the world), dolomite, gypsum, and silica-sand. The Punjab Mineral Development Corporation is running over a hundred economically viable projects. Manufacturing includes machine products, cement, plastics, and various other goods.

f.4.3Land Use / Agricultural Profile

Agriculture is mainstay of Pakistan's economy. It accounts for 21 percent of the GDP and together with agro-based products fetches 80 percent of the country’s total export earnings. More than 48 percent of the labor force is engaged in this sector.

The Punjab province has about 29 percent of the total reported, 57 percent of the total cultivated and 69 percent of the total cropped area of Pakistan. It contributes a major share in the agricultural economy of the country by providing about 83 percent of cotton, 80 percent of wheat, 97 percent fine aromatic rice, 63 percent of sugarcane and 51 percent of maize to the national food production. Among fruits, mango accounts for 66 percent, citrus more than 95 percent, guava 82 percent and dates 34 percent of total national production of these fruits.

Agriculture is still the predominant economic activity of 64 percent population of the rural Punjab. About 50 percent of total labor force is employed in agriculture. More than 70 percent of cropped area of Indus Basin is located in Punjab. The principal sources of irrigation are the surface channels supplemented by tube-wells. Rainfall accounts only for a small proportion of the irrigation sources. Sericulture, horticulture, and aviculture are also gaining popularity. Investments in honeybee- sheep-, goat-, fish-, poultry, and dairy farming are also increasing. The major seasonal crops include wheat, rice, maize, and vegetables. Other agricultural products include fodder, fresh vegetables, and lattice48. The reported area of Punjab is 17.62 million hectares, out of which 71 percent is cultivated and the remaining is uncultivated49.

The land use in the province has been exhibiting change from agricultural to residential and built-up structures. Whereas, land use in the urban centers is predominantly of fixed and permanent structures, it is of mixed disposition in the suburbs and along outer rim of the cities, where agricultural lands interpose with new constructions, inhabitations, and farmhouses50. Table 5.5 presents the key data on land use statistics in the province, whereas Table 5.6 provides the farm size characteristics.

f.4.4Cultural Heritage

A large number of sites exist in the Province having archeological, historical, cultural, and religious significance, and the ones that have been officially notified and protected under the Antiquity Act, 1975 (see Section 2.1.11) are listed in Table 5.7.
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