Origin Posterior crest of the ilium Lower posterior surface of the sacrum Lower 7 ribs Spinous processes of T9-L5 Transverse processes of T1-12 Insertion



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Neck and back muscles

  • Erector Spinae / Multifidus / Rectus Abdominus / Transversus Abdominus / Internal Obliques / External Obliques / Splenius / Quadratus Lumborum

Erector Spinae

The erector spinae (sometimes known as sacrospinalis) is often described as a group of different muscles called iliocostalis, longissimus and spinalis.



Origin

  • Posterior crest of the ilium

  • Lower posterior surface of the sacrum

  • Lower 7 ribs

  • Spinous processes of T9-L5

  • Transverse processes of T1-12

Insertion

Actions

  • Extension of the spine

  • Lateral flexion (side-bending) of the spine

  • Maintains correct curvature of the spine

Innervation

Daily uses

Multifidus

Multifidus is a series of small muscles which travel up the length of the spine. It is an important muscle in the rehabilitation of Gilmore's Groin.



Origin

  • Posterior surface of the sacrum

  • Articular processes of the lumbar vertebrae

  • Transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae

  • Articular processes of C3-7

Insertion

  • Each part of the muscle inserts into the spinous process 2-4 vertebrae higher than its origin

Actions

Innervation

  • Dorsal rami of the spinal nerves

Daily uses

  • Maintaining good posture of the spine

Rectus Abdominus

Rectus Abdominus is the most superficial of the abdominal muscles. It is this muscle which forms the six-pack shape!



Origin

  • Crest of the pubis

  • Pubic symphesis

Insertion

Actions

  • Flexes lumbar spine

Innervation

Daily uses

Transversus Abdominus Muscle

Transversus Abdominus is often abbreviated to TVA. This is a very important core muscle which is vital in maintaining good posture. Activities such as Pilates focus on contraction of the TVA.



Origin

Insertion

  • Linea alba

Actions

  • Compresses the abdomen and supports the abdominal visera

Innervation

  • Ventral rami of thoracic nerves

  • Ilioinguinal nerve

  • Iliohypgastric nerve

Daily uses

  • Maintaining good posture

Internal Obliques

Origin

  • Iliac crest

  • Inguinal ligament

  • Thoracolumbar fascia

Insertion

  • Lower 3-4 ribs

  • Linea alba

Actions

Innervation

  • Ventral rami of thoracic nerves

  • Ilioinguinal nerve

  • Iliohypgastric nerve

Daily uses

  • Raking leaves

External Obliques

Origin

  • Lowest 8 ribs

Insertion

  • Front 1/2 of the iliac crest

  • Linea alba

Actions

  • Contraction of one side alone laterally bends the trunk to that side

  • and rotates the trunk to the other side

  • Compresses the abdomen and supports the abdominal viscera

Innervation

  • Ventral rami of thoracic nerves

Daily uses

  • Raking leaves

Quadratus Lumborum

The quadratus lumborum muscle is a common muscle involved in lower back pain.



Origin

  • Posterior iliac crest

  • Iliolumbar ligament

Insertion

  • Twelfth rib

  • Transerve processes of L1-L4

Actions

  • Laterally flexes (side-bends) trunk

Innervation

  • Ventral rami of the subcostal nerve

  • Lumbar nerves

Daily uses


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