Old Town San Diego State Historic Park Mission for Interpretation



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Period Attire.



Old Town San Diego State Historic Park.
Guidelines and Procedures.

May 2016


Old Town San Diego State Historic Park

Mission for Interpretation

Using traditional, contemporary, and innovative methods and technologies, the staff, volunteers, and concessions will bring Old Town San Diego’s history alive through accurate and authentic programs and services that are meaningful to our visitors today and tomorrow.


Introduction
Appropriate period attire is an important element in the interpretive programming at Old Town San Diego State Historic Park (OTSDSHP). It is one of the elements that help our visitors gain a sense of our interpretive time period by creating a more believable setting. Period attire not only enhances the visitor’s experience and their ability to travel back in time, but helps remind everyone about the purpose of the park.
Period attire should reflect the true and typical clothing styles, fabrics, and patterns worn during a specific time period. In OTSDSHP, clothing worn should reflect our primary interpretive period (1821-1872).The emphasis will be on the time period from 1850 to 1864 when both Californio and American influences and culture were evident.
When choosing and wearing period attire, clothing should be as accurate as possible based on current information and research. Inaccurate period attire, just like inaccurate information in a presentation, can give a false impression to our visitors and leave them with a lasting negative memory of their visit. Proper period attire contributes to an interpreter’s credibility and reinforces your interpretive messages as well as contributing to the overall ambiance of the park.
Period Attire should reflect the character or persona you are trying to portray.

An individual’s socioeconomic status and/or profession will determine the type of clothing worn. For example, a man working as a blacksmith will not wear the same clothing as a merchant.


This document has been created to help staff, volunteers, and concessionaires create an appropriate wardrobe. It is the foundation for all of us to build upon as we develop a better understanding of the history of San Diego and the fashions of the mid-1800s.


Quick Tips



  • The style of clothing you choose will depend on the profession or persona you are trying to portray. Take into consideration your age, ethnic group, and social status.




  • Dress to reflect what would have been typical for the period rather than the exception unless you have discovered detailed information about an actual person who lived within the community and you are trying to portray that person in every manner. As costumed interpreters, we try to portray the people who actually lived in early San Diego. To honor their lives and their stories, it is important to dress as accurately as possible.




  • When selecting fabric, patterns, accessories, etc. please consult with the park period attire coordinator. They can assist you with your selections whether it is fabric, approved online vendors, seamstresses, or period patterns. They can also assist you with completing the necessary submittal forms for approval and/or reimbursement. We want you to make an appropriate choice and investment.




  • Do your homework. Research the styles of the period, actual photographs, paintings, and drawings are invaluable. Nineteenth century diaries and/or biographies of people who lived in California are excellent primary sources and can provide insight into period appropriate clothing and accessories. There are collections of 19th century images online. . You may want to start with the the Old Town San Diego Pinterest boards at https://www.pinterest.com/oldtownsandiego/




  • Remember that the dress of people in San Diego and California was not the same as the dress of people living in other parts of the country until after the Civil War.




  • Always fit your clothing over your undergarments. This is especially true for women who wear multiple petticoats and/or hoops and corsets.




  • Beware of, and avoid, any item that spoils the 19th century illusion such as wristwatches, sunglasses, inappropriate shoes, modern makeup, nail polish, nylons, and soda cans.




  • Once you have your period attire, wear it around the house. You need to learn to walk, sit, climb stairs, curtsy and even dance in your outfit.




  • “Old” clothing or costumes from thrift stores are not an acceptable alternative for period attire. Fashions change from decade to decade and this was true in the 19th century. Therefore, clothing acquired at a second-hand store, from the 1950s, will not accurately reflect 1850s clothing.




  • Have fun in your period attire and strive for accuracy. You never know where those hundreds of photographs that are taken of you will appear!


Uniform Policy – Period Attire
The San Diego Coast District Superintendent has authorized period attire as the required uniform for Interpretive Visitor Services Permanent and Seasonal Employees, Volunteers and Interns working in Old Town San Diego State Historic Park.
Uniforms shall be worn at all times by all interpretive staff and volunteers when involved in public contact. Disciplinary action may be imposed against any employee who fails to meet Departmental uniform standards. (adapted from DOM 2304)
Staff and volunteers will need to pay for attire as a condition of hire/selection. It is expected that they will purchase the minimum appropriate attire for their agreed-upon duties. Boosters of Old Town (BOOT), the cooperating association for the park, helps subsidize personal attire with an annual stipend. This is intended to help offset the difference in expense between minimum period attire requirements and the cost of a state park uniform, as well as support the continued improvement and enhancement of the individual’s attire.
The following information from the State of California Department of Parks and Recreation Department Operations Manual (DOM) is modified for Old Town San Diego SHP.
Introduction: DOM 2300 (Excerpts)

Designated Department of Parks and Recreation personnel are a uniformed force of the State of California, not only by administrative directive, but also in that the public respects and accepts them as such. The purpose of the uniform is to identify the wearer as a member of the Department of Parks and Recreation, to improve the Department’s public image by achieving high standards of uniform appearance, and to promote pride within the organization.


1. RESPONSIBILITIES - MANAGERS AND SUPERVISORS, Per DOM 2301

The District Superintendent is delegated the authority to enforce these policies in the District. The supervisor is responsible for administering these policies on a day-to-day basis ensuring compliance by employees under his/her supervision.


The San Diego Coast District Superintendent has authorized period attire as the required uniform for Interpretive Visitor Services Permanent and Seasonal Employees, Volunteers and Interns working in Old Town San Diego State Historic Park.

2. PROFESSIONAL APPEARANCE, Adapted from DOM 2302

  1. The uniform (period attire), shall be kept clean, have a well-pressed appearance, and shall fit properly at all times. Clothing items with visible areas of disrepair including snags, holes, tears, and noticeable wear such as fraying, stains, and fading shall not be worn. [Exceptions are based on historical representation of socio-economic status of historic persona being portrayed.]

  2. All period attire articles shall be neatly worn, fully buttoned, shirt tucked in, and sleeves not rolled up. [Exception: People demonstrating trades, such as blacksmith, wood shop, laundry, cooking or hard physical labor may roll up the shirt sleeves as appropriate during historic activities.]

  3. Employees shall have no visible body decorations that are not period appropriate and present an unprofessional image.

  4. Large items shall not be carried in pockets. No visible modern items may be carried in the pockets. Keys and cell phones shall be unobtrusive and carried out of sight.

  5. Prescription eyewear may be worn when necessary. Frames should be historic or approved equivalent. Frames will be conservative in style, gold or silver metal.

[Exception: Sunglasses may be worn when medically necessary. Contemporary sunglasses, plastic-framed sunglasses, aviator styles, and mirrored glasses shall not be worn.]
3. PERSONAL GROOMING STANDARDS, Per DOM 2303

Personal appearance is of great importance when dealing with the public. The professional bearing and appearance expected of all field employees requires that each employee, supervisor, and manager assume the responsibility for maintaining high standards of personal grooming, hygiene, and cleanliness.



Appearance shall be such that there would be no hesitancy on the part of the public to seek assistance and that they readily accept the employee as a person of authority. In addition, it shall not interfere with our ability to communicate effectively in all visitor contacts. [Exceptions are based on historical representation of socio-economic status of historic persona being portrayed.]
The following personal grooming standards shall apply for uniformed (period attired) non-represented Seasonal personnel:
A. Personal Grooming Standards - Male

  1. Hair: While on duty, or in uniform, hair shall be worn in a period appropriate style, neat, clean, trimmed, and present a groomed professional appearance. Hair shall not interfere with the proper wearing of any period appropriate hat.

    1. No decorations shall be worn in the hair, unless they are historically appropriate.

    2. A natural looking wig or hairpiece may be worn if it qualifies within the limits described above.

    3. The finished effect of all hair color processes shall be natural looking.

  2. Hats: Shall not be worn indoors (except for interpretive presentations).

  3. Sideburns, Mustaches and Beards: Male employees may wear period appropriate sideburns, mustaches, and beards. Beards shall be neat, clean, and period appropriate length.

  4. Jewelry: No jewelry shall be worn other than period appropriate items, such as a pocket watch, stick pin, or rings. No jewelry shall be worn which presents an unprofessional image.

  5. Fingernails: Shall be clean and trimmed and shall not extend beyond the tip of the fingers. Nail polish is prohibited.

  6. Cosmetics: If worn, shall be subdued and blended to match the natural skin color of the individual.

B. Personal Grooming Standards - Female

  1. Hair: While on duty, or in uniform (period attire), hair shall be clean, and present a neat professional look. Style shall have a period appropriate appearance.

    1. Hair shall be styled or securely fastened away from the face in such a way that it cannot fall in the eyes, over the face, or into the work area. Bangs are not allowed.

    2. Hair must be pulled away from the face and secured with hair pins or other period appropriate items.

    3. Hair too short to secure in period appropriate style must be concealed by period appropriate head coverings such as bonnet, day cap, or kamora.

    4. The finished effect of all hair color processes shall be natural looking. Fashion extremes or intense hair colors are not permitted. (Must be period appropriate).

    5. Hairstyles that preclude the wearing of the period appropriate bonnet/day cap in the accepted manner are not permitted.

    6. A natural looking wig or hairpiece may be worn if it qualifies within the limits described above.

  2. Head covering: When outside, head shall be covered with a period appropriate head covering in keeping with attire worn. When indoors, hair may be worn in a period appropriate hair style or covered as appropriate for attire worn.

  3. Fingernails: Shall be clean and trimmed and shall not extend beyond the tip of the fingers. Nail polish is prohibited.

  4. Cosmetics: If worn, shall be subdued and blended to match the natural skin color of the individual. False eyelashes are prohibited.

  5. Jewelry: All jewelry should be period appropriate. Rings should be period appropriate in style and number worn. One pair of approved period appropriate earrings is acceptable. Other jewelry may include brooches, necklaces, bracelets, pin or pocket watches that are approved and appropriate to the attire worn. No jewelry shall be worn which presents an unprofessional image.


4. UNIFORM STANDARDS, Per DOM 2304

Uniforms shall be worn at all times by all interpretive staff and volunteers when involved in public contact. Disciplinary action may be imposed against any employee who fails to meet Departmental uniform standards. (adapted from DOM 2304) Compliance with Period Attire Standards will be part of Performance Evaluations and Standard Rapport Evaluations.


Electronic devices (cell phones, PDAs, MP3 players, etc.): All electronic devices shall be kept out of sight at all times while in period attire. If needed for emergency contact, cell phones shall be set on vibrate during working hours. Conversations on cell phones should be conducted out of sight of the public when in period attire. Personal conversations shall be kept to a minimum while working.
Interpretive Visitor Services Full Time Employees, Seasonal Employees (ie: park aides, senior park aides, park interpretive specialists), Volunteers, and Interns’

minimum required period attire (uniform) shall be:
Men

    • Mexican/Californio Attire: Shirt, trousers or calzoneras, [drawers for calzoneras and wool trousers], jacket/manga/serape, faja (sash), hat, socks and footwear (boots, Kaibab moccasins, or approved equivalent)

or

    • American/Anglo-European Attire: Shirt, trousers, vest, suspenders/braces, hat, cravat (or other period neckwear) socks and footwear (brogan, boot, or approved equivalent)



Women

    • Mexican/Californio: Modified American/Anglo-European dress, head covering (mantilla), rebozo, stockings and footwear (ballet style slipper, Mary Jane style shoe, or approved equivalent).

[Chino poblano attire is appropriate only if portraying a domestic servant and/or for demonstrating household activities cooking, laundry, etc. and shall include camisa (chemise), fashion fabric petticoat, under-petticoat, faja (sash), stockings and footwear (ballet style slipper, Mary Jane style shoe, or approved equivalent) head covering (robozo, mantilla, camora).]

or

    • American/Anglo-European Attire: Dress, collar, petticoats appropriate to style of dress, wrap, day cap, bonnet, stockings and footwear (brogan, boot, or approved equivalent)



TRADES/LABORERS

    • Shirt, trousers, suspenders/braces, hat, socks, footwear (brogan, boot, moccasin, or approved equivalent) and trade-specific accessories.



  1. Seasonal employees:

    1. Newly hired seasonal employees will be allowed to borrow period attire for up to 60 days. Extension to the time period must be approved in writing by supervising ranger.

    2. Seasonal employees are required to purchase (or show proof of purchase for) the minimum required period attire for daily wear on or before the 60th day from their date of hire.

    3. A non-refundable cleaning fee (based on clothing selection) will be required from all seasonal employees prior to the loan of period clothing.

  2. Volunteers:

    1. All interpretive volunteers working in a face-to-face capacity with the public (in the park store, special events, demonstrations, programs, etc.) must be in period attire.

    2. After completion of orientation, the volunteer has90 days to purchase period attire or show proof of purchase.


TERMS OF AGREEMENT FOR THE LOAN OF CLOTHING:

Old Town San Diego State Historic Park has developed a Period Attire Clothing Bank for the express purpose of providing a short term loan of period appropriate clothing for use by park staff, volunteers, to wear for specifically assigned activities during living history activities and special events that is different from what is worn on a daily basis. The clothing is also available for special guests that are participating in living history activities or special events.




  1. Period attire clothing available for loan is the property of California State Parks.

  2. All period attire clothing shall be returned in the same (good and usable) condition as it was when first loaned to the individual.

  3. All lost items, damages, or repairs to the period attire clothing shall be paid for by the individual who checked the items out.

  4. Cleaning costs for the period attire clothing shall be the responsibility of the individual who checked the items out, and shall be paid prior to the loan of any items from the Period Attire Bank.

  5. Period attire clothing shall be loaned to staff and volunteers for a period of not to exceed seven (7) days, unless specified in writing prior to the loan.


SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES:
CLOTHING FOR INTERNSHIP PROGRAMS:

Developing and maintaining a high quality internship program within California State Parks is a high priority at OTSDSHP. To encourage participation in park programs every effort will be made to dress interns in period attire as appropriate. As part of our commitment to this program the following guidelines have been established.




  1. Interns from any local accredited high school or college who are registered and participating in the Old Town San Diego SHP Supervised Internship Program, and are required as part of their internship to perform in front of the public, shall be provided with period attire clothing for the term of their internship.

  2. The interns will be required to pay a $25 cleaning fee prior to clothing being issued. (Additional cleaning costs may apply if more than one outfit is needed during the internship.) Period attire clothing will be provided on a short term loan, (one semester), not to exceed 120 days. With written approval, the loan may be extended for longer internships. (Additional cleaning costs may apply.)

  3. All period attire on loan to interns will be returned in good, usable condition, and all damage or repairs to the clothing will be paid for by the intern. Failure to return clothing may result in a non-passing grade and/or a payment request for the replacement costs of the clothing that was issued.

  4. All damage to period attire clothing on loan shall be reported immediately to the Park’s Internship Supervisor.

  5. Interns working under concessionaires within Old Town San Diego State Historic Park will be provided with period clothing by the concessionaire. (Under special circumstances, a written agreement may allow for exceptions.)


CLOTHING FOR ENTERTAINERS

All entertainers who are:



  • contracted by California State Parks or the Boosters of Old Town (BOOT)

  • perform under the direction of Old Town San Diego State Historic Park as part of a special event

  • are asked to wear period appropriate attire

may borrow clothing from the Period Attire Bank for the scheduled performances, if it is available.
The loan of clothing shall not exceed (7) days.
The Period Attire Clothing Bank will be responsible for the cost of the cleaning of these outfits.
VOLUNTEERS: INACTIVE (Less than 36 hours of Park volunteer service) or GUESTS
Non-active volunteers wishing to participate in Old Town San Diego’s special events may borrow clothing from the period attire bank under the following conditions:

  1. A non-refundable cleaning fee (based on clothing selection), not to exceed $30.00 will be required for all non-active volunteers or guest volunteers.

  2. Fee to be paid by individual unless covered as an event expense.

  3. All period attire clothing shall be returned immediately following the event, not to exceed seven (7) days after the special event.


EXCEPTIONS – SPECIAL EVENT/FOCUS TOURS:

All seasonal staff, volunteers, interns, and district personnel asked by the Supervising Ranger or his/her designee, to wear specific clothing from the Period Attire Bank for an event, or activity, shall not be required to pay a cleaning fee. (Example: Wearing specific clothing for a Fashion Promenade.)


PERIOD ATTIRE BUY-BACK PROGRAM:

Park aides and volunteers wishing to sell their clothing may qualify for the Period Attire Buy-Back Program.


The Boosters of Old Town board, or their designee, MAY agree to buy back period attire under the following conditions:


  • Buy Back items must have been originally purchased from the OTSDSHP’s Period Attire Bank or an approved vendor or seamstress;




  • Period attire must have been approved as appropriate for Old Town’s time period and approved prior to purchase;




  • Period attire must be clean and in good condition. Clothing items with visible areas of disrepair including snags, holes, tears, and noticeable wear such as fraying, stains, and fading will not qualify for this buy-back program;




  • Period attire may only be re-purchased by the clothing bank once after the original (new) purchase from the Period Attire Bank. All re-purchased items will be placed in the loaner category.




  1. Period attire will be pro-rated on the following scale:

    1. Clothing purchased from the clothing bank, approved vendor, or authorized seamstress may qualify to be purchased back if:

      • It is within 90 days of original purchase;

      • the item is in excellent condition(“Like new” free from visible areas of disrepair including snags, holes, tears, stretching, shrinkage and noticeable wear such as fraying, stains, and fading);

      • it has been reviewed and approved by the Sector Superintendent (or their designee).

Buy-back amount will not exceed 40 percent of original purchase price.




    1. Clothing purchased from the clothing bank, approved vendor, or authorized seamstress may qualify to be purchased back if:

      • It is within 90 days of original purchase;

      • the item is in good condition(“hardly worn” free from visible areas of disrepair including snags, holes, tears, stretching, shrinkage and noticeable wear such as fraying, stains, and fading);

      • it has been reviewed and approved by the Sector Superintendent (or their designee)

Buy back amount will not exceed 25 percent of original purchase price. Buy back shall not exceed $100 per outfit.


Note: Only items that were purchased new by the employee or volunteer will be considered. Items can only be evaluated once. The decisions of condition and buy-back price made by the Sector Superintendent (or their designee) are final. Buy-back of clothing is dependent on the availability of funds for this purpose from the current year’s period attire allocation from The Boosters of Old Town.

Period Attire Bank Resale Rules:

Period Attire Clothing in the clothing bank loan program may be sold to employees and volunteers upon availability under the following conditions:



  1. The clothing is in good condition and appropriate for daily wear;

  2. There are multiple similar items of the same size in the loaner bank;

  3. The Supervising Ranger (or their designee) has determined that the sale of the specific item will not deplete the clothing bank’s supply or limit the ability to clothe a large number of volunteers for special events.


Periodically the Period Attire Bank will need to purge clothing that is no longer appropriate or has exceeded the anticipated life expectancy of the garment. These items will NOT be sold to employees or volunteers. These items will be used for living history demonstration purposes (laundry demonstration), as props for dressing children for photos, used as props within the park, destroyed by staff, or donated to a non-profit charity.
DETAILED GUIDELINES FOR PERIOD ATTIRE
Men

Mexican/Californio
During the Mexican Period in Alta California men’s fashion changed much slower than that of women. Around 1832 or 1833 the arrival of the Hijar Colony brought changes in the dress for the men. Calzoneras began to replace the Calzones (breeches).
The style of men’s clothing was influenced the Chinacos of Mexico, considered the first churros (skilled horseman). Californio men dressed according to their economic status. The hacienda or rancho owner wore more expensive and elaborate clothing than the vaquero (cowboy/ranch hand).
HAIR

Men had shoulder-length or longer hair. It was generally parted in the center and combed back; tied into braids of three strands. Some of the upper class men wore short hair. Men had whiskers and/or sideburns and some wore beards and mustaches.


FABRICS

Natural fabrics only. Absolutely no synthetics.


BUTTONS

Wood buttons, shell buttons, bone buttons, and coin buttons (Mexican) may be worn. Plastic buttons may not be worn.


TRIM

A variety of trims could be used on the trousers and jackets including lace in black, white or other subdued colors. Hand embroidery, colored ribbons or velvet, silk, satin, or other woven material, cord, and tassels were also used as trim.




BEST CLOTHES
TROUSERS

Calzoneras were the most common pants in the 1830s and 1840s. Calzoneras are tight fitting trousers. The outside seam was typically secured with lacings or a row of metal buttons and worn open below the knee.
The materials were usually wool broadcloth or velvet. Cotton is also acceptable. Most trousers were trimmed with gold or silver braid. The buttons used to secure the outer seam were flat, shanked, ball-and-chain or a combination.


JACKETS

Material used were silk, cotton, linen, velvet but usually wool. Jackets were usually lined with cotton print fabric. Most jackets were trimmed with one of the following: colored cloth braid, gold braid or silver tinsel.


UNDERDRAWERS

The long white Mexican drawers called Calzoncillos were always worn under the Calzoneras. They were plain or could be embellished with ruffles where they were exposed in the opening below the knee.


SHIRTS

White or off-white (ivory) cotton


HATS

Most hats were broad-brimmed and had either a low crown or a high, conical crown.

The best hats were made of imported yellowish vicuna felt. Others were black, brown, or white felt. The chinstrap (optional) was made of deerskin or ribbon. Gold or silver braid, rolls of silk or velvet, or simple cloth band are acceptable for the hatband. Mexican silver conchos (silver ornament either stamped with a design or inlaid with a stone) can be used.
COVERING

Men wore serapes (a narrow blanket with opening in the middle for the head) or mangas when traveling. Mangas were made of wool and lined with cotton and trimmed with metallic lace and/or velvet.


SASH

The sash was known as a faja and made of net silk (raw silk) or satin cloth. A silk rebozo (long rectangular scarf) might folded or rolled and used as a faja. Red was the most common color. The most expensive sashes had gold or silver fringe.


SOCKS

Socks were usually white cotton or wool.


SHOES

Berruchis were often made of velvet and were often decorated with embroidery beads, and sequins. The shoes were ornate slippers with inner side laces and upturned toe.

Work Clothes
TROUSERS

Calzoneras were the most common pants in the 1830s and 1840s. Calzoneras (pantaloons that open on the outside from the bottom and had rows of metal buttons). The outer seam below the knee was open.
The materials were usually wool broadcloth, velvet. Cotton is also acceptable. Most trousers were trimmed with gold or silver braid. Lacings, flat or ball-and-chain buttons or combinations of these were used for the sides of the trousers.

The following was used to close the side seams of trousers: metal clasps on the hips, silk cord lacings, flat or ball-and-chain buttons or combinations of these.


JACKETS

Jackets were usually lined with cotton fabric prints. Few jackets were trimmed

with one of the following braid: colored cloth braid, gold braid or silver tinsel. Most jackets did not have elaborate trimming. Material used were silk, cotton, printed cotton, deerskin, linen, velvet but usually wool.
UNDERDRAWERS

The long white Mexican drawers called calzoncillos were always worn under the calzoneras. Drawers could also be made of nankeen (pale yellowish cloth, originally made at Nanking from a yellow variety of cotton, but subsequently manufactured from ordinary cotton which is then dyed).


SHIRTS

White or colored linen or cotton.


HATS

Most hats were broad-brimmed and low crown and some made of straw. The poorest wore leather hats. The best hats were made of imported yellowish vicuna felt. Hats were also black, brown, or white felt. The chinstrap (optional) was made of deerskin or ribbon. Gold or silver braid, rolls of silk or velvet, cloth band are acceptable for hatband. Mexican silver conchos can be used.


COVERING

Men generally did not wear serapes or mangas when working.


SASH

The sash was known as a faja and made of cotton. Red was the most common color.


SOCKS

Socks were usually white cotton or wool.


SHOES

The following shoes are acceptable:



Zapotones were plainer than best dressed.

Zapatón

1. A large, clumsy shoe. (August) (m)

2. A wooden shoe. (m)

Moccasins and berruchis (Ornate slippers with inner side laces and upturned toe were plainer than best dress).


ACCESSORIES

A rawhide reata (a long noosed rope used to catch animals).



MEN

American/Anglo-European Attire
Shirt
Approved Types:

        1. Three Button/Simple

        2. Pleated

        3. Overshirt

        4. Fireman’s


Material: Cotton, Linen, Duck
Buttons: Glass, Shell, Bone, Metal, or Wood
Construction: Drop shoulder, pointed or banded collars, gusseted armpits, no yoke seam across the back shoulder blades, sleeve wrist buttons must be inserted in the lower half of the sleeve band. Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or clothing selections must be from an approved vendor.
Trousers
Approved Types:

      1. Short Fall

      2. Broad Fall

      3. Button Fly


Material: cotton, linen, duck, corduroy, wool
Buttons: metal, wood, bone
Construction: Trousers may have mule ears, or straight waist bane. Trousers must not have rivets, belt loops, zippers, or back pockets. Levis or Wah Maker pants are not acceptable. Trousers should have a waist back buckle in lower waist area. Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or clothing selections must be from an approved vendor.
Vests
Approved Types:

        1. Single breasted, three or four welt pockets, notch collar (step collar), buckle back strap

        2. Single breasted, three or four welt pockets, shawl collar (rolled collar)

        3. Double breasted, three pockets or welt pockets, notch collar (step collar)

        4. Double breasted, three or four welt pockets, shawl collar (rolled collar)

        1. Military, metal buttons from the waistline to the upper part chest area, two welt pockets


Note: Two-pocket vest popular until 1845, and crescent moon pockets were appropriate from 1825 – 1845.
Material: Facing - cotton, linen, satin, wool, silk, brocades

Backs and lining - polished cottons, cottons


Buttons: shell, glass, metal, wood, covered
Construction: The bottom of the vest should be constructed straight across the waistline or a little below (No points). The back of the vests should have a strap buckle closure. Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work, or clothing selections must be from an approved vendor.
Coats
Approved Types:

        1. Sack Coat

        2. Frock Coat

        3. Palletot


Material: Facing - linen, wool, cotton, velvet trim

Lining - cotton, or polished cotton


Buttons: covered, metal
Construction: Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or clothing selections must be from the approved vendor list.
Footwear
Approved Types:

        1. Brogan (lace-up ankle boots): black, brown, natural smooth exterior leather (not rough out)

        2. Boot: black or brown smooth exterior leather (not rough out)

        3. Ankle Boots with elastic on the sides

        4. Plain lace-up black shoes, below ankle

        5. A footwear alternative must have Supervisor approval


Material: Leather
Construction: All approved boots must be plain in appearance, square toe, with a heel height not to exceed one inch. Cowboy boots are not acceptable. Footwear selection must be from the approved vendor list.
Note: Many period appropriate boots either have steel plates or pegs installed on the outer soles or heels. This becomes a safety concern as an individual could easily slip on the current park exterior foot paths. As a result, it is recommended that the individual install rubber heels and soles, and remove the steel plates and pegs.
Hat

Please see the approved vendor list for appropriate choices.
Suspenders/Braces
Approved Types:

  1. All cotton, prong clip

  2. All cotton, elastic on lower back portion, prong clip

  3. Cotton, leather front adjusters, elastic on lower portion, prong clip



Please see approved vendor list for appropriate choices
Socks
Approved Types: Cotton or wool, plain color (brown, dark blue, black, oatmeal, white)
Neckwear
Approved Types:

  1. Box tie

  2. Cravat


Materials: Polished cotton, silk, variety of colors, yet plain black was the most common color option because it does not clash with most other outer garments.
Construction: Fabric and patterns must be prior to initiating work or clothing selections must be from the approved vendor list.
WOMen

Mexican/Californio
The style of dress for women in the 1830s was influenced by the styles in Europe and by Puebla, Mexico. The china poblana outfit was from Mexico and had a tiered skirt. The china poblana style was worn by the working class women of Mexico.
BEST CLOTHES
DRESS

The wealthy women wore an adaptation of European dress; tunicos were made of cotton, silk, or linen. They wore dresses made of English or American calico and silk gowns for festive occasions. The women tried to imitate some of the European and American fashions yet were limited by the fabrics that arrived on the ships. All classes would wear a gown of calico, merino (wool), silk, or linen.


The bodice was less fitted than a European or American dress because the Californio women did not wear stays/corsets. The material was printed cotton, calico, silk, satin, or velvet. Whalebones in the bodice supplied support. The sleeves were full length to the wrists with or without lace edging; sometimes three-quarter length with flaring cuffs, either plain or decorated with trim, embroidery, or lace. The hemline of the dress was often shorter than that of American dresses.
PETTICOAT

Fine muslin petticoat might be ruffled and have lace and embroidery. Many Californio women wore at least two petticoats.


CHEMISE

The camisa had a round neck made from white cotton or linen with short sleeves. It was worn under the dress.


STOCKINGS

Stockings were usually white. The colors black, white, and rose (pink) are acceptable. Stockings to be worn knee high. Silk or opaque tights are acceptable.


FABRICS

Absolutely no synthetics


BUTTONS

Wood buttons, shell buttons, bone buttons, and coin (Mexican) buttons may be worn. Plastic buttons may not be worn.


TRIM

A variety of trims could be used on the bodice, sleeves, throat, and skirt such as lace in black, white, or other subdued colors. Hand embroidery, colored ribbons, or velvet, silk, satin, or other woven material, cord, and tassels were also used as trim.


HAIR
The hair was center parted and drawn back. Ribbon decorations and flowers were set back. Unmarried women drew the hair over the ears, parted in the middle and either allowed it to fall unconfined down their backs or wore it in one or two braids that fell over the shoulders and down below the waist, sometime braided or wound with colors. Married women wore their hair parted in the center: two braids crossed and wound around the heads near the top and back, little black velvet bow on the top of the head where the ends met; or cut over forehead like bangs; lock on each side hung on the cheek; sometimes gathered in back in colored silk net.
In and around the house in the 1820s women often protected the hair with a colored silk kerchief worn like a cap. Women in the early 1820s and 1830s usually wore ornamental combs of tortoise shell called a peineta (mantilla comb). The peineta sometimes measured 4 inches high and 7 inches wide. Women also covered their hair using a rebozo.
COVERING

The most common covering was the rebozo (rectangular shawl). The rebozo is a woven fabric such as cotton, wool, or silk. The rebozo was often fringed. The following colors are acceptable: blue, black, brown, red including interwoven patterns combining more than one color. The Mantons de Manila (a square silk head covering imported from China). It is typically 60 inches square. Lace mantillas and fichus (large square kerchief worn to fill in the low neckline of a bodice) of silk or gauze were also used.


SHOES

The following shoes are acceptable:

Slipper shoes in black color with no heels and berruchis (ornate slippers with inner side laces and upturned toe).

Most of the shoes were made of satin or imported leather.


JEWLERY

Gold rings, long earrings, chains, medals, glass beads around the neck, and pearl necklaces representative of the time period are appropriate. Ribbons and flowers were also used as accessories.


HATS
Women were known to wear straw hats while riding on horseback.

According to Henry Dana, the women did not wear bonnets in the1830s.


WORK CLOTHES
SKIRT OF THE CHINA POBLANA

The top band of the skirt should be silk or very light weight cotton and the bottom of the skirt should be made of cotton or very light weight wool such as challis (currently very difficult to find in Southern California). The length of the skirt varied from mid-shin to just above the ankle. The scalloped petticoat was usually apparent extending 3 to 4 inches below the secondary fabric. Skirt may be fringed and embroidered with braid.


PETTICOAT

White cotton or linen should have a decorative pointed or lace edge that shows beneath the skirt. If multiple petticoats are worn only one needs to have the decorative edging that is revealed beneath the skirt.


CHEMISE

The camisa had a round neck made from white cotton or linen with short or ¾ length sleeves.


SASH

The sash was known as a faja and made of silk or cotton. Red was the most common color.


STOCKINGS

Stockings were usually white cotton. The color black, white, and rose are acceptable. Stockings to be worn knee high. Silk or opaque tights are acceptable.


FABRICS

Cotton, linen, silk, and wool. Absolutely no synthetics.


BUTTONS

Wood, shell, bone, and coin (Mexican) may be worn. Plastic buttons may not be worn.


TRIM

A variety of trims could be used on the skirt, such as lace in black, white or other subdued colors. Hand embroidery, colored ribbons or velvet, silk, satin, or other woven material, were also used as trim.


HAIR

The hair was center parted and drawn back. Ribbon decorations and flowers were set back. Unmarried women drew the hair over the ears, parted in the middle and either allowed it to fall unconfined down their backs or wore it on one or two braids that fell over the shoulders and down below the waist, sometime braided or wound with colors. Married women wore their hair parted in the center: two braids crossed and wound around the heads near the top and back, little black velvet bow on the top of the head where the ends met; or cut over forehead like bangs; lock on each side hung on the cheek; sometimes gathered in back in colored silk net.


In around the house in the 1820s women often protected the hair with a colored silk kerchief worn like a cap. Women in the early 1820s and 1830s usually wore ornamental combs of tortoise shell called a Peineta (mantilla comb). The Peineta sometimes measured 4 inches high and 7 inches wide. Women also covered their hair using a rebozo.
COVERING

The most common covering was the rebozo (rectangular shawl). The rebozo is a woven fabric such as cotton, wool, or silk. The rebozo was often fringed. The following colors are acceptable: blue, black, brown, red including interwoven patterns combining more than one color. The Mantons de Manila (a square silk head covering imported from China). It is typically 60 inches square.


SHOES

The following shoes are acceptable:

Black slipper shoes with no heels.

Most of the shoes were made of satin.

Moccasins

Berruchis- Ornate slippers with inner side laces and upturned toe
JEWLERY

Gold rings, long earrings, chains, medals, glass beads around the neck, and pearl necklaces representative of the time period are appropriate. Ribbons and flowers were also used as accessories.


HATS

Women were known to wear straw hats while riding on horseback.

According to Henry Dana, the women did not wear bonnets in the1830s.
WOMen

Anglo-European
Dress
Approved Types: (1) Simple day dress (one-piece or two-piece)

(2) Fan front (one-piece or two-piece)

(3) Work dress (one-piece)

Material: Cotton
Fasteners: Buttons can be glass or shell. Hooks and eyes are also acceptable
Construction: Yardage needed for these dresses should be a minimum of 6 yards of fabric. Fabric, trim, patterns, and fasteners must be approved prior to initiating work or clothing selections must be from an approved vendor.
Petticoat
At least one petticoat must be worn that is consistent with the style of the garment.

Material: cotton
Waistband: fitted or drawstring


  • Construction: Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or prior to purchasing clothing from an approved vendor.


Note: Modern slips in synthetic fibers are not acceptable.
Hat or Bonnet or Day Cap
Please see Period Attire Coordinator for proper patterns and appropriate vendors
Basket or Carpet Bag
Approved Types: (1) Carpet Bag – traditional or haversack style

  • The exterior material should be a natural fiber cotton or wool material.

  • The interior can lined or unlined.

  • The handle must be wood.

  • Closures must be metal or wood.




  1. Basket

    • The basket must be made of natural fibers.

    • The basket must not have a contemporary shape.

    • The natural fiber material used in construction cannot be colored.


Construction: Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or basket or bag selections must be from the approved vendor list.
Footwear
Approved Types: (1) Simple lace-up short boot

  • Should be a minimum of four inches above the ankle not to exceed ten inches above the ankle

  • Exterior leather should smooth versus rough

  • A plain black or brown color is required

  • Heel not to exceed two inches

  • Rounded or square toe

(2) Ballet slipper or simple Mary Jane



  • Black color

  • Leather or canvas

  • Plain black

  • Sole should be black

  • No more than a half-inch heel

  • No contemporary shoes

Note: A footwear alternative may be approved based on Supervisor approval


Note: Many period appropriate boots either have steel plates or pegs installed on the outer soles or heels. This becomes a safety concern as an individual could easily slip on the current park exterior foot paths. As a result, it is recommended that the individual install rubber heels and soles, and remove the steel plates and pegs.

Footwear selection must be from the approved vendor list.
Stockings



Approved Type

Should come up just below the knee


Material: Cotton, should come up just below the knee
Color: White, black, or red and white stripe


Shawl
Approved Type: Approximately 6 feet long, and two feet wide, triangular at one point
Material: Silk, Cotton, Wool
Construction: Fabric and patterns must be approved by the period attire committee prior to initiating work or shawl selections must be from the approved vendor list.
Optional items:
Chemise

Material: Cotton


Construction: Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or Chemise must be from the approved vendor list.
Parasol
Construction: Fabric and patterns must be prior to initiating work or Parasol must be from the approved vendor list.
Drawers
Material: Cotton
Construction: Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or Drawers must be from the approved vendor list.
Corset
Material: Cotton, silk. Boning, buckram. Lacing
Construction: Should be consistent in styling with the period and style of the outer garment.

Fabric and patterns must be approved prior to initiating work or corset must be from the approved vendor list.
Jewelry
Construction: Fabric and patterns must be prior to initiating work or jewelry must be from the approved vendor list.
Period Attire Committee
PURPOSE: The Period Attire Committee was established to provide guidance, knowledge, and research to ensure and facilitate continuous improvement of the attire worn in Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The committee shall bear the responsibility for discussing and recommending appropriate period attire or accessories to be worn, purchased, or made for wear in Old Town San Diego SHP.
The committee shall be appointed by the Superintendent or their designee.
The Period Attire Committee shall consist of a minimum of three people and a maximum of seven people. They will be selected based on their knowledge of historic attire and commitment to quality interpretation in the park. When possible the members shall be a combination of staff, volunteers, concessionaires, and other park stakeholders.
Evaluation Process:

The process for evaluating period clothing, attire, fabric, patterns or purchases shall be based on the following listed criteria:



  1. Historic research: based on historic clothing, images, historical descriptions, or historic patterns.

  2. Appropriate fabric, materials, buttons, clips, patterns, and/or accessories.

  3. Appropriate to time period and/or activity.


Approval Process:

  • Employee/volunteer may request a review by the Period Attire Committee of fabric, pattern, attire, accessory, etc. in writing addressed to the Interpretation and Education Manager. It may be an email, on a STD 100-B Mini-Memo, or a formal letter. The request should include sufficient information for the committee to make an informed decision including but not limited to images, fabric swatches, any supporting documentation.

  • The Period Attire Committee shall respond and/or make a recommendation to the employee/volunteer in writing.

  • When funding is requested by the committee to purchase clothing, fabric, or materials for the clothing bank, the committee will make the recommendation to the Sector Superintendent or their designee, who will then either accept or deny the request. If the request requires authorization to purchase clothing, fabric, or other items through the Boosters of Old Town, the Cooperating Association Liaison (CAL) or their designee will formally make the request and justification at the next scheduled board meeting.




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