Ocular Syndromes and Systemic Diseases


Vitreous Tug Syndrome (Vitreous Wick Syndrome) 1307



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Vitreous Tug Syndrome (Vitreous Wick Syndrome) 1307

General: Vitreous strand passes through the pupillary space and becomes attached or incarcerated in a corneal wound either posttraumatic or after intraocular surgery (see Irvine Syndrome); associated with endophthalmitis.

Ocular: Sensation of light flashes due to vitreous pull on the retina; irregular pupil; vitreous strands passing through pupil to attach to corneal wound or scar; loss of foveal reflex on ophthalmoscopic examination; circumscribed retinal edema; occasional posterior retinal detachment.

Clinical: None.

Irvine SR. Newly defined syndrome following cataract surgery; interpreted according to recent concepts of structure of vitreous: seventh Francis P. Proctor lecture. Am J Ophthalmol 1953; 36:599.

Maxwell DP Jr, et al. Surgical wound defects associated with endophthalmitis. Ophthalmic Surg 1994; 25:157-161.

Ruiz RS, van Teeters W. A late complication following cataract extraction. Am J Ophthalmol 1970; 70:483.

Stainer GA, Binder PS. Vitreous wick syndrome following a corneal relaxing incision. Ophthalmic Surg 1981; 12: 567-570.

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease (Harada Disease; Uveitis-Vitiligo-Alopecia-Poliosis Syndrome) 1308

General: Viral infection; occurs predominantly among Italian and Japanese individuals; young adults; chronic.

Ocular: White lashes; secondary glaucoma; bilateral uveitis; sympathetic ophthalmitis; exudative iridocyclitis; vitreous opacities; bilateral serous retinal detachment and edema with spontaneous reattachment after weeks; depigmentation and patches of scattered pigment later; bilateral acute diffuse exudative choroiditis; papilledema; macular hemorrhage; cataracts; phthisis bulbi; poliosis; scleromalacia; intraocular lymphoma.

Clinical: Poliosis; vitiligo; hearing defect; headache; vomiting; meningeal irritation; reported to occur rarely in children.

Carlson MR, Kerman BM. Hemorrhagic macular detachment in the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1977; 84:632.

Cunningham ET, et al. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in a 4-year old child. Am J Ophthalmol 1995; 120:675-676.

Fraunfelder FT, Roy FH. Current Ocular Therapy, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000.

Ganesh SK, Padmaja MS, Biswas J, et al. Cataract surgery in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. J Cataract Refract Surg 2004; 30: 95-100

Manger CC III, Ober RR. Retinal arteriovenous anastomoses in the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1980; 89:186-191.

Tabbara KF. Scleromalacia associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1988; 105: 694-695.

Walker J, et al. Intraocular lymphoma developing in a patient with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Int Ophthalmol 1993-1994; 17:331-336.



Von Bekhterev-Strumpell Syndrome (Marie-Strumpell Spondylitis; Ankylosing Spondylitis;
Pierre-Marie Syndrome; Bekhterev Disease; Rheumatoid Spondylitis) 1309


General: Variant of rheumatoid arthritis; etiology unknown; autosomal dominant; male preponderance; onset at age 20 to 40 years; although genetic background determines susceptibility to uveitis, the disease pattern suggests the possibility of random environmental triggers unrelated to the course of the underlying rheumatologic disorder.

Ocular: Nongranulomatous anterior uveitis; optic nerve atrophy (occasionally); hypopyon; band keratopathy; spontaneous hyphema.

Clinical: Spondylitis of vertebra and sacroiliac joints; ankylosis; general arthralgia; kyphosis; scoliosis; displaced head and total rigidity of spine.

Amor B. Isolated uveitis-relationship with ankylosing spondylitis and Reiter's syndrome. Mod Probl Ophthalmol 1976; 16:225-227.

Edmunds L, et al. New light on uveitis on ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatic 1991; 18:50-52.

Fraunfelder FT, Roy FH. Current Ocular Therapy, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000.

Klemperer I, et al. Spontaneous hyphema: an unusual complication of uveitis associated with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Ophthalmol 1992; 24:177-179.

Strumpell A. Bemerkung uber die Chronische Ankolysierende Ertzundung der Wirbelsaule und der Huftgelenke. Dtsch Z Nervenh 1897; 11:338.

Zervas J, et al. HLA-B27 frequency in Greek patients with acute anterior uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol 1977; 61:699-701.

Von Economo Syndrome (Encephalitis Lethargica; Sleeping Sickness; Iceland Disease) 1310

General: Etiology not understood; may be caused by filterable virus; both sexes affected; onset at all ages; epidemic form.

Ocular: Nystagmus; strabismus; diplopia; muscle imbalance; lid retraction; homonymous hemianopsia; cortical blindness.

Clinical: Fever; headache; cramps; lethargy; insomnia; athetoid or choreiform movements; convulsions; depression; unsteady gait; fatigue; parkinsonism; oculogyric crisis; behavior disorder.

Magalini SI, Scrascia E. Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1981.

Pruskauer-Apostol B, et al. The present status of encephalitis lethargica. Neurol Psychiatr (Bucur) 1977; 15: 125-128.

von Economo C. Encephalitis lethargica. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1917; 30:581.



Von Gierke Disease (Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogenosis Type I; Glucose-6-
Phosphatase Deficiency) 1311


General: Condition simulating congenital glaucoma; affects both sexes during first year of life.

Ocular: Corneal clouding; discrete, nonelevated, yellow flecks in macular area.

Clinical: Convulsions; failure to thrive; epistaxis; bleeding tendency; steatorrhea; lumbar lordosis; adiposity; hepatomegaly; enlarged kidney; renal tubular acidosis type I and kidney stones.

Geeraets WJ Ocular Syndromes, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1976.

Kanematsu A, et al. Multiple calcium oxalate stone formation in a patient with glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and renal tubular acidosis type I: a case report. Hinyokika Kiyo 1993; 39:645-648.

von Gierke E. Hepato-Nephromegalia Glykogenica (Glycogenspeicherkrankeit der Leber und Nieren). Beitr Pathol Anal 1929; 82:497-513.



Von Herrenschwand Syndrome (Sympathetic Heterochromia) 1312

General: Congenital anomaly; heterochromia with Horner syndrome; sympathetic palsy from cervical ribs, tumor of the thyroid gland, enlarged cervical lymph nodes, scars following tuberculosis, or syringomyelia in apex of the pleura.

Ocular: Enophthalmos; ptosis; heterochromia (ipsilateral iris); miosis; iris on the side of the sympathetic denervation usually shows subtle hypochromia.

Clinical: Decrease of sweating ipsilateral side of face as part of the sympathetic paralysis.

Durham DG. Congenital heredity in Homer's syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1958; 60:939.

Eagle RC. Congenital, developmental and degenerative disorders of the iris and ciliary body. In: Albert DM, Jakobiec FA, eds. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology, vol. V. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994:367.

Margo CE, Hamed LM. Horner's syndrome. In: Margo CE, Mames R, Hamed LM, eds. Diagnostic problems in Clinical Ophthalmology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1994:729.

Volpe JJ. Brachial plexus injury. In: Volpe JJ, ed. Neurology of the newborn, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1995:781-784.

von Herrenschwand F. Zur Sympathikusheterochromie. Klin Wochenschr 1923; 2:1059.



Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome (Retinocerebral Angiomatosis; Angiomatosis Retinae; Cerebelloretinal Hemangioblastomatosis; Lindau Syndrome; Retinal Capillary Hamartoma) 1313

General: Dominant inheritance; angiomata in the cerebellum and the walls of the fourth ventricle; young adults.

Ocular: Secondary glaucoma; angiomatosis of the iris; vitreous hemorrhages; tortuosity of dilated retinal artery and vein (feeder vessels); retinal exudates and hemorrhages; retinitis proliferans; angiomata of optic nerve and retina; papilledema; retinal detachment; lipid accumulation in macula; keratoconus; bilateral macular holes; choroid plexus papilloma; bilateral optic nerve hemangioblastomas.

Clinical: Cerebellar angiomatosis; epilepsy; psychic disturbances to dementia.

Annesley WJ Jr, et al. Fifteen year review of treated cases of retinal angiomatosis. Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1977; 83: 446-453.

Blamires TL, Maher ER. Choroid plexus papilloma. A new presentation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Eye 1992; 6[Part 1]:90-92.

Fraunfelder FT, Roy FH. Current Ocular Therapy. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000.

Ginzburg BM, et al. Diagnosis of von Hippel-Lindau disease in a patient with blindness resulting from bilateral optic nerve hemangioblastomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1992; 159:403-405.

Goldberg MF, Koenig S. Argon laser treatment of von Hippel-Lindau retinal angiomas. I. Clinical and angiographic findings. Arch Ophthalmol 1974; 92:121.

Goldberg MF, Koenig S. Argon laser treatment of von Hippel-Lindau retinal angiomas. II. Histopathology of Treated Lesions. Arch Ophthalmol 1974; 92:126.

Kilmartin DJ, Mooney DJ, Acheson RW, et al. von hippel-Lindau disease and familial polyposis coli in the same family. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996; 114: 1294

Loewenstein n. Bilateral macular holes in von Hippel Lindau disease. Arch Ophthalmol 1995; 113:143-144.

Lowden BA, Harris GS. Pheochromocytoma and von Hippel Lindau's disease. Can J Ophthalmol 1976; 11:282-289.

Raka D. Benz MS, Murray TG, et al. Salvage external beam radiotherapy of retinal capillary hemangiomas secondary to von Hippel-Lindau disease. Ophthalmology. 2004; 111: 150-153.

Von Monakow Syndrome (Monakow Anterior Choroidal Artery Syndrome) 1314

General: Rupture or thrombosis of anterior choroidal artery; aneurysm; tumor.

Ocular: Visual field defect; hemianopia.

Clinical: Hemiplegia; hemianesthesia.

Magalini SI, Scrascia E. Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1981.

Steegmann AT, Roberts DJ. The syndrome of the anterior choroidal artery. J Am Med Assoc 1935; 104:1695-1697.

Takahashi S, et al. The anterior choroidal artery syndrome I. Microangiography of the anterior choroidal artery. Neuroradiology 1994; 36:337-339.



Von Recklinghausen Syndrome (Neurofibromatosis Type I; Neurinomatosis) 1315

General: Dominant inheritance activated at puberty, during pregnancy, and at menopause; strong evidence supports the existence of NFl as a tumor suppresser gene.

Ocular: Proptosis; displacement of the globe; pulsation of the globe; ptosis; elephantiasis of the lids; pigment spots on lids; hydrophthalmos; nodular swelling of corneal nerves; cataracts; optic atrophy; choroidal melanoma; neurofibroma of the choroid, iris, eyelid, and ciliary body; enlarged optic foramen; underdevelopment of orbital bones; cafe-au-lait spots on fundus; hamartoma of retina; congenital glaucoma; focal iris nodules; choroidal nevi; optic nerve gliomas; orbital neurofibroma; keratoconus.

Clinical: Cafe-au-lait skin pigmentations; fibroma molluscum; lipomas and sebaceous adenomas; schwannomas; growth abnormalities; spontaneous fractures; facial hemihypertrophy.

Bickler-Bluth ME, et al. Neurilemoma as a presenting feature of neurofibromatosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1988; 106: 665-667.

Fraunfelder FT, Roy FH. Current Ocular Therapy, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000.

Legius E, et al. Somatic deletion of the neurofibromatosis type I gene in a neurofibrosarcoma supports a tumor suppresser gene hypothesis. Nat Genet 1993; 3:122-125.

Meyer DR, Wobig JL. Bilateral localized orbital neurofibromas. Ophthalmology 1992; 99: 1313-1317.

Seiff SR, et al. Orbital optic glioma in neurofibromatosis. Arch Ophthalmol 1987; 105:1689-1692.

Smith B, English FP. Classical eyelid border sign of neurofibromatosis. Br J Ophthalmol 1979; 54: 134-135.

Von Reuss Syndrome (Galactosemic Syndrome; Galactokinase Deficiency; Galactosemia) 1316

General: Autosomal recessive; consanguinity; conversion of galactose into glucose is blocked, leading to galactosemia; onset after a few days or weeks of milk ingestion; deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase.

Ocular: Searching-type nystagmus; bilateral nuclear or cortical cataracts appear clinically as oil droplets; bilateral zonular cataracts with fine punctate opacities in the lens periphery.

Clinical: Vomiting; refusal of food; diarrhea; weight loss; hepatomegaly with ascites; jaundice; galactosuria; aminoaciduria; dehydration; hypoglycemic crisis; failure to thrive; hypotonia; lethargy; severe mental and neurologic manifestations.

Cordes FC. Galactosemia cataract: a review. Am J Ophthalmol 1960; 50: 1151.

Fraunfelder FT, Roy FH. Current Ocular Therapy, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000.

Lerman S. The lens in congenital galactosemia. Arch Ophthalmol 1960; 61:88.

Okajima K, et al. Thimidase kinase in individuals with galactokinase deficiency [Letter]. Am J Hum Genet 1987; 41: 503-504.

Von Sallmann-Paton-Witkop Syndrome (Hereditary Benign Intraepithelial Dyskeratosis;
Witkop-von Sallmann Syndrome; HBID Syndrome) 1317


General: Autosomal dominant; conjunctival and. oral lesions; found in whites.

Ocular: Foamy gelatinous plaques located in a typical horseshoe fashion at 3 and 9 o'clock positions of the perilimbal area; superficial hyperemia of bulbar conjunctiva; corneal vascularization and consequent visual decrease.

Clinical: Thickening of oral mucosa with whitish plaques and folds of a spongy character (asymptomatic), with slow progression from birth into second decade of life.

McLean IW; et al. Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis. Ophthalmology 1981; 88:164-168.

von Sallmann L, Paton D. Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis: I. Ocular manifestations. Arch Ophthalmol 1960; 63:421.

Witkop CJ Jr, et al. Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis: II. Oral manifestations and hereditary transmission. Arch Pathol 1960; 70:696.

W

Waardenburg Syndrome (Van Der Hoeve-Halberstam-Waardenburg Syndrome; Waardenburg-
Klein Syndrome; Embryonic Fixation Syndrome; Interoculo-Iridodermato-Auditive Dysplasia) 1318


General: Irregular dominant inheritance; developmental fault in neural crest with absence of the organ of Corti, aplasia of the spiral ganglion, and pigmentary changes; no sex preference; onset at birth.

Ocular: Hyperplasia of the medial portions of the eyebrows; hypertelorism; blepharophimosis; strabismus; heterochromia iridis; aniridia; microcornea; cornea plana; microphakia; abnormal fundus pigmentation; hypoplasia of optic nerve; synophrys; poliosis; hypopigmentation and hypoplasia of retina and choroid; epicanthus; lateral displacement of inferior puncta; lenticonus; underdevelopment of orbital bones; lateral displacement of inner canthi; hypopigmented iris.

Clinical: Congenital deafness; unilateral deafness or deaf-mutism; broad and high nasal root with absent nasofrontal angle; albinotic hair strain (unilateral); faint patches of skin pigmentation; pituitary tumor; nasal atresia; white forelock.

Fraunfelder FT, Roy FH. Current Ocular Therapy, 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000.

Goldberg ME Waardenburg's syndrome with fundus and other anomalies. Arch Ophthalmol 1966; 76:797.

Hayasaka S, et al. Waardenburg syndrome in Japanese patients. Case reports and literature review. Ophthalmologica 1992; 205:46-51.

Holmstrom H, Santanelli E Waardenburg's syndrome. Report of a case with nasal atresia, Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg 1991; 25:181-182.

Kimura H, et al. Waardenburg's syndrome and pituitary tumor. Acta Ophthalmol 1994; 72:642-644.

Waardenburg PJ. A new syndrome combining development anomalies of the eyelids, eyebrows and nose root with pigmentary defects of the iris and head and with congenital defects. Am J Hum Genet 1951; 3:195,

Wagner Syndrome (Hyaloideoretinal Degeneration; Hereditary Hyaloideoretinal Degeneration and Palatoschisis; Clefting Syndrome; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Favre Hyaloideoretinal Degeneration; Retinoschisis with Early Hemeralopia) 1319

General: Irregular dominant inheritance; both sexes affected.

Ocular: Epicanthus; nystagmus; myopia; iris atrophy; vitreous opacities with dense streaks and folds in posterior hyaloid membrane; corneal degeneration, including band-shaped keratopathy; cataracts; hyaloideoretinal degeneration (usually apparent after 15 years); narrowing of retinal vessels; pigmentary changes; type of retinal degeneration varies from case to case; retinal detachment and avascular preretinal membranes; marked choroidal sclerosis; pale optic disk; Bergmeister papilla.

Clinical: Palatoschisis; genua valga; facial anomalies; hypoplastic maxilla; saddle nose; hyperextensible fingers, elbows, and knees; tapering fingers.

Black GCM, et al. A novel hereditary developmental vitreoretinopathy with multiple ocular abnormalities localizing to a 5-cm region of chromosome 5q13-q14. Ophthalmology 1999; 1006:2074-2081.

Frandsen E. Hereditary hyaloideoretinal degeneration (Wagner) in a Danish family. Arch Ophthalmol 1966; 74:223.

Hirose T, et al. Wagner's hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration and retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol 1973; 89: 176.

Kaiser-Kupfer M. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and clefting syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1973; 76:992.

Wagner H. Ein Bisher Unbekanntes Erbleiden des Auges (Degeneratio Hyaloideo Hereditaria), Beobachtet im Kanton Zurich. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1938; 100: 840.



Waldenström Syndrome (Macroglobulinemia) 1320

General: Occurs mainly in males over age 50 years; chromosomal abnormalities were reported, with most of the cells having 47 chromosomes.

Ocular: Sludging of conjunctival vessels; crystalline deposits in conjunctiva and cornea; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; retinal venous thrombosis; hemorrhagic glaucoma; papilledema; retinal microaneurysms; cotton-wool spots; dry eye.

Clinical: Adenopathy; hepatosplenomegaly; weakness; fatigue; pallor; dyspnea; weight loss; lymphoid orbital tumor.

Cordido M, et al. Dry eye in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Improvement after systemic chemotherapy. Cornea 1995; 14:210-211.

Ettl AR, et al. Orbital involvement in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia: ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance findings. Ophthalmologica 1992; 205:40-45.

Feman SS, Stein RS. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, a hyperviscosity manifestation of venous stasis retinopathy. Int Ophthalmol 198; 4:107-112.

Friedman AH, et al. Immunofluorescent studies of the eye in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. Arch Ophthalmol 1980; 98:743-746.

Lu LW; et al. Sjogren's syndrome and benign hyperglobulinemic purpura of Waldenstrom. Ann Ophthalmol 198l; 13: 1285-1287.

Sen HN, Chan CC, Caruso RC, et al. Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia-associated retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2004; 111: 535-538.

Walker-Clodius Syndrome (Lobster Claw Deformity with Nasolacrimal Obstruction; EEC;
Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal Dysplasia, and Cleft Lip/Palate) 1321


General: Autosomal dominant; both sexes affected; onset from birth; association with chromosome 7 abnormalities.

Ocular: Hypertelorism; nasolacrimal obstruction with constant epiphora; mucopurulent conjunctival discharge; keratitis; nanocanalization of the lacrimal duct.

Clinical: Deformities of hands and feet ("lobster claw"); absence of both index and middle fingers and second metacarpals with rudimentary third metacarpals; syndactylism; cleft palate and lips; deafness; ear malformation; renal anomalies.

Fukushima Y, et al. The breakpoints of the EEC syndrome (ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft/lip palate confirmed to 7q11.21 and 9p12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization [Letter]. Clin Genet 1993; 44:50.

Walker JC, Clodius L. The syndromes of cleft lip, cleft palate and lobster claw deformities of hands and feet. Plast Reconstr Surg 1963; 32:627.

Wiegmann OA, Walker FA. The syndrome of lobster claw deformity and nasolacrimal obstruction. J Pediatr Ophthalmol 1970; 7:79.



Walker-Warburg Syndrome (Cerebroocular Dysplasia-Muscular Dystrophy; Warburg Syndrome;
COD-MD Syndrome; Fukuyama Congenital Muscular Dystrophy; Hard + or - E Syndrome) 1322


General: Rare; encompassing a triad of brain, eye, and muscle abnormalities; probably autosomal recessive.

Ocular: Microphthalmia; cataract; immature anterior chamber angle; retinal dysplasia; retinal detachment; persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous; optic nerve hypoplasia; iris coloboma; opaque cornea; myopia; orbicularis weakness; irregular gray subretinal mottling; optic atrophy.

Clinical: Cerebral and cerebellar agyria-micropolygyria; cortical disorganization; glialmesodermal proliferation; neuronal heterotopias; hypoplasia of nerve tracts; hydrocephalus; encephalocele; muscular dystrophy; seizures; mental retardation; hypotonia; abnormal facies.

Heggie P, et al. Cerebro-ocular dysplasia-muscular dystrophy syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 1987; 105:520-524.

Levine RA, et al. Warburg syndrome. Ophthalmology 1983; 90:1600-1603.

Walker AE. Lissencephaly. Arch Neurol 1942; 48:13-29.

Warburg M. Hydrocephaly, congenital retinal nonattachment and congenital falciform fold. Am J Ophthalmol 1978; 85:88-94.

Wallenberg Syndrome (Dorsolateral Medullary Syndrome; Lateral Bulbar Syndrome) 1323

General: Occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery; onset after age 40 years; similar to Babinski-Nageotte syndrome but crossed hemiparesis is absent; nystagmus is produced by involvement of the vestibular nuclei or posterior longitudinal bundle.

Ocular: Enophthalmos; ptosis; spontaneous homolateral or contralateral horizontal or torsional nystagmus; miosis; Horner syndrome; skew deviation; impaired contralateral pursuit; saccadic abnormalities; gaze-holding abnormalities.

Clinical: Nausea; vertigo; difficulty in swallowing and speaking; ipsilateral ataxia; muscular hypotonicity; ipsilateral loss of pain and temperature sense of the face; neurotrophic skin ulcers; contralateral hypalgesia; facial weakness.

Brazis PW. Ocular motor abnormalities in Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 1992; 67:365-368.

Hornsten G. Wallenberg's syndrome. I. General symptomatology with reference to visual disturbances and imbalance. Acta Neural Scand 1974; 50:434.

Marcoux C, et al. Neurotrophic ulcer following Wallenberg's syndrome. Dermatology 1993; 186:301-302.

Sacco RL, et al. Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome. Clinical-magnetic resonance imaging correlations. Arch Neurol 1993; 50:609-614.

Silfverskiold BP. Skew deviation in Wallenberg's syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 1966; 41:381.

Wallenberg A. Anatomische Befunde in Einem als "Akute Bulbaraffektion (Embolie der Arteria Cerebellar. Post. Inf. Sinist.)" Beschriebenen Falle. Arch F Psychiatr 1901; 34.




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