October/November 2015 Teacher's Guide Table of Contents



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October/November 2015 Teacher's Guide
Table of Contents



Eating with Your Eyes: The Chemistry of Food Colorings 16

Tooth Decay: A Delicate Balance 17

Probiotics: Good Bacteria, Good Health 18

Dirt? Who Needs It? How Hydroponics Is Poised to Change the World 19

Light in the Cellar of the Sea 20

Eating with Your Eyes: The Chemistry of Food Colorings 23

Tooth Decay: A Delicate Balance 24

Probiotics: Good Bacteria, Good Health 25

Dirt? Who Needs It? How Hydroponics Is Poised to Change the World 26

Light in the Cellar of the Sea 27

Background Information (teacher information) 28

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 48

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 49

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 50

In-Class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 51

Out-of-Class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 54

References (non-Web-based information sources) 55

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 56

Background Information (teacher information) 59

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 85

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 86

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 87

In-Class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 88

Out-of-Class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 92

References (non-Web-based information sources) 93

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 94

Background Information (teacher information) 100

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 105

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 106

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 107

In-Class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 107

Out-of-Class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 109

References (non-Web-based information sources) 109

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 110

General Web References (Web information not solely related to topic) 112

Background Information (teacher information) 113

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 124

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 125

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 125

In-Class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 125

Out-of-Class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 126

References (non-Web-based information sources) 126

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 127

Background Information (teacher information) 130

Connections to Chemistry Concepts (for correlation to course curriculum) 140

Possible Student Misconceptions (to aid teacher in addressing misconceptions) 140

Anticipating Student Questions (answers to questions students might ask in class) 140

In-Class Activities (lesson ideas, including labs & demonstrations) 141

Out-of-Class Activities and Projects (student research, class projects) 142

References (non-Web-based information sources) 142

Web Sites for Additional Information (Web-based information sources) 144

About the Guide

Teacher’s Guide editors William Bleam, Regis Goode, Donald McKinney, Barbara Sitzman and Ronald Tempest created the Teacher’s Guide article material. E-mail: bbleam@verizon.net


Susan Cooper prepared the national science education content, anticipation guides, and reading guides.
David Olney created the puzzle.

E-mail: djolney@verizon.net


Patrice Pages, ChemMatters editor, coordinated production and prepared the Teacher’s Guide. E-mail: chemmatters@acs.org
Articles from past issues of ChemMatters can be accessed from a DVD that is available from the American Chemical Society for $42. The DVD contains the entire 30-year publication of ChemMatters issues, from February 1983 to April 2013.
The ChemMatters DVD also includes Article, Title and Keyword Indexes that covers all issues from February 1983 to April 2013.
The ChemMatters CD can be purchased by calling 1-800-227-5558.
Purchase information can be found online at www.acs.org/chemmatters

Student Questions
(from the articles)



Eating with Your Eyes: The Chemistry of Food Colorings


    1. Why is green-colored ketchup not found on supermarket shelves?

    2. Why do people often avoid multicolored food?

    3. What is the reason for adding food coloring to hot dogs?

    4. Describe a property of beta-carotene that makes it suitable for use as a coloring agent for dairy products.

    5. What makes anthocyanin molecules water-soluble?

    6. What groups on anthocyanin molecules are responsible for their water solubility?

    7. Why did Starbucks remove cochineal dye from its strawberry flavored products?

    8. Why do manufacturers prefer artificial- to natural-coloring substances for their products?

    9. How do the elements that compose the molecular formula of Red No. 3 differ from the elements present in the other formulas shown in Table 1?

    10. What is the base material currently used to produce most synthetic food dyes?

    11. What happens when food-coloring molecules dissolve in water?

    12. In what ways do food scientists claim that eating involves more than just taste?



Tooth Decay: A Delicate Balance


    1. Name the three main constituents of the hard parts of the tooth.

    2. What is hydroxyapatite?

    3. Why does the author say the hydroxyapatite in your teeth “is dynamic”?

    4. What are the products of the demineralization of hydroxyapatite?

    5. How does pH differ between that of the mouth and that of the body?

    6. How do the lungs help to control blood pH (e.g., after exercising)?

    7. How does saliva maintain the pH of the mouth after bacteria produce acid from the carbohydrates we’ve consumed?

    8. What happens next to maintain equilibrium?

    9. What are the results of a consistently low pH in the mouth?

    10. What are the two main materials used to fill a decayed tooth, once the decay has been removed?

    11. Name three problems with the use of amalgams for filling teeth.



Probiotics: Good Bacteria, Good Health


  1. What do the terms probiotic and microbiome mean?

  2. What are some of the benefits that some think may be provided to our bodies by some of our gut bacteria?

  3. Who first researched the role of probiotics in maintaining health?

  4. Name some foods that contain probiotics.

  5. According to the UN World Health Organization, how are probiotics defined?

  6. Explain what is meant by probiotics acting as miniature chemical factories.

  7. In addition to energy, what are the chemical products of bacterial fermentation?

  8. What are two different mechanisms by which certain probiotics may control or reduce obesity in mice?

  9. We usually associate the term pasteurization with milk, but for which drink did Louis Pasteur actually begin his research to kill bacteria with heat?

  10. How might certain bacteria known as Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduce anxiety in mice?

  11. What mechanism is thought to reduce anxiety when mouse gut bacteria, Bifidobacteria, are increased in numbers?



Dirt? Who Needs It? How Hydroponics Is Poised to Change the World


  1. What is the predicted population of the world in 2030? Why is this important?

  2. What is hydroponics?

  3. What is the per cent composition of most plants?

  4. What is the source of nutrients for plants that are grown hydroponically?

  5. Name the two main chemicals needed for plant growth.

  6. Who first introduced the term “hydroponics”?

  7. What is the difference between macronutrients and micronutrients?

  8. Name three plant macronutrients.

  9. What solution condition is crucial for adequate delivery of nutrients to plants?

  10. List two drawbacks to growing hydroponic plants, and one way these can be minimized.



Light in the Cellar of the Sea


  1. List three (3) ways marine organisms emit light.

  2. How does the midshipman fish hide from its prey?

  3. Explain why so many red and black fish exist in the twilight zone of the ocean?

  4. Why is there no red light below 6 meters in the ocean but there is blue light at 35 meters?

  5. Based on Figure 1, which wavelengths of light fade fastest underwater?

  6. Explain why white objects appear white and black objects appear black.

  7. Name the three chemical substances required to produce bioluminescence.

  8. What event caused Edith Widder to decide to study bioluminescence?

  9. Why did Karen Osborn name the nearly transparent worm Swima bombiviridis?

  10. Explain how Dr. Widder uses bioluminescence to detect water pollution.

  11. List three (3) characteristics of mantis shrimp’s vision.





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