North Carolina ems education Standards: emt curriculum Map



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Emergency Medications




  • Summary:Applies fundamental knowledge of the medications that the EMT may assist/administer to a patient during an emergency



  • TARGET SKILLS:Within the scope of practice of the EMT

    • Names

    • Effects

    • Indications

    • Routes of administration

    • Dosages for the medications administered

    • Actions

    • Indications

    • Contraindications

    • Complications

    • Side effects

    • Interactions



    • Key Terminology:

    • Aspirin

    • Epinephrine

    • Nitroglycerin

    • Oral glucose

    • Oxygen



    • Objectives:



      • DOT Objectives

      • Identify the appropriate routes of medication administration

      • Be able to describe all drugs an EMT can administer using the state formulary.

      • Demonstrate the administration of emergency medications with the state formulary

      • Specific medications and the details of those medications to include:

      • Name

      • Effects

      • Indications/Contraindications

      • Dose

      • Route

      • 6 medication rights



    • Activities/Resources:Use of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic aids to facilitate the student learning environment for the topic of instruction.

    • Make or distribute medication cards for EMT

    • Discussion on cultural and/or religious differences to receiving medications



    • Assessments:Scenario based training pertinent to topic of instruction, quiz, and exam (didactic and skills).


    • Airway Management, Respiration and Artificial Ventilation



    • Airway Management


    • Summary:Applies knowledge (fundamental depth and foundational breadth) of general anatomy and physiology to patient assessment and management in order to assure a patent airway, adequate mechanical ventilation, and respiration for patients of all ages.



    • TARGET SKILLS:Within the scope of practice of the EMT:

      • Airway anatomy

      • Airway assessment

      • Techniques of assuring a patent airway



    • Key Terminology:

    • Airway

    • Bronchoconstriction

    • Gag reflex

    • Heal-tilt, chin-lift maneuver

    • Jaw-thrust maneuver

    • Nasopharyngeal airway

    • Oropharyngeal airway

    • Patent airway

    • Stridor

    • Suctioning

    • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)



    • Objectives:



      • DOT Objectives

      • EMS Education Standards

      • Name and label the major structures of the respiratory system on a diagram.

      • List the signs of both adequate and inadequate breathing.

      • Describe the steps in performing the head-tilt chin-lift maneuver.

      • Relate mechanism of injury to opening the airway.

      • Describe the steps in performing the jaw thrust.

      • State the importance of having a suction unit ready for immediate use when providing emergency care.

      • Describe the techniques of suctioning.

      • Describe how to artificially ventilate a patient with a pocket mask.

      • Describe then demonstrate the steps in performing the skill of artificially ventilating a patient with a bag-valve-mask while using the jaw thrust.

      • List the parts of a bag-valve-mask system.

      • Describe then demonstrate the steps in performing the skill of artificially ventilating a patient with a bag-valve-mask for one and two rescuers.

      • Describe the signs of both adequate and inadequate artificial ventilation using the bag-valve-mask.

      • Describe the steps in artificially ventilating a patient with a flow restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device.

      • List the steps in performing the actions taken when providing mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-stoma artificial ventilation.

      • Describe how to measure and insert both an oropharyngeal (oral) and a nasopharyngeal (nasal) airway.

      • Define the components of an oxygen delivery system.

      • Identify a non-rebreather face mask and state the oxygen flow requirements needed for its use.

      • Describe the indications for using a nasal cannula versus a non-rebreather facemask.

      • Identify a nasal cannula and state the flow requirements needed for its use.

      • Explain the rationale for basic life support, artificial ventilation, and airway protective skills taking priority over most other basic life support skills.

      • Explain the rationale for providing adequate oxygenation through high inspired oxygen concentrations to patients who, in the past, may have received low concentrations.

      • Demonstrate the steps in performing the head-tilt chin-lift maneuver and the jaw thrust..

      • Demonstrate the techniques of suctioning.

      • Demonstrate the steps in providing mouth-to-mouth artificial ventilation with body substance isolation (barrier shields).

      • Demonstrate how to use a pocket mask to artificially ventilate a patient.

      • Demonstrate the assembly of a bag-valve-mask unit.

      • Demonstrate artificial ventilation of a patient with a flow restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device.

      • Demonstrate how to artificially ventilate a patient with a stoma.

      • Demonstrate how to insert an oropharyngeal(oral) and a nasopharyngeal (nasal) airway.

      • Demonstrate the correct operation of oxygen tanks and regulators.

      • Demonstrate the use of a nonrebreather face mask and state the oxygen flow requirements needed for its use.

      • Demonstrate the use of a nasal cannula and state the flow requirements needed for its use

      • Demonstrate how to artificially ventilate the infant and child patient.

      • Demonstrate oxygen administration for the infant and child patient.

      • Identify and describe the airway anatomy in the infant, child and the adult.

      • Differentiate between the airway anatomy in the infant, child, and the adult.

      • Explain the pathophysiology of airway compromise.

      • Describe the proper use of airway adjuncts.

      • Review the use of oxygen therapy in airway management.

      • Describe the indications, contraindications, and technique for insertion of nasal gastric tubes.

      • Describe how to perform the Sellick maneuver (cricoid pressure).

      • Describe the indications for advanced airway management.

      • List the equipment required for orotracheal intubation.

      • Describe the proper use of the curved blade for orotracheal intubation.

      • Describe the proper use of the straight blade for orotracheal intubation.

      • State the reasons for and proper use of the stylet in orotracheal intubation.

      • Describe the methods of choosing the appropriate size endotracheal tube in an adult patient.

      • State the formula for sizing an infant or child endotracheal tube.

      • List complications associated with advanced airway management.

      • Define the various alternative methods for sizing the infant and child endotracheal tube.

      • Describe the skill of orotracheal intubation in the adult, infant, and child patient.

      • Describe the skill of confirming endotracheal tube placement in the adult, infant and child patient.

      • State the consequence of and the need to recognize unintentional esophageal intubation.

      • Describe the skill of securing the endotracheal tube in the adult, infant and child patient.

      • Recognize and respect the feelings of the patient and family during advanced airway procedures.

      • Explain the value of performing advanced airway procedures.

      • Defend the need for the EMT to perform advanced airway procedures.

      • Explain the rationale for the use of a stylet.

      • Explain the rationale for having a suction unit immediately available during intubation attempts.

      • Explain the rationale for confirming breath sounds.

      • Explain the rationale for securing the endotracheal tube.

      • Demonstrate how to perform the Sellick maneuver (cricoid pressure).

      • Demonstrate the skill of orotracheal intubation in the adult, infant, and child patient.

      • Demonstrate the skill of confirming endotracheal tube placement in the adult, infant, and child patient.

      • Demonstrate the skill of securing the endotracheal tube in the adult, infant, and child patient.

      • Airway anatomy

      • Airway assessment

      • Techniques of assuring a patent airway

      • Consider age related variations in pediatric and geriatric patients (see special patient populations section)



    • Activities/Resources:Use of auditory, visual, and kinesthetic aids to facilitate the student learning environment for the topic of instruction.

    • Ventilation of simulators using different types of bag value masks at the appropriate rate with the appropriate volume of air.

    • Using suction equipment to remove material for the oral opening.

    • Practice assembling and calculating oxygen flows for patient using various masks.



    • Assessments:Scenario based training pertinent to topic of instruction, quiz, and exam (didactic and skills).


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