Nolte – Chapter 5 (Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid) and all Class-Notes and Lab-Notes tagged with Chapter 5

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Nolte – Chapter 5 (Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid) and all Class-Notes and Lab-Notes tagged with Chapter 5.
Ventricles are lined with ependymal cells

  • There are Four Ventricles

    • Lateral Ventricle

      • anterior horn, body, atrium(where they meet), posterior horn(occipital), and inferior horn(through temporal)

        • Caudate head follows the anterior horn and its tail lies in the roof of the inferior horn.

        • the thalamus forms the body of the ventricle

        • Corpus Collosum is the roof of the anterior horn and body

          • genu at the anterior horn.

        • hippocampus forms the floor of the medial wall of the inferior horn.

      • foramin of Monro (interventricular formaen) in the anterior horn to connect to…

    • Third Ventricle

      • in the mideline region of the diencephalon

      • there is a hole where there is the interthalamic adhesion.

      • ends at the lamina terminalis(rostral end of the neural tube)

      • medial thalamus and hypothalamus for the medial wall.

      • there are four protrustions (recesses)

        • optic recess in front of the optic chiasm

        • infundibular recess behind the chiasm

        • pineal recess that invades the stalk of the pineal

        • suprapineal which lies anterior to that stalk

      • cerebral aqueduct(Sylvius) to…

    • Fourth Ventricle

      • sandwiched between cerebellum and the pons/rostral medulla

      • its floor is the rhomboid fossa where the ending becomes a lateral recess

      • empties into subarachnoid space by three aperatures

        • median aperture(Magendie)

        • lateral aperatures (luschka)

  • Choroid Plexus

    • secretes most of the CSF

      • which is clear and similar to plasma

      • containes higher conentrations of magnesium and chloride and less potassium and calcium

      • can be depressed by metabolic inhibitors.

      • formed by filtration of blood through choroidal capillaries and the active transport of substances.

      • a route for the spread of neuroactive hormones

      • regulation of extracllular environment

      • sink for substances produced by the brain

    • made up of ependymal cells that overlay the pia in all regions, but where the pia-ependyma complex invaginates is where we see choroid epithelium.

    • the ependymal-pia-capillary complex is known as the choroid plexus.

    • in the lateral ventricle its in the inferior horn and atrium(glomus) and goes down the interventricular foramen.

      • the invagination is known as the choroid fissure

    • is on the roof of the third ventricle

    • in the fourth ventricle it is formed by an invagination of the inferior medullary velum and actually gets exposed to the subarachnoid space.

    • ependymal is cells of the pia

    • epithelium is a specialized later of the ependymal layer

    • It’s a 3-layers membrane between blood and CSF

      • first is endothelilal wall of each choroidal capillary

      • second is scattered pial cells and collagen

      • third is choroid epithelium

    • Sympathetic stimulation can cause a 30% reduction in CSF production.

  • The Path

    • Lateral Ventricle

    • Interentricular formania (Monroe)

    • Third Ventricle

    • Cerebral Aqueduct

    • Fourth Ventricle

    • Luksha(lateral aperature) and Magendie(medial)

    • Cisterna Magna/Pontine Cistern

    • Tentorial Notch passage

    • Superior Cistern

    • Superior Sagittal Sinus

      • returned to the venous system through arachnoid villi that penetrate the dural sleeves

  • Problems

    • hydrocephalus

      • excess production, blockage or deficiency of reabsorption of CSF

      • tumors of the chloroid plexus (papillomas)

      • communicating/non

        • whether lateral ventricles are able to reach subarachnoid

        • blocking ov villi or tentorial notch would still be communicating.

  • The straight sinus is situated within the dura mater, where the falx cerebri meets the midline of tentorium cerebelli.

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