No What is ? Answer…



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Opathology two marks

No

What is….?

Answer…

1

Abfraction

 A regressive alteration of tooth structure usually involving hard tissue of the permanent dentition leading to loss of tooth surface at the cervical areas of teeth caused by tensile and compressive forces during tooth flexure. Alternatively, Cervical erosive lesions that cannot be attributed to any particular etiology

2

Abrasion

 A regressive alteration of tooth structure usually involving hard tissue of the permanent dentition leading to abnormal loss of tooth structure due to non-masticatory physical friction.

3

Abscess

 A localized accumulation of pus caused by an infection. Example periapical abscess.

4

Acantholysis

 A histopathological feature, characterized by loss of the intercellular bridges of the prickle cell layer (spinous) of the epithelium usually caused by accumulation of fluid or edema in between the keratinocytes.

5

Acanthosis

 A histopathological feature, characterized by excessive thickening of the intermediate cell layer or the stratum spinosum resulting in broadening and elongation of the rete pegs. It is considered as one of hall mark of epithelial dysplasia.

6

Acanthosis nigricans

 A rare acquired dermatological disease with an abnormal Keratinization process leading to development of velvety brownish alteration of skin. Sometimes this disease may be a marker of malignancy.

7

Accessory cusps

 A developmental anomaly of shape characterized extra cusp like the cusp of Caraebilli in maxillary first molar. 

8

Acidogenic theory

 It states that dental caries is a chemico-parasitic process consisting of two stages- the decalcification of enamel as a preliminary stage followed by dissolution of the softened residue. The acid required for decalcification is synthesized by the fermentation of starch and food residue by the bacteria’s. This theory was proposed by Miller.

9

Acinic cell adenocarcinoma

 A malignant salivary gland malignancy that salivary gland cells showing serous acinar differentiation, most commonly found in the parotid gland.

10

Acquired disturbances

 Disturbances in the structure or morphology of any organ form birth or during growth and can occur as a result of environmental or hereditary factors.

11

Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

 A syndrome caused by the infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus causing the suppression of the immune system and predisposing the individual to infections.

12

Acral lentiginous melanoma

 A melanoma that is a brown in color irregularly shaped macular lesion that undergoes progression to nodular melanoma.

13

Acrodynia

  A chronic mercury exposure in infants and children where it produces a cold clammy skin, erythematous rashes, excessive salivation, and gingivitis may be the features of the condition.

14

Acromegaly

  A hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone.

15

Actinic chelitis

 A chronic inflammatory lesion caused by chronic exposure to actinic or sunlight manifesting in skin of the middle and lower third of face and commonly in lower lips.

16

Actinic keratosis

 Is a common cutaneous premalignant lesion caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation exposure with microscopic changes in epithelium and connective tissues.

17

Actinic lentigo

 Is a benign, multiple, freckle like lesion resulting from chronic exposure to ultraviolet damage to skin.

18

Actinomycosis

 Is an infection of filamentous, branching, gram positive anaerobic bacteria belonging to actinomycetes family. The supparative reaction is with yellowish sulphur like flecks that are the colonies of the organisms.  

19

Acute

  Of shorter duration. Usually have severe symptoms.

20

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)

  An infection of the gingiva caused by fusobacterium and Borecellia vincentii affecting inter- dental papillae as a punched out lesion covered by a pseudomembrane.

21

Acute osteomyelitis

 A rapidly destructive inflammatory process of bone and soft tissues associated with bone that usually consists of granulation tissue, purulent exudates, and islands of non-vital bone (sequestra).

22

Acute pulpitis

  An inflammation of the pulp caused by injury to the pulp, usually from dental caries or trauma. The thermal change (hot or cold) initiates the pain that is relived on removal of the noxious stimuli. It is usually either reversible or irreversible.

23

Addison´s disease

 A rare hormonal disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol and less commonly aldosterone.

24

Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma

 A rare low grade histopathological variant of oral squamous cell carcinoma or in sun-exposed skin of the face and lower lip. The malignant cells are arranged in a gland like pattern.

25

Adenoma

 In Clinical terms refers to a glandular malignancy either benign or malignant. 

26

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

 An odontogenic tumor arising from epithelium and ectomesenchyme, well-circumscribed lesion that usually occurs around the crowns of unerupted anterior teeth of young patients and consists of epithelium in swirls and ductal patterns interspersed with spherical enamel like calcifications.

27

Adenosquamous carcinoma

  A rare, aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa consisting of a mixture of malignant squamous and glandular cells.

28

Adult monostotic fibrous dysplasia

  A rare form of fibrous dysplasia occurring spontaneously in adulthood involving a single bone.

29

Adventious dentin

 The pathologically formed secondary dentin as a result of abnormal irritation.

30

Aerodontolgia

  A condition similar to pulpitis experienced in deep fillings in high altitudes is referred as aerodontalgia.

31

Agenesis

 Complete absence of an organ and its associated structures.

32

Agranulocytosis

  A marked decrease in the number of granulocytes (circulating or immature), particularly neutrophils.

33

Allergen

  A substance capable of inducing hypersensitivity or an allergic reaction.

34

Allergy

  A hypersensitive state acquired through exposure to a particular allergen. Re-exposure to the same allergen elicits an exaggerated reaction.

35

Alveolar cyst of new born

 They are small, superficial keratin filled cyst found in the alveolar mucosa of infants that arise from the remnants of the dental lamina.

36

Alveolar osteitis

 The destruction of initial clot usually after a traumatic extraction prevents the normal healing process causing the clinical condition of alveolar ostetits. Also known as dry socket.

37

Amalgam tattoo

  Oral soft tissue discolorations due to amalgam; most common exogenous pigmentation of the oral cavity.

38

Ameloblastic carcinoma

  An aggressive neoplasm of the jaws in which the epithelial cells exhibit histologic features of common ameloblastoma and malignancy.

39

Ameloblastic fibroma

  An odontogenic tumor arising from epithelium and ectomesenchyme, that is well circumscribed often located over unerupted molars in young patients; the connective tissue recapitulate primitive ectomesenchyme often found during various stages of odontogenesis.

40

Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma

  An odontogenic tumor arising from epithelium and ectomesenchyme, that has general features of ameloblastic fibroma but contains enamel and dentin. Alternatively it is an expansile odontogenic tumor in young patients that contains the soft tissue components of ameloblastic fibroma and the hard tissue components of complex odontoma.

41

Ameloblastic odontoma or odontoameloblastoma

  A rare odontogenic tumor that contains an ameloblastomatous component together with odontoma-like elements.

42

Ameloblastoma

 A unicentric neoplasm of odontogenic epithelium that is clinically benign, anatomically persistent, locally invasive and that has a wide spectrum of histologic patterns.

43

Amelogenesis

  The process of formation of the enamel portion of the tooth.

44

Amelogenesis imperfecta

 A spectrum of hereditary defects in the formation of ameloblasts and the mineralization of enamel matrix that results in teeth with multiple generalized abnormalities affecting the enamel layer only.

45

Amino acid

 An organic compound containing the amino group NH2. Amino acids are the main component of proteins.

46

Amyloidosis

 Represents a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by the deposition of an extra cellular proteincious material called amyloid.

47

Anachoretic pulpitis

 Refers to the inflammation of pulp caused by agents reaching pulp through circulation.

48

Anaphylaxis

  A type of hypersensitivity or allergic reaction in which the exaggerated immunologic reaction results from the release of vasoactive substances such as histamine. The reaction occurs on re-exposure to a foreign protein or other substance after sensitization.

49

Anaplasia

 Lack of differentiation of cells

50

Anaplastic

 Refers to an adult cell that has changed irreversibly toward more primitive cell types and is often malignant.

51

Anemia

 A quantitative and or qualitative reduction of hemoglobin in blood. (Or) Reduction to less than normal of the number of red blood cells or quantity of hemoglobin or to the volume of packed red blood cells in the blood. (Or) Reduction in oxygen carrying capacity of blood. 

52

Anesthesia dolorosa

 An uncommon side-effect of surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia resulting in a combination of anesthesia and spontaneous pain of the facial skin.

53

Aneurysmal bone cyst

 An uncommon lesion (Pseudocyst) located primarily in the posterior mandible and maxilla with clinical features similar to central giant cell lesion often containing many large blood-filled spaces separated by connective tissue septa containing giant cell tissue and lined by epithelium.

54

Angiolipoma

 A benign tumor that consists of an admixture of mature fat and numerous small blood vessels.

55

Angioma

 A benign tumor made up of blood or lymph vessels.

56

Angiomatosis

  The process of subcutaneous vascular proliferation is referred to as angiomatosis.

57

Angioneurotic odema

 A diffuse edematous swelling of subcutaneous or submucosal soft tissues and is related to changes in vascular permeability due to mast cell granulation or C1 esterase deficiency.

58

Angiosarcoma

 Malignant, rare, rapidly growing lesion of endothelial cells that is more common in young patients and has a poor prognosis.

59

Angular chelitis

  It is an infectious diseases occurring along the corners of mouth caused by Candida, staphylococci or streptococci or a mixed infection. The lesion ulcerates and readily bleeds.

60

Anitschkow cell

 The cytologic smear of a recurrent apthous ulcer show a characteristic change in nucleus of epithelium with elongated nuclei containing a linear bar of chromatin. Such a cell is termed as Anitschkow cell.

61

Ankyloglssia

 A developmental anomaly of tongue characterized by an abnormal extensive adhesion of the tongue to the floor of the mouth or the lingual aspect of the anterior portion of the mandible caused by a short lingual frenum.

62

Ankylosed teeth

 Teeth that are fused to the alveolar bone by means of cementum; a condition especially common with retained deciduous teeth.

63

Anodontia

 Congenital condition in which all the teeth fail to develop.

64

Anomaly

 Any deviation from normal. May involve in composition, number, size, shape or structure.

65

Antibody

 A protein produced in the body in response to stimulation by an antigen. Antibodies react specifically to antigens in an attempt to neutralize these foreign substances.

66

Antigen

 A substance, usually a protein, which is recognized as foreign by the body's immune system and stimulates formation of a specific antibody to the antigen.
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