Next Industrial Revolution



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The Role of Energy in the Industrial Revolution, and the Factors That Lead the "Next Industrial Revolution"

Name: Dana mazia

Date: 10.28.10

Lecture: legal Research & Writing

Pr.: saki bailey

1. Introduction

In this paper I will try to prove that energy was the main object that started the Industrial Revolution and to show first the broad and amazing changes that it gave to our life. Indeed, For years, the Industrial Revolution and development of humanity was considered as something completely positive. But, Without noticing the process of progressing and development had also negative influence that damaged the environment in which we live in. Therefore I would like to highlight the continued process of the original revolution. Due to the decline in our environment we are now facing the "next industrial revolution".

2.1 The history of energy



The word energy arrives from the Greek word ἐνέργεια (energeia), which appears for the first time in the 4th century1. The concept of energy born from the idea of vis-viva or living force, which is an obsolete scientific theory that served as an elementary and limited early formulation of the principle of conservation of energy. In 1807, Thomas Young was the first to use the term "energy" in the modern sense that we are using this days. One of the main concepts is the energy conservation, which was proved in 1918. The law is the direct mathematical consequence of the translational balance of the quantity conjugate to energy, namely time. Energy has been maintained because the laws of physics do not distinguish between different times. It is a statement that the quantity called energy remains endless regardless of when it is estimated or what processes possibly including transformations of energy from one form into another, go on between following evaluations. Today, Energy can exist in many forms within a system and may be changed from one form to another within the limit of the conservation law. These different forms include gravitational, kinetic, thermal, elastic, electrical, chemical, radiant, nuclear, and mass energy. The universal applicability of the concept of energy and the different forms it what makes it so attractive and useful. Energy plays a fundamental role in shaping the human condition. People's need for energy is essential for survival, so it is not surprising that energy production is some of the most important activities of human life. There are people that claim that energy is the key "to the advance of civilization," that the evolution of human societies is dependent on the conversion of energy for human use. The common belief that energy and civilization are inextricably linked surely has historical foundation. Throughout history, humans have focused on controlling the energy stores. The broad range of unique human cultures absorbed the search for these basic energy resources into different human activities. Quite simply, human existence has been dominated by the age-old necessity for energy. Before the modern era, people relied for power on their own muscles, and on the muscles of animals, and on water and wind. People used these energy resources to create a variety of significant lands, from agricultural fields to pasture, and they built the towns and cities and transportation networks of ancient civilizations. The technologies that relied on these energy resources, Until the development of steam power during the Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century, was the waterwheels that were slowly supplanted by water turbines. Europe, which possessed many areas of water power potential, particularly benefited from connecting the energy produced by moving water. For that reason locations with good water power resources became centers of economic and industrial activity. In that period most of the industry depended for energy were almost entirely based on water power, but there were some other sources that were use: Windmills, like waterwheels, were among the original prime movers that replaced animal muscle as a source of power. They were used for centuries in various parts of the world, altering the energy of the wind into mechanical energy for grinding grain, pumping water, and draining lowland areas.

2.2 The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a slow and progressive process of production method over the manual method of mechanized industrial production2. The Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century in England. The beginning of the industrialization process was all about using steam as an energy source to power motors and transport industry. The influence of this process brought about radical changes. Until that period, the economy was based on manual labor and farming, and so the production was limited. Following industrialization began economy based on industrial production in large numbers using machines. Steam engines began to run industry and transport, which caused a revolutionary change in what, was familiar. Extreme changes have occurred in many areas of life: transport- the railways, agriculture- the mechanized, the urbanization- across from the city and rapid growth in many cities, economic- increase the amount of goods, banks, credit and exchange, and more. The Revolution began in the villages and moved to all the other different places3. The reason that the process moved in such a way was the fact that at the late 18th century, trade increased competition and domestic industry conditions have become tighter in such a way that it was no longer productive enough. Manual labor was intensive and difficult and the laborers were living in poverty. Because of all the difficulties, production processes needed to be reorganized, and so the use of innovative energy was born. The Revolution occurs in a gradual process of switching from an old-fashioned method of producing to a new production method. During the 19th century, the revolution spread to other countries in Western and Central Europe: France, Belgium and Germany, as well as eastern and southern European countries. One of the main influences on people's life was that Craftsmen could not continue working from their small shops or homes because the need for machines and because of the requirements created in the manufacturing process for team work among several employees, so they had to work in factories.

2.3 The steam engine



The main invention which was the driving force of the industrial revolution was the steam engine, which was invented by James Watt in 1774. Some say that "the steam engine was the springboard for the industry to the modern age". As a result of the use of the steam engine, many changes took place in the industry. The first which took place was in the textile industry. Overall, threads began to be produced using steam engines and the cotton industry, which until then was largely manual domestic industry, moved to factories. Sailing the seas also has experience a transformation from rowing with oars and hanging clipper wind power, to the powerful and efficient steam engine. Moreover, steam ships could be large and carry heavier cargo load than the old sailing ships. The steam engine permanently established the link between fossil energy resources and industrialization. England and European countries turned to energy for steam fuel, and by the mid-nineteenth century Appalachian coal succeeded wood as steam fuel in the eastern United States. Other important energy conversion procedures that occurred were the electric developments. The English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday discovered a means by which to convert mechanical energy into electricity on a large measure. This process, called electromagnetic induction, provided the working principle for Electric generators and motors. In that period direct energy conversion devices also developed. Most of these energy converters, sometimes called static energy conversion devices, use electrons as “working fluid” in place of the steam or gas employed by such dynamic heat engines as the external combustion and internal combustion engines. Over the years, direct energy conversion devices have received much attention because of the necessity to develop more efficient ways of transforming available forms of primary energy into electric power. Four such devices the electric battery, the fuel cell, the thermoelectric generator, and the solar cell, had their origins in the industrial revolution. Among the technological challenges in using inanimate energy resources is the transmission of power. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, attraction with the phenomenon of electricity captured many people. The production of electricity with primary batteries and eventually with electromagnetic induction, the development of electric motors ultimately revolutionized the transmission of power. By the end of the nineteenth century, electrically powered machinery was established, and was getting its power through wires strung from far away hydroelectric and steam-turbine power plants. The shape and character of factories changed dramatically during the twentieth century, as machines powered by electric motors could be sited almost anywhere. By the early twentieth century, electricity had become the favored method for transmitting energy, but applying it for human uses was depended on many scientists and technicians working together.

2.4 Different reality



For 10,000 years, we thought that our world was immensely large. Wide limits of soil and sea promised unlimited resources4. Humans could pollute freely and ignore the effects of pollution on the environment. People built empires and economic systems intact from the industrial revolution, relying on their ability to exploit what seemed an endless wealth, no one could imagine that things will disappear one day. Thanks to improvements in public health, industrial revolution and later the green revolution the world's population has grown to nearly 7 billion today. The affluence also brought the realization of resources to amazing heights. This speed growth turns over the environmental pollution from a local problem to an attack on the whole world. Stratosphere ozone cover depletion and the rise in greenhouse gas concentrations are prominent examples of this dilemma, but many other devastating effects of intensification. The sudden acceleration of global population increase, consumption of resources and causing environmental damage has changed the planet. We live today in a "full" world, characterized by limited resources and limited waste absorption fit. The rules of the game to life in such a world are different. We must take steps to limit our operations only to heat the safe operation of our environmental systems 5. How this new situation began? Back to the 1960s, the increased efficiencies in electric-power generation leveled off, the cost of electricity began to climb and the availability of the resource started to be more problematic. Moreover, a growing environmental movement recognized acid rain and other negative environmental impacts to the heavy use of fossil fuels. Growing concern over the world's increasing energy needs and the prospect of rapidly dwindling reserves of oil, natural gas, and uranium fuel have prompted efforts to develop possible alternative energy sources. The uncertainty of the petroleum fuel supply were dramatically brought to the front during the energy crisis of the 1970s caused by the abrupt curtailment of oil shipments from the Middle East to many of the highly industrialized nations of the world. It has been recognized that the heavy reliance on fossil fuels had an opposing impact on the environment. Gasoline engines and steam turbine power plants that burn coal or natural gas operate substantial amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere. When these gases combine with atmospheric water steam, they form sulfuric acid and nitric acids, giving rise to highly acidic precipitation. The combustion of fossil fuels also releases carbon dioxide. The amount of this gas in the atmosphere has steadily risen as a result of the growing consumption of coal, oil, and natural gas. More and more scientists believe that the atmospheric buildup of carbon dioxide may induce a greenhouse effect, raising the surface temperature of the Earth by increasing the amount of heat trapped in the lower atmosphere. This condition could bring about climatic changes with serious repercussions for natural and agricultural ecosystems.

2.5 "eco-efficiency"

Just after people started to realize that traditional ways of doing things may not be sustainable in the long term "What we thought was boundless has limits," Robert Shapiro, (the chairman and chief executive officer of Monsanto) people started to talk about "eco-efficiency". "eco-efficiency" means "doing more with less" it tells us to restrict industry and restrict growth, to try to limit the creativity and productiveness of humankind. People thought that this idea would change human industry from a system that takes, and wastes into a system that integrates economic, environmental, and ethical concerns together.

Eco-efficiency is a well-intended concept, but, unfortunately, it is not enough for success in the long term, its goals, are thoughtfully limited. Reduction, reuse, and recycling slow down the rates of contamination and depletion but do not stop these processes in the way that we really need to. From that problematic situation the idea of "the next industrial revolution" was born.

Most of the energy used comes from fossil sources. Approximately 37% of the energy comes from burning oil, 25% from combustion of coal and 23% from natural gas combustion. It means that 85% of the energy comes from fossil sources. Ecological damage causes air pollution, smog and acid rain. According to the 2007 UN report, there is a wide consent in the scientific community that the products of fossil fuel emissions increase the greenhouse effect causes global warming. This warming is linked to other ecological problems such as climate change, melting glaciers, rising ocean levels as well as other problems.

Much of the increase in the global economy during this period was due to the human economy ability to receive energy available at low-cost. The situation has changed. The world's population consumes the gas reserves of the planet. According to the U.S. Department of Energy oil is going to run out at the current rate of use in 45 years, and coal in about 200 years.

Are we really getting close to "turning points" in the history of Earth that will move the global environment to a new and dangerous territory, different from anything we have seen in human history? After a team of scientists from around the world, led by Johan Rookstrom (from the center resistance Sweden's capital Stockholm), examined many studies that were dealing with disciplinary physical and biological systems, they concluded that nine environmental processes that may threaten Earth's ability to support human existence. Seven of the processes have clear cut boundaries. Three of them, the borders safe to climate change, rise in ocean acidity and ozone in the stratosphere decline, indicate turning points, while the other four boundaries indicate the point at which will be an irreversible process of deterioration. Two other processes, atmospheric pollution and global chemical pollution aerosols, borders have not yet cut due to lack of research.

According to the committee, three processes have already passed the boundaries: the loss of biological diversity, nitrogen pollution and climate change. All other processes and advanced toward their boundaries. The system of borders offers a summary of the most dangerous environmental conditions ever, and it should serve as a framework for dealing with important threats6.


2.6 The next industrial revolution
When we try to deal with all the effects of economic, social and environmental sustainable world, we must limit ourselves to specific area. Although the company began to face some challenges, it is still narrow in relation to any limit in itself. The critical period in which we live should strive to engage in solving existing problems, a number of solutions that a group of scientists presented, relate to energy, efficiency and switch systems that emit little carbon. Transition will require significant improvements in efficiency of energy use and then rapid expansion of the of energy sources that emit little carbon.

In general we call the answer "The next Industrial Revolution"7. It relates to the exploitation of renewable energy sources. This energy comes from constant natural processes as a result of binding non-consumable energy stored in them. Different renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels (oil, coal and natural gas), and nuclear energy, the use of which involves a significant reduction of available energy reservoir stored in them. These energy sources primarily include solar energy, and energy sources from this gathering, such as wind and hydropower, biological processes of energy production, in geothermal heat from Earth's interior, energy due to tidal forces pull of the moon and the sun. The Solar energy is energy from direct radiation from the sun. This energy is abundant, in amounts far beyond human consumption, but the technology is difficult to use efficiently. The main disadvantages of this energy are the high cost of production as a result of regular cycles of seasons and days. Solar energy facilities transform the electromagnetic radiation coming from the Sun thermal energy or electricity. Due to the high output of solar radiation on the Earth, This method has the potential to become a significant component of the global energy market.

The uses of energy from the sun are varied. This energy can be used directly for heating, evaporation and drying foods, such as cooking with solar heater, evaporation ponds for producing salt and drying laundry. Concentration of solar radiation by using mirrors or lenses allows sometimes exploit it better, especially for people who require high temperature. Increasing efficiency is made possible by using tracking facilities that road the sun in the sky during the day. Extensive use of solar energy for industrial purposes or for creating electricity may be in one of two ways: Thermal solar energy: Warming fluid to operate a heat engine that produces electricity or mechanical work. Or, Photovoltaic energy (electricity energy): Using photovoltaic cells to convert light directly into electrical energy.

The solar energy can be used directly, or be stored in various materials, and make the energy available for later use. Indirectly responsible for a variety of solar energy to create processes that bring different energy sources currently in use, such as wind energy, hydroelectric energy, and more.

3. Conclusion
The variety forms of energy makes it so attractive and useful for humankind. Energy is fundamental role in condition of our life. the need for energy became a basic need to survive in our world. Since the late 18th, The Industrial Revolution changes all the ways of production and use of the energy resources. So that all the production methods was change. It started with the Steam engines that effect many areas of life. For years, everyone thought that our world was enormous. With no limits of soil and other resources. But, as I have shown before, We live today in a world that suffers from limited resources and environment that roll down. "eco-efficiency" was the first answer to that problem. People tried to think how to do more with less, and to limit the productive of humankind. This good idea is not enough to solve the situation that we made. in realizing solutions we need to understand that if we want to keep the quality of life, we must tack about the "The next Industrial Revolution" that will able us explore renewable energy sources that will come from constant natural. The Solar energy is one of the develops that work to transform the electromagnetic radiation that coming from the Sun thermal energy or electricity. We can see new in very clear way that the industrial revolution had a lot of good effect on human life but not only, and if we don’t want to let the situation keep going down, we need to adopt different attitude that will move to all levels of community and will help the next generation to live in a bather world.

Bibliography-

Books and Articles:




  • Jan De Vries, "The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution", the Journal of Economic History, Vol. 54, No. 2.

  • Richard C. Duncan, "World Energy Production, Population Growth, and the Road to the Olduvai Gorge" Population and Environment, Vol. 22, No. 5 (May, 2001), pp. 503-522.

  • William McDonugh and Michael Braungart, "The next industrial revolution", The atlantic on-line, (1998).

  • Barca, S., Energy, "property, and the industrial revolution narrative", Ecol. Econ. (2010).

  • Johan Rockström et al, "Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity". Ecology and Society, (2009), Vol. 14, No. 2.

  • Planetary Boundaries. Nature Reports Climate Change, Vol. 3, pages 112-119; (October 2009).


Web- side:


  • "IEA International energy agency." world energy outlook, executive summary Accessed 2009.

www.iea.org/about/copyrigth.asp



1 "IEA International energy agency." world energy outlook, executive summary Accessed 2009. www.iea.org/about/copyrigth.asp

2 Jan De Vries, "The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution", The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 54, No. 2.

3 Barca, S., Energy, "property, and the industrial revolution narrative", Ecol. Econ. (2010).

4 Richard C. Duncan, "World Energy Production, Population Growth, and the Road to the Olduvai Gorge" Population and Environment, Vol. 22, No. 5 (May, 2001), pp. 503-522.

5 Planetary Boundaries. Nature Reports Climate Change, Vol. 3, pages 112-119; October 2009.

6 Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity. Johan Rockström et al. in Ecology and Society, Vol. 14, No. 2, Article 32; 2009.

7 William McDonugh and Michael Braungart, "The next industrial revolution", The atlantic on-line, (1998).



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