Neurology mnemonics I



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NEUROLOGY MNEMONICS I

Pin-point pupil causes

Pin-Point Pupils are due to oPioids and Pontine Pathology

 


Babinski and LMN signs: conditions exhibiting them

"D MASTS":
Diabetes
Motor neuron disease
Ataxia (friedrichs)
Subacute combined degeneration of cord
Tabo paresis
Syringobulbia

 


Peripheral neuropathies: differential

DANG THERAPIST:
Diabetes
Amyloid
Nutritional (eg B12 deficiency)
Guillain-Barre
Toxic (eg amiodarone)
Heriditary
Endocrine
Recurring (10% of G-B) Alcohol
Pb (lead)
Idiopathic
Sarcoid
Thyroid

Dementia: some common causes

DEMENTIA:
Diabetes
Ethanol
Medication
Environmental (eg CO poisoning)
Nutritional
Trauma
Infection
Alzheimer's

Vertigo: differential

VOMITS:
Vestibulitis
Ototoxic drugs
Meniere's disease
Injury
Tumor
Spin (benign positional vertigo)

Ramsay-Hunt syndrome: cause and common feature

"Ramsay Hunt":
· Etiology:
Reactivated
Herpes zoster
· Complication:
Reduced
Hearing

Stroke risk factors

HEADS:
Hypertension/ Hyperlipidemia
Elderly
Atrial fib
Diabetes mellitus/ Drugs (cocaine)
Smoking/ Sex (male)

Multiple sclerosis (MS): epidemiology

MS is a feminine title (Ms.) and is female predominant.
Show Details / Rate It
---Anonymous Contributor
 

Neuropathy: diagnosis confirmation

NEuropathy:
Nerve conduction velocity
Electromyography

Battle sign

BattlE:
Behind Ear


Neurofibromatosis: diagnostic criteria

ROLANDO:
Relative (1st degree)
Osseous fibromas
Lisch nodules in eyes
Axillary freckling
Neurofibromas
Dime size cafe au lait spots
Optic gliomas

Proximal myopathy: differential

PEACH PODS:
Polymyositis
Endocrine: hyper, hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly
Alcohol
Carcinoma
HIV infection
Periodic hypokalemic paralysis
Osteomalacia
Drugs: steroids, statins
Sarcoidosis

Dementia: reversible dementia causes

DEMENTIA:
Drugs/ Depression
Elderly
Multi-infarct/ Medication
Environmental
Nutritional
Toxins
Ischemia
Alcohol

Stroke: young patient's likely causes

7 C's:
Cocaine
Consanguinity [familial such as neurofibromatosis and von Hippel-Lindau]
Cancer
Cardiogenic embol
hyperCoagulation
CNS infection [eg: HIV conditions]
Congenital arterial lesion

Encephalitis: differential

HE'S LATIN AMERICAN:
Herpesviridae
Enteroviridae (esp. Polio)
Slow viruses (esp. JC, prions)
Syphilis
Legionella/ Lyme disease/ Lymphocytic meningoencephalitis
Aspergillus
Toxoplasmosis
Intracranial pressure
Neisseria meningitidis
Arboviridae
Measles/ Mumps/ Mycobacterium tuberculosis/ Mucor
E. coli
Rabies/ Rubella
Idiopathic
Cryptococcus/ Candida
Abscess
Neoplasm/ Neurocysticercosis
· Neurocysticercosis should be assumed with recent Latin American immigrant patient unless proven otherwise.

Head trauma: rapid neuro exam

· 12 P's:
Psychological (mental) status
Pupils: size, symmetry, reaction
Paired ocular movememts
Papilloedema
Pressure (BP, increased ICP)
Pulse and rate
Paralysis, Paresis
Pyramidal signs
Pin prick sensory response
Pee (incontinent)
Patellar relex (and others)
Ptosis
· Reevaluate patient every 8 hrs.

Neurofibromatosis: diagnositic criteria (type-1)

CAFE SPOT:
Cafe-au-lait spots
Axillary, inguinal freckling
Fibroma
Eye: lisch nodules
Skeletal (bowing leg, etc)
Pedigree/ Positive family history
Optic Tumor (glioma)

Pupillary dilatation (persistent): causes

3AM:
3rd nerve palsy
Anti-muscarinic eye drops (eg to facilitate fundoscopy)
Myotonic pupil (Holmes Adie pupil): most commonly in young women, with absent/delayed reaction to light and convergence, and of no pathological significance.

Ocular bobbing vs. dipping

"Breakfast is fastDinner is slow, both go down":
Bobbing is fast.
Dipping is slow.
In both, the initial movement is down.

Huntington's: chromosome, involvement

HUNT 4 DATE:
HUNTington's on chromosome 4, with cauDATE nucleus involvement.


Dementia: treatable causes

DEMENTIA:
Drug toxicity
Emotional (depression, anxiety, OCD, etc.)
Metabolic (electrolytes, liver dz, kidney dz, COPD)
Eyes/ Ears (peripheral sensory restrictions)
Nutrition (vitamin, iron deficiencies/ NPH [Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus]
Tumors/ Trauma (including chronic subdural hematoma)
Infection (meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, syphilis)
Arteriosclerosis and other vascular disease
 

Whipple's disease: features [for neurologists]

A WHIPPLES DOOM:
Arthralgias
Whipplei (organism)
Hypothalamic involvement
Intestinal involvement/ Intestinal biopsy required
PAS positive macrophages
PCR positivity
Lymphadenopathy
Extrapyramidal involvement
Septran treat with
Dementia
Ocular abnormalities (vertical gaze palsy)
Oculomasticatory myorhythmia
Myoclonus
 

Congenital myopathy: features

DREAMS:
Dominantly inherited, mostly
Reflexes decreased
Enzymes normal
Apathetic floppy baby
Milestones delayed
Skeletal abnormalities
 

Chorea: common causes

St. VITUS'S DANCE:
Sydenhams
Vascular
Increased RBC's (polycythemia)
Toxins: CO, Mg, Hg
Uremia
SLE
Senile chorea
Drugs
APLA syndrome
Neurodegenerative conditions: HD, neuroacanthocytosis, DRPLA
Conception related: pregnancy, OCP's
Endocrine: hyperthyroidism, hypo-, hyperglycemia

Status epilepticus: treatment

"Thank Goodness All Cerebral Bursts Dissipate":
Thiamine
Glucose
Ativan
Cerebyx
Barbiturate
Diprivan

Balint's syndrome

SOOT:
Simultagnosia
Optic ataxia
Ocular apraxia
Tunnel vision

Visual loss: persistent bilateral sudden onset visual loss differential

FLOP:
Functional
Leber's hereditary neuropathy
Occipital infarctions
Pituitary apoplexy

Perinaud's syndrome: clinical features

PERINAUD'S:
Pseudo 6th nerve palsy/ Penial region
Eyelid Retraction
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Nystagmus
Accomodation reflex present
Upward gaze palsy
Defective convergence/ Decerebrate rigidity
Skew deviation

Benidict's syndrome: site affected

Benidict's test for sugar gives red precipitate.
Similarly, Benidict's syndrome affects red nucleus.

Stroke: basic work up

The 3 P's:
Pump
Pipes
Plasma


Peripheral nervous examination

"Tall People Run-over Small Children":
Tone
Power
Reflexes
Sensation
Co-ordination/ Clonus

Alzheimer's disease: progressive phases

ABCD:
Amnesic phase (forgetting keys, leaving cooker on)
Behavioural problems (antisocial, wandering)
Cortical phase (incontinence, falls)
Decerebrate phase (return of primitive reflexes)

Hydrocephalus: Normal pressure hydrocephalus DDx

3 W's:
Wet: urinary incontinence
Wobbly: gait abnormality
Wacky: dementia, memory problems
 

Cerebellar signs

PINARD'S:
Past pointing
Intention tremor
Nystagmus
Ataxia
Rebound
Dysdiadokinesia
Slurred speech
[Note: If you haven't done Obs yet, a Pinard's is for listening to a baby's heart on mother's abdomen]

Multiple sclerosis: signs and symptoms

INSULAR:
Intention tremor
Nystagmus
Slurred speech
Uthoff's phenomenon
Lhermitte's sign
Ataxia
Rebound

Conscious change: causes

AEIOU TIPS:
Alcohol
Encephalopathy
Infection
Opioid
Uremia
Trauma
Insulin
Psychosis
Syncope

Decreased level of consciousness: metabolic causes

METABOLIC:
Major end organs (liver, kidney)
Endocrine/ Electrolytes
Toxins
Acid
Base disorders
Oxygenation
Lung (PE, pneumonia)
Infection/ Inflammatory/ Iatrogenic
Calcium

Peripheral neuropathy: differential

STAGLAND:
Sarcoid
Thyroid
Amyloid
Guillian-Barre
Lead
Alcohol
Nutritional
Drugs/ Diabetes











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