Neuro Cranial Nerves Review



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Neuro Cranial Nerves Review


Nerve

Nucleus

Exit (motor)/Entrance (sensory) Route

XII

In caudal medulla; as it moves rostrally forms hypoglossal trigone in floor of 4th ventricle

Preolivary sulcus

XI

Spinal accessory nucleus in lateral gray matter of C1-C5

Dorsal to the denticulate ligaments and into the posterior cranial fossa and into the foramen magnum; through jugular foramen

XI

Some fibers from caudal nucleus ambiguus

Through jugular foramen

X

Dorsal motor nucleus contains parasympathetics and forms vagal trigone

Near postolivary sulcus and through the jugular foramen

X

Nucleus ambiguus contains parasympathetics and motor fibers

Near postolivary sulcus and through the jugular foramen

X

Spinal Trigeminal nucleus

Sensory fibers come from superior ganglion and join spinal trigeminal tract

X

Solitary nucleus

Sensory fibers come from inferior ganglion and join the solitary tract

IX

Spinal trigeminal nucleus, sensory fibers

Sensory fibers from the superior and inferior ganglia join the spinal trigeminal tract

IX

Solitary nucleus, sensory fibers

Sensory fibers from the inferior ganglia join the solitary tract

VIII

Dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, sensory fibers

Sensory fibers from spiral ganglion enter through the pontomedullary junction at the cerebellopontine angle

VIII

Four vestibular nuclei in the upper medulla and lower pons; form vestibular area of floor of 4th ventricle; sensory fibers

Sensory fibers from the vestibular ganglion enter through the pontomedullary junction at the cerebellopontine angle

VII

Facial nucleus; motor fibers

Loop over abducens nucleus to form the facial colliculus; through the pontomedullary junction, medial to VIII;

VII

Superior salivatory nucleus; motor fibers

Through the pontomedullary junction, medial to VIII; in the nervus intermedius branch which branches into the greater petrosal and chorda tympani

VII

Solitary nucleus; sensory fibers

From the geniculate ganglion; In the nervus intermedius; Into the solitary tract

VII

Spinal trigeminal nucleus, sensory fibers

From the geniculate ganglion; In the nervus intermedius

V

Main sensory nucleus in the middle pons, sensory fibers

Through the lateral pons to the middle of the middle cerebellar peduncle

V

Rostral spinal trigeminal nucleus extends through the medulla and C1-C3 in the dorsal horn, sensory fibers

Through the lateral pons, into the spinal trigmenial tract

V

Trigeminal motor nucleus, medial to main sensory nucleus, motor fibers

Through the middle of the middle cerebellar peduncle

VI

In dorsal pons under facial colliculus

Exit ventrally at the pontomedullary junction

IV

In the caudal midbrain at the level of the inferior colliculus

Leave dorsally, all fibers cross before exiting the brainstem caudal to the inferior colliculus

III

In the dorsomedial midbrain at the level of the superior colliculus with five levels: dorsal lateral, intermediate lateral, ventral lateral, medial, and central

Exits in the interpeduncular fossa at the junction of the pons and midbrain and goes between the superior cerebellar and posterior cerebral arteries on its way to the eye

III

Edinger-Westphal at the rostral end of III nucleus

Terminate in ciliary ganglion




Nerve

Input

Laterality

XII

Cerebral motor cortex in corticobulbar pathway

Bilateral with a contralateral dominance

XII

Sensory from solitary and spinal trigeminal nuclei

Ipsilateral

XI

Corticospinal tract

Bilateral

VII

Facial nucleus receives sensory information about blink reflex from the spinal trigeminal nucleus

Bilateral

V

Axons from main sensory nucleus travel onto the ventroposterior medial nucleus of the thalamus

Contralateral

V

Axons from main sensory nucleus travel onto the dorsal trigeminothalamic tracts

Mostly ipsilateral but some contralateral

V

Axons from spinal trigeminal nucleus travel onto the VPM of the thalamus

Contralateral

V

Axons from the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus travel onto the trigeminal motor nucleus

Ipsilateral

V

Motor input from the cerebral cortex

Bilateral












Nerve

Contents

Function

XII

Alpha motor neurons

Controls tongue movement

XI

Motor neurons from C1-C5

Innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

XI

Somatic motor neurons from nucleus ambiguus

Join Vagus

X

Parasympathetic

Control of thoracic and abdominal organs

X

Motor

Innervate pharyngeal muscles

X

Sensory with cell bodies in the superior ganglion

Transmit pain, temperature and touch

X

Sensory with cell bodies in the inferior ganglion

Transmit taste from epiglottis and esophagus and chemoreceptor information from carotid body

IX

Sensory fibers with synapse in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

Transmit pain, temperature, and touch form posterior 1/3 of tongue

IX

Sensory fibers with synapse in the solitary nucleus

Baroreceptor information from carotid sinus and taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue; also mediates sensory limb of the gag reflex

VIII

Sensory fibers with cell bodies in spiral ganglion

Transmit auditory information from cochlea by innervating cochlear hair cells

VIII

Sensory fibers with cell bodies in vestibular ganglion

Transmit balance and equilibrium information from the utricles, saccule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear by innervating hair cells of these structures

VII

motor fibers with cell bodies in the facial nucleus

Innervates muscles of facial expression

VII

Motor fibers in the greater petrosal nerve

Innervates lacrimal gland and mucous glands of nasopharynx

VII

Motor fibers in the Chorda Tympani

Innervate sublingual and submandibular salivary glands

VII

Sensory fibers in the greater petrosal nerve

Taste from the palate

VII

Sensory fibers in the chorda tympani

Taste from anterior 2/3 of the tongue

VII

Sensory fibers terminating in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

Sensation to external auditory meatus

VII

Sensory fibers terminating in the facial nucleus

Mediates corneal blink reflex

V

Sensory fibers terminating in the main sensory nucleus

Discriminative touch in the face

V

Sensory fibers terminating in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

Pain and temperature in the face and the sensory limb of the blink reflex

V

Sensory fibers synapsing in the mesenchephalic trigeminal

Reflex control of chewing and proprioception for muscles of mastication

V

Motor fibers

Muscles of mastication

VI

Motor fibers

Lateral rectus

IV

Motor fibers

Superior Oblique

III

Motor fibers in the dorsal lateral subnucleus

Ipsilateral inferior rectus

III

Motor fibers in the intermediate lateral subnucleus

Ipsilateral inferior oblique

III

Motor fibers in the ventral lateral subnucleus

Ipsilateral medial rectus

III

Motor fibers in the medial subnucleus

Contralateral superior rectus

III

Motor fibers in the central subnucleus

Bilateral levator palpebrae superioris

III

Sensory fibers (parasympathetic from ciliary ganglion)

ciliary muscle (accommodation) and sphincter pupillae of iris(diameter) and efferent limb of papillary light reflex (consensual)


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