Nervous System & The 5 Senses Review



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Nervous System & The 5 Senses Review


  1. List the components of the central nervous system.


Central Nervous System (CNS)

 Composed of:

 Brain

 Spinal Cord





  1. List the components of the peripheral nervous system.


Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

 Composed of:

 Cranial Nerves (from the brain)

 Spinal Nerves (from the spinal cord)

 Ganglia (clusters of cell bodies of neurons)

 Plexuses (networks of nerves)



  1. Label the parts of a typical neuron in the diagram below. Explain the function of each part.


8

Parts of a neuron

 Cell Body

 Similar to other types of cells

 Contains a nucleus

 Dendrites

 Extensions that project from the

cell body

 Short and branching

Receive signals from other

neurons

 Transmit impulses to the cell body



 Axon

 Covered in a myelin sheath (like insulation on a wire)

 Myelin is produced by Schwann cells

 Transmit impulses away from the cell body


9Types of Neurons

 Sensory Neurons: transmit impulses to the CNS

 Somatic sensory: carry impulses from receptors in the skin, bones, muscles,

and joints

 Visceral sensory: carry impulses from the visceral organs

 Motor Neurons: transmit impulses away from the CNS

 Association neurons (interneurons): conduct impulses from sensory to motor

neuron




  1. Label the lobes of the cerebrum. Explain the function of each lobe. (Include insular in the explanation): Frontal, Occipital, Parietal, Temporal

125 Lobes

 Frontal Lobe: voluntary control of skeletal muscles; personality; intellectual

process; verbal communication

 Parietal Lobe: cutaneous and muscular sensations; understanding and utterance

of speech

 Temporal Lobe: interpretation of auditory sensations; auditory and visual memory

 Occipital Lobe: integration of movements in focusing

the eye; correlation of visual images with previous

experiences; conscious seeing

 Insular: memory; integration of other cerebral

activities

















  1. List the function of each brain structure.




  1. Cerebellum: Consists of two hemispheres Involuntary coordination of skeletal-muscle contractions within muscles, tendons, joints, and sensory organs




  1. Cerebrum: Two hemishperes connected by the corpus collosum- Responsible for higher functions



  1. Hypothalamus: cardiovascular regulation, body temperature regulation, water and

electrolyte balance, gastrointestinal activity and hunger, sleeping and wakefulness, sexual response, emotions, and control of endocrine functions through stimulation of the anterior pituitary


  1. Medulla Oblongata :Connects to spinal cord

 Makes up much of the brain stem

 Controls autonomic functions (heart rate, contraction of blood vessels, rate

and depth of breathing)


  1. Midbrain (Mesencephalon) : Short section of the brain stem

 Contains:

 Superior colliculi (visual reflexes)

 Inferior colliculi (auditory reflexes)

 Cerebral peduncles (coordinates reflexes)





  1. Pituitary : has endocrine functions




  1. Pons: Relays impulse form one region of the brain to another: Many cranial nerves originate here: Involved with regulating respiratory rate.




  1. Thalamus: relay center for all sensory impulses to cerebral cortex, except for smell.

7. Label the parts of the eye below.





  1. In the cow eye, there was a shiny layer at the back of the eye called the tapetum. What purpose does this structure serve? Do humans have one? What does this imply?

The Tapetum is responsible for night vision. Humans do not have one therefore we do not have very good night vision.





  1. What are the photoreceptors in the eye? What is the role of each?

Rods – responsible for night vision (black and white) vision


Cones responsible for daytime (color) vision

Choroid: Supplies nutrients and oxygen to the eye

Absorbs light


  1. List the functions of the following eye structures:

External muscles : Move the eye around


Retina: A thin layer of cells that convert light into nerve signals
Cornea: Works with the lens to refract light and helps the eye to focus
Lens: A clear structure that refracts light and can change in curvature
Optic Nerve: Transmits signals from the eye to the brain
Iris: The pigmented ring of muscles that change the size of the pupil
Sclera: Gives the eye its shape and protects the inner parts
Ciliary Muscles: A tiny ring of muscles that change the shape of the lens

  1. Compare and contrast the aqueous humor and vitreous humor found in the eye.

Aqueous humor found in the anterior cavity of the eye and is a watery substance.

Vitreous humor is found in the posterior cavity of the eye and is a jelly-like substance.





  1. List the steps of vision in order.




  1. Light rays pass through the pupil and hit the lens.

  2. The lens must change shape to focus light on the retina

  3. Light rays hit the photoreceptors in the retina

  4. Nerve impulses are carried along the optic nerve to the optic chiasma and to the occipital lobe of the cerebrum.



  1. What does a normal lens look like? Why does its appearance change? What do we call this condition?Biconvex structure It changes shape to focus light on the retina - (The farther away an object, the flatter the lens must become Adjustments in shape are controlled by the ciliary muscles in the ciliary body.

Cataracts causes the lens to become cloudy .


  1. Write the function of the following ear structures:

Auricle: Directs sound waves to the external auditory canal (pinna)


External auditory canal: A 2.5cm fleshy tube that fits into the bony external acoustic meatus
Tympanic membrane: Conducts sound waves to the middle ear (eardrum)
Auditory ossicles: Three small bones (hammer, anvil, & stirrup) that amplify sound waves
Auditory (Eustachian) tube: Connects the middle ear cavity to the pharynx; Drains moisture from the middle ear cavity to equalize pressure on both sides of the eardrum
Semicircular Canals: Contain receptors that are sensitive to the rotation of the head
Vestibular window: Transfers sound waves from the auditory ossicles to the cochlea
Conchlea: Contains hair cells that vibrate and send nerve impulses to the cochlear nerve


  1. List the steps for hearing in order.




  1. Sound waves are funneled by the auricle into the external auditory meatus

  2. The sound waves strike the tympanic membrane, causing it to vibrate

  3. Vibrations of the tympanic membrane are amplified as they pass through the hammer, anvil, and stirrup

  4. The vestibular window is pushed back and forth by the stirrup setting up pressure waves in the perilymph of the cochlea

  5. The pressure waves are propagated to the endolymph contained within the cochlear duct

  6. Stimulation of hair cells within the spiral organ of the cochlea causes the generation of nerve impulses in the cochlear nerve, which pass to the pons of the brain



  1. Label the following picture of the tongue with where taste buds for the different taste sensations are.




1. ___BITTER

2. ___SOUR

3. ___SALTY

4. ___SWEET



  1. Fill in the blanks below using the word bank provided.



    • Receptors for smell are located in the nasal ___MUCOSA of the superior nasal __CONCHA



    • Airborne chemicals become dissolved in the _MUCOUS LAYER lining the superolateral part of the ___NASAL CAVITY



    • The ___OLFACTORYnerve (cranial nerve I) transmits impulses related to smell



    • Sensations are conveyed along each olfactory tract to the olfactory portions of the __CERBRAL CORTEX



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