National medical university of LVIV department of therapeutic dentistry



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Practical lesson No 15
Theme: Preparing of the carious cavities of the V class (Black classification).

Short description of a theme
As the carious cavities of the V class are localized in the cervical areas within the limits of one surface of a tooth, the preparation of the cavities ia practically the same, as in case of class I.

The opening|dissection| and necrectomy of the carious cavities does not have substantial peculiarities. During the opening|dissection| it is necessary to remove all the pathologically changed enamel, preserving the healthy hard tissues. If on the surface there are two carious cavities, separated by|disjointed| the narrow area of the healthy enamel, they are united|combine| in one general|common|. After the cavity preparation has been completed, the cavity assumes the oval shaped form. The gingival wall should be throughly treated.

During preparing of cavities of the V class after Blekom it should be kept in mind as to the possibility of damaging the pulp. As a rule, the depth of a cavity does not exceed 1,5 mm. If the cavities are deeper than 1,5 mm bottom is formed protuberant.

In order to ensure the best fixation of the filling, the precise right angles are made between the walls and the bottom of the cavity, insignificant inclination|mood| of walls is sometimes assumed toward the surface of the cavity|.

A high pain|anguish| sensitivity during the cavity preparation of the V class foresees the application of different|diverse| types of anaesthesia|.

Control questions to|by| practical lesson


  1. Classification of the carious cavities according to Black.

  2. What carious cavities belong to|by| the V class?

  3. What are the stages of preparation?

  4. What instruments|tool| are necessary for the conducting of preparation?

  5. What are the elements of the carious cavity?

  6. What are the peculiarities of preparing of the carious cavities of the V class after Black.

  7. The removal of the hypertrophied papilla.

  8. Comment on the peculiarities of forming the gingival wall.

  9. Enumerate the peculiarities of forming the bottom of the carious cavity.

  10. Describe the technique of creation|making| the additional retentional points|station|.

  11. What are the peculiarities of forming the cavities of the V class after Black.



Situation tasks and test control
1. A patient appealed to|by| the doctor|physician| with plural carious affections, located on the necks of the upper incisors and canines|, the lower|bottom| canines and premolars|. Classify the revealed cavities after Black:

A. 4th class

B. 2nd class

C. 1st class

D. 3rd class

E. 5th class


2. While reviewing|examination| the 27-year old patient, the painful carious affections were found in the area of necks of 45, 44, 34 teeth. What class of the carious cavities these affections belong to?

A. 5th class

B. 2nd class

C. 3rd class

D. 4th class

E. 1st class


3. While demonstrating|show| the method of the cavity preparation of 5th class on a phantom a teacher executed|does| necrectomy|. You are to continue the treatment. Specify|indicate| the next stage.

A. Opening|dissection| of the carious cavity

B. Drug therapy

C. Forming of the carious cavity

D. Expansion|amplification| of the carious cavity

E. Creation|making| of the retention points|station|


4. You work through the technique of the cavity preparation. In the carious cavities of what class is it possible to except|exclusion| the stage of „opening|dissection| the carious cavity”?

A. 4th class

B. 2nd class

C. 3rd class

D. 5th class

E. 1st class


5. In what cases can the bottom of the carious cavity of the V class after Black be formed protuberant?

  1. Due to|from| the close location|disposition| of a pulp and the danger of opening the cavity of a tooth

  2. For better adhesion of a stopping

  3. From the cosmetic reasons

  4. Due to the|from| inconvenience of the access to|by| the cavity

  5. For preventing the spread of the cariosity


6. While forming the cavities of the V class after|after| Black the cutting off the thin edges|place| of the enamels is conducted:

  1. For the best regional adhesion of the stopping

  2. For prevention of a crack of dead parts|portion| of the enamel without the underlying dentine

  3. With a cosmetic purpose

  4. In order to the increase|rise| the mechanical|mechanics| retention of a filling

  5. B, D


7. In the location|disposition| of the carious cavity of the V class after Black is below the level of a gingival edge|place| in order to create the|making| optimal access during the preparing of the carious cavity is carried out:

  1. Amputation of gums

  2. Retraction of gums

  3. Trepanation of gums

  4. Separation of gums

  5. None of the above-mentioned|enumerate| manipulations is conducted



Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Borovskiy E.V. Therapeutic dentistry: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments.– M.: Med. Inform. agency, 2006.– 840 p.

  3. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dentistry faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.IІ.–Poltava: Divosvit, 2007.– 280 p.

  4. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.–159 p.

  5. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

Practical lesson No 16
Theme: The peculiarities of the cavity preparations of II class according to Black.

Short description of theme
Sometimes it is difficult to find|expose| out the carious cavities of II class after Black, and also to prepare through|from| the presence of adjacent|neighbouring| teeth. Foremost|first and foremost| it is necessary to create an access to|by| them, taking off the layer of intact enamel and dentine from the side of masticatory, palatal or tongue surfaces. If the neighbouring tooth is missed the access is considerably simplified and the preparation does not almost differ from conducting the manipulations in the cavities of I class.

Then the teeth are densely placed, it is necessary to disconnect them; this manipulation will help to provide the best access to the carious cavity. It is provided|secure| by the use|utillizing| of the special device – separator or cutting of contact surfaces of teeth by a separational disk (the last is applied rarely|seldom|).

If a carious cavity is placed on a contact surface higher from the line of equator, after preparing it|her| has a typical|model| rectangular form|shape|. From class I it differs only by absence of one of the walls, that requires a creation|making| of supporting elements. If its localization is below the line of equator, to be fully formed it|her| must contain|maintain| two elements: basic|main| cavity and additional ground.

The moulding of a basic|main| cavity is carried|perform| out according to general|common| rules. Special care|in particular case| should be given to preparation of a gingival wall which|what| must be at right angles to|by| the bottom of a cavity.

When the sizes|dimension| of carious cavity are sizable it is necessary to form the additional cavity. Its width must be equal to the width of a basic|main| cavity, and|but| its length is to reach the middle|mean| of the masticatory surface. In the case the sizes|dimension| of a basic|main| cavity are larger an additional ground is formed thus|on this grow|, that its length must be greater than half of the masticatory surface, and|but| a size|dimension| on a side|flank|, opposite to a basic|main| cavity must be wider, than the entrance size|dimension| of a basic|main| cavity. The depth of additional cavity must be 0,5-1 mm lower than the enamel-dentine junction|compound|.

If the medial and distal contact surfaces of premolars and molars are effected by caries simultaneously an additional ground on a masticatory surface is formed as a common for both|common|.

If the carious cavities of II class are close to each other, it is recommended to prepare them during|after| one visit.

Control questions to|by| practical lesson


  1. Classification of the carious cavities according to Black.

  2. What carious cavities belong to|by| the II class?

  3. What are the stages of preparation?

  4. What instruments|tool| are the necessary for conducting the preparation?

  5. What are the elements of the carious cavity?

  6. What are the peculiarities of the cavity preparation of II class after Black?

  7. Separation of teeth. Methods.

  8. Structure|building| of a separator. Principle of work.

  9. Cavity preparation depends on the level of their localization.

  10. Name the types of access to|by| the affected contact surface of teeth.

  11. Basic|main| cavity, determination|definition|. Features of formation.

  12. An additional cavity, determination|definition|, meaning|importance|, indications to|by| its creation|making|.

  13. Correlation of basic|main| and additional cavities as to a width and depth.

  14. What complications|complication| can arise in preparing of the carious cavities of II class after Black?



Situation tasks and test control
1. The operative|efficient| treatment of the carious cavity of III class is conducted a patient. What is the difference of the carious cavities of I and III classes depth of affection?

A. In depth defeat

B. By the sizes|dimension| of a cavity

C. By the functional group of a tooth

D. By correlation with a pulp chamber|cell|

E. By the affected layers of a dentine


2. You conduct the cavity preparation of II class in the 36th tooth according to general principles. Choose the dental drill for forming the bottom of a carious cavity.

A. Cylindrical carbid

B. Spherical diamond

C. Inverted cone-shaped hard alloy

D. Spherical hard alloy

E. Inverted cone-shaped steel


3. After performing the preparatory stages, a doctor|physician| proceeds to the preparing of a carious cavity which|what| is located on the distal surface of the 35th tooth. Specify|indicate| the way of an access to|by| it|her|.

A. Through|from| the oral surface

B. Through|from| the vestibular surface

C. Separation of a tooth by a diamond disk

D. Through|from| a gingival surface

E. Through|from| a masticatory surface


4. What is the proportion between a basic|main| and additional cavities in preparing the II class after Black?

  1. 1:2

  2. 2:1

  3. 2:3

  4. 3:1

  5. 1:3


5. The carious cavity on a distal contact surface of the 27th tooth belongs|behave| to|by|:

  1. To the III class according to Black

  2. To the I class according to Black

  3. To the II class according to Black

  4. To the IV class according to Black

  5. To the V class according to Black


6. According to Black the carious cavities belong to the II class if they are located on:

  1. Contact surfaces of canines|

  2. Buccal surface of molars|

  3. Contact surfaces of incisors

  4. Contact surfaces of premolars and molars|

  5. A, C

7. On what surfaces the medial-occlusal-distal cavities are formed?

  1. Contact surfaces with a general|common| additional site

  2. Front and back contact

  3. Occlusal and vestibular

  4. The back contact with an additional site

  5. The frontal contact with an additional site


8. On the proximal surfaces of the 35th tooth carious cavity of middle sizes|dimension|, a masticatory surface is preserved|stores|, the 36th tooth is absent|absent|. How in this case|in the case| to form a cavity?

  1. While preparing of the carious cavity it is expedient to show out it|her| on a masticatory surface

  2. To perform preparation from the side of the absent tooth without forming the additional cavity

  3. While preparing of the carious cavity it is necessary to show out it|her| on a tongue surface

  4. While preparing of the carious cavity it necessary to show out it|her| on a buccal surface

  5. While preparing of the carious cavity it is expedient to show out it|her| in a cervical area



Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Borovskiy E.V. Therapeutic dentistry: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments.– M.: Med. Inform. agency, 2006.– 840 p.

  3. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dentistry faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.IІ.–Poltava: Divosvit, 2007.– 280 p.

  4. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.–159 p.

  5. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

Practical lesson No 17
Theme: The peculiarities of cavity preparations of III class according to Black.

Short description of a theme
It should be taken into account the possibility of access to|by| the carious cavity, sizes|dimension| and degree of destruction of walls.

The absence of neighbouring|neighbouring| teeth allows to prepare a cavity within the limits of contact surface, that as a central cavity. As a rule, it|her| has a triangular form|shape| with basis|foundation|, reverse|turned| to|by| the neck, and|but| by a top – to|by| the cutting edge|place| of a tooth.

If a cavity on a contact surface is deep and considerably extended on an area, except for a basic|main| cavity it is expedient to create also an additional site.

During the cavity preparation of III class the vestibular surface of a crown of the tooth is preserved for the aesthetic purpose, even in case of absence of the underlying dentine. When the vestibular surface of a crown of the tooth is a effected by caries, all stages of cavity preparation are carried out from the side of the vestibule of the mouth, all the stages of preparing are carried|perform| out from the side of vestibule of the mouth.



Control questions to|by| practical lesson |fabric|


  1. Classification of the carious cavities according to Black.

  2. What carious cavities belong to|by| the III class?

  3. What are the stages of preparation?

  4. What instruments|tool| are necessary for conducting the cavity preparation?

  5. What are the elements of the carious cavity?

  6. Form|shape| and sizes|dimension| of the cavities of the III class.

  7. The peculiarities of forming the cervical wall.

  8. The peculiarities of forming the bottom of the carious cavity.

  9. Expedience of creation|making| of additional site, indications.

  10. The peculiarities of preparing the vestibular surface.

Situation tasks and test control
1. The operative|efficient| treatment of the patient’s carious cavity of IIIth class is conducted in a patient. What is the difference between the carious cavities of IInd and IIIrd classes?

A. By the functional group of a tooth

B. By the sizes|dimension| of a cavity

C. In depth defeat by a depth of affection

D. By correlation with a pulp chamber|cell|

E. By the affected layers of a dentine


2. Indication for the creation|making| of additional site in the cavity preparation of III class is|appear|:

  1. Affection of the oral surface

  2. Affection of the vestibular surface

  3. Difficult|difficult| access to|by| the cavity

  4. Affection of the vestibular and oral surfaces

  5. Affection of the cutting edge|place|


3. A patient complains of the aesthetical|aesthetic| defect of the frontal group of teeth on the upper jaw. Objectively: on the contact surfaces of the 11th and 21st teeth there are the carious cavities without the affection of a cutting edge|place| and corner of a crown within the limits of cloak dentine. What class according to classification of Black do they belong to|behave|?

  1. To the II class

  2. And to the I class

  3. To the IV class

  4. To the III class

  5. To the V class


4. In the 12th tooth there is a carious cavity of III class according to Black, the access is difficult|. What does the tactical scheme of preparation consist in?

  1. Trepanation of a cavity is performed through|from| a vestibular wall and its subsequent|consequent| preparation

  2. Access is created through|from| the oral surface with the subsequent|consequent| preparing of a cavity and forming the additional place on this surface

  3. Trepanation of a cavity is performed through|from| the oral wall and its subsequent|consequent| preparing

  4. All answers|reply| are correct|correct|

  5. There is no proper answer


5. A carious cavity is located on the contact distal surface of the 23rd tooth, the 24th tooth is absent. Name|indicate| the ways of the approach for creation|making| the cavity of rational form|shape|.

  1. A cavity is prepared from the side of the absent tooth and is formed of three-cornered form|shape|

  2. Access is created by trepanation of the oral surface

  3. Access is created by trepanation of a vestibular surface

  4. All answers|reply| are correct |correct|

  5. There is no proper answer



Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Borovskiy E.V. Therapeutic dentistry: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments.– M.: Med. Inform. agency, 2006.– 840 p.

  3. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dentistry faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.IІ.–Poltava: Divosvit, 2007.– 280 p.

  4. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.–159 p.

  5. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

Practical lesson No 18
Theme: The peculiarities of preparing of the carious cavities of IV class after Black.

Short description of a theme
Preparing is conducted almost just like the cavities of III class, but basic|main| and additional cavities are always created practically. It is predefined that during the stopping it is necessary to restore the corner of a cutting edge|place| which puts|stage| the promoted|raise| requirements as to|by| fixing in them the restoration material|fabric|.

The additional cavity of different|diverse| form|shape| (trapezoidal|, as a tail of a swallow) is created on the palatal or tongue surfaces of a tooth. Its sizes|dimension| must be not less one third of a palatal (tongue) surface of a tooth. The width of ground must equal to the width of a basic|main| cavity, while the bottom is to be |but| disposed some what below from enamel-dentine junction|compound|.

For the best fixator of a filling material|fabric| in the cavities of the IV class are widely applied the parapulpal|, anchor posts|, other additional strong points which|what| create in the specially prepared openings, and also in the areas of walls of a cavity.

Control questions to|by| practical lesson |fabric|


  1. Classification of the carious cavities according to Black.

  2. What carious cavities do belong to|by| the IV class?

  3. What are the stages of preparation?

  4. What instruments|tool| are necessary for conducting of preparing?

  5. What are the elements of the carious cavity?

  6. Name|call| the surfaces of incisors and canines.|fang|

  7. What carious cavities belong to the IV class after Black?

  8. What are the variants of localization of the carious cavities of the IV class after Black.

  9. Describe the preparing of basic|main| and additional cavities, form|shape|, sizes|dimension|.

  10. Comment on the methods of improvement of fixing of the stopping.



Situation tasks and test control
1. The knowledge on topographical anatomy of a tooth is necessary for the successful treatment of caries. Name the number of surfaces of a crown of the 12th tooth:

A. 6


B. 3

C. 2


D. 5

E. 4
2. According to Black, the carious cavities belong to the IV class|beha:



  1. Located on the aproximal surfaces of incisors and canines without violation of safety of a cutting edge|place| and corner of a crown of a tooth

  2. Located on the aproximal surfaces of premolars|

  3. Located on the aproximal surfaces of incisors and canines with violation of safety of cutting edge|place| and corner of a crown of a tooth

  4. Located in the cervical areas of incisors and canines|

  5. Located in the cervical areas of premolars|

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