National medical university of LVIV department of therapeutic dentistry



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Control questions to|by| practical lesson


  1. What is the saliva mouth liquid?

  2. What is the composition of the saliva?

  3. What enzymes serve as integral parts of the saliva. Comment on their action|act|?

  4. What is meant under the term „buffer capacity of the saliva”?

  5. What are the protective properties|virtue| of the saliva?

  6. Is it possible to influence on the quantitative composition of mouth liquid?

  7. Is it possible to influence on qualitative composition of mouth liquid?

  8. Name|call| the large|great| salivary glands of the oral cavity, and also the location|seat| of output of their ducts|channel|.

  9. Into what secretory sections the salivary glands are divided depending on the character|nature| of their secret?

  10. What is the composition of the secret of saliva of parotid salivary glands?

  11. What is the composition of the secret of saliva of submandibular| salivary glands?

  12. What is the composition of the secret of saliva of sublingual salivary glands?

  13. What are the functions of saliva?

  14. What is meant under the term ”salivary bodies”?

  15. What hormones and hormone-like| substances are produced by large|great| salivary glands and what are their function|act|?


Situation tasks and test control
1. At what|what| рН| of the saliva the optimal conditions are created for reminerralization of hard tissues of the tooth?

A. 7-8


B. 6-7

C. 5-6


D. 8-9
2. Parotin, which is secreted by salivary glands, belongs to|by| such matters as:

A. Rekteriv

B. Ekskretiv

C. Secrets

D. Inkretiv
3. What is the composition|storage| of the secret which is produced by the parotid salivary glands?

A. Serous

V. Mucous

C. Mixed
4. What is the composition|storage| of the secret which is produced by the submandibular| salivary glands?

A. Mucous

B. Serous

C. Mixed (serous-mucous)
5. What types of final sections are in the sublingual| salivary gland?

A. Albuminous

B. Albuminous and mixed

C. Mucous

D. Mixed
6. In what pathological conditions|figure| the secretion of saliva increases?

A. In case of duodenal ulcer

B. In case of regular taking of depressants

C. In|sugar| diabetes mellitus

D. In anaemias
7. In what pathological conditions|figure| the secretion of saliva is reduced?

A. In all below -mentioned

B. In case of the depression

C. In case of fever

D. In case of uremia
8. What salivary glands in the state|figure| of rest secrete| the largest amount of saliva?

A. Small salivary glands

B. Parotid glands

C. Sublingual glands

D. Submandibular glands
9. Stenon’s duct is the excretory duct of:

A. Small salivary glands

B. Parotid glands

C. Submandibular salivary glands

D. Small salivary glands of the lips
10. Varton’s duct is the it is excretory duct of:

A. Small salivary glands of the lips

B Sumandibular salivary glands

C. Sublingual salivary glands

D. Parotid salivary glands
11. Bartolin’s duct is the excretory duct of:

A. Small salivary glands of the lips

B. Parotid salivary glands

C. Sublingual salivary glands

D. Submandibular salivary glands
12. What is the amount of calcium in the saliva?

A. 1,2 mmol/l

B. 0,5 mmol/l

C. 1,0 mmol/l

D. 2,0 mmol/l
13. What must be the level of рН| in the saliva in order to provoke demineralization of the| enamel?

A|but|. 6,1

B. 5,9

C. 5,5


D. 6,3
14. What type of immunoglobulins| is not produced by the salivary glands?

A|but|. Ig| E

B. Ig| A

C. Ig| N


D. Ig| G

Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Pre-clinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.(Lviv, 2002.) 159 p.

  3. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.( Lviv, 2003.) 98 p.

  4. Dmitrieva AA. Therapeutic dentistry|.(M.: Medpress-inform, 2003.) 896 p.

  5. Pediatric dentistry (Editor prof|. L.O. Khomenko).( K.: Book plus, 1999.)524 p.

  6. Tsarinskiy M.M. Therapeutic dentistry |.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2008.– 508 p.

  7. Therapeutic dentistry (Editor Yu.M. Maksimovskyj).– M.: Medicine, 2002.– 640 p.

  8. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry | /E.A. Skorikova, V.A. Volkov, N.P. Bazhenova, N.V. Lapina, I.V. Erechev.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2002.– 640 p.



Practical lesson|occupation| No 6
Theme: Dental formula. Signs of teeth. Clinico-anatomical features of incisors of the upper and lower jaws.
Short description of a theme
The teeth of a human being can be divided into several groups according to the shape|shape|, function, location|disposition| and the number|quantity| of roots.

A permanent|constant| bite consists of 32 teeth. Dental system can be divided into 4 quadrants. An examination starts from the right upper|top| quadrant, moving clockwise.

In a chart corresponding to Zsigmondy| the permanent teeth are marked by|designated| the Arabic figures, the central incisor corresponds to number 1, wisdom tooth (to the number 8, temporal teeth are marked the Roman ciphers. For denotation|designation| of separate teeth, draw|paint| the proper part|portion| of segment and inscribe|scribe| the number of tooth.

Permanent|constant| bite


R


8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

L


8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Deciduous bite


R


V


IV


III


II


I


I


II


III


IV


V

L


V


IV


III


II


I


I


II


III


IV


V


The international chart of FDI| has been introduced in 1970. This is a simple two-digit number| chart, where quadrants are numbered by turns follows: the upper|top| right quadrant (number 1, upper-left 2, lower|bottom| left 3 and lower|bottom| right 4 (in permanent|constant| bite). Quadrants of deciduous teeth are marked|designated| from 5 to 8. Teeth are numbered by turns from a middle line. The first number marks a quadrant, second the appropiate tooth.

R


18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

L


38

37

36

35

34

33

32

31

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48



R


55

54

53

52

51

61

62

63

64

65

L


85

84

83

82

81

71

72

73

74

75

The teeth of the same name of the right and left parts|portion| of dental arc differ in structure|building|. There are four signs due to which|what| it is possible to define the belonging of a tooth either to|by| the right or left side: the angle of the crown, curvature of the crown, deviation of the root, approximal| surface.

The sign of the angle of the crown: an angle, formed by a cutting edge and middle surface, is more sharp, than an angle, formed by a cutting edge and distal surface of the tooth. The same rule is observed for the teeth of masticatory group.

The sign of the curvature of the crown is characterized by greater curvature of the medial part of vestibular surface of the crown and less convexity of distal part of vestibular surface. This sign is more expressed determined at the review of tooth from the side of masticatory surface or cutting edge.

Sign of the root: deviation of longitudinal axis of the root from the middle line of the crown laterally for incisors and canines, premolars and molars  in distal direction; in other words, the apexes of the roots of frontal group of teeth are deviated from a middle line laterally, in masticatory group of teeth roots have the distal deviation.

Sign of approximal surface  approximal medial surface of the crown is always wider as compared with approximal distal surface.

Incisors (dentes incisivi). Incisors are eight teeth located in the middle of dental rows. They get into the first contact with meal, executing the first phase of mastication  cutting offs. The crowns of teeth are located almost in the frontal plane and in accordance with a function have a form of shoulder-blades which end with a cutting edge. Incisors have one root with one canal (lower lateral incisors in a 40% of choices have two canals). Roots are compressed in mesio-distal direction. In each jaw 2 central and 2 lateral incisors can be distinguished.

The upper medial incisor  is the biggest from the group, with a shovel-shoped crown. 3 denticles are distinguished on the cutting edge which pass to the vestibular surfaces rollers is barely shown in 3 (mamelones). Palatal surface has a triangular in shape and is concave. Two longitudinal rollers are situated from both sides, they thicken gradually towards a neck, meeting at the middle line of a tooth to form the so-called dental tubercle (tuberculum dentale). A pit appears in the place of rollers fusion. The lateral surfaces have a form of wedge which narrows towards a cutting edge. Root is cone-shaped. There are longitudinal furrows on the medial and lateral surfaces of the root. The cavity of tooth corresponds to the the external form. On a transversal cut it has a form of a triangular crack. The cavity gradually grow narrow in the direction towards the root and continues in relatively wide and straight root canal.

The sign of the curvature of the crown and the sign of the angle of the crown are well expressed in the central upper incisors.

The upper lateral incisors are smaller in size than central upper incisors. Their vestibular surface is convex. Palatal surface possesses a triangular forn and is concave. Lateral rollers are well expressed. Near the neck of the tooth they form a tubercle, with a blind pit in front of them (foramen caecum). Lateral angle is more round than central one. A root is compressed in mesio-distal direction and on a transversal cut has an oval form, furrows are marked on each side. Lateral upper incisors have well expressed signs of the angle and the curvature of the crown.

The lower medial incisor  is the smallest one in the group of incisors. A crown is as a narrow incisor. A root is strongly compressed in mesio-distal direction and has a sharp apex. On both surfaces of the root longitudinal furrows are evident. On a distal surface a furrow is expressed better, what allows to determine the belonging of the.tooth to a certain side, as ordinary signs of teeth are not expressed. The cavity of tooth has the appearance of triangular crack which is gradually continued to the canal.

The lower lateral incisor is not a great difference from the lower medial incisor. It has to some extent better expressed signs of teeth. In 60% cases the root canals have a shape of the root, I-st type (one root canal through all the length of the root), in 35% cases  II-nd type (two-root canals which are opened in one point at the apex) and 5%  III-rd type (2 root canals are opened by two separate apex openings).




Control questions to|by| practical lesson |occupation|


  1. What is meant under the term „the sign of an angle of the crown”?

  2. What is the sign of the root?

  3. What is the sign of the curvature of the crown?

  4. Give the definition of the term „the approximal| surface sign”?

  5. What is the role of incisors in the process of mastication?

  6. Describe the structure|building| of the upper medial incisor.

  7. Describe the anatomical features of the upper lateral incisor.

  8. Describe the structure|building| of the lower|bottom| central incisor.

  9. Describe the anatomical features of the lower|bottom| lateral incisor.

  10. What is the structure|building| of the root canals of the lower|bottom| incisors?

  11. What is the structure|building| of the root canals of the upper incisors?

  12. How are the teeth of the permanent|constant| bite maked in the |designated| Zsigmondy scheme |?

  13. How are the teeth of the temporal bite marked in a chart for Zsigmondy|?

  14. How are teeth of the permanent|constant| dentition marked according to the international chart of FDI|?

  15. How are teeth of the deciduous|constant| dentition marked according to the international chart of FDI|?

Situation tasks and test control
1. Incisor of shovel-shaped| form|shape|, there are 3 tubercles|knoll| on his|its| cutting edge|place|. A vestibular surface is protuberant, the tongue surface is concave, triangular in shape|shape|. The signs of corner and curvature of crown are clearly marked. One root and one root canal. What type of tooth is it?

A. The upper medial incisor

B. The upper lateral incisor

C. The lower|bottom| medial| incisor

D. The lower|bottom| lateral| incisor
2. Incisor is of small size |shape|. A root is compressed into medio-distal| direction, on the lateral surfaces ( longitudinal furrows. The signs of corner, curvature of the crown and root are insignificantly expressed. Define, what type of tooth is it.

A. The lower lateral| incisor

B. The upper medial| incisor

C. The upper|top| lateral| incisor

D. The lower|bottom| medial| incisor
3. Incisor is medium-sized, the vestibular surface is convex A lateral| corner is well rounded. The tongue surface is concave with lateral rollers which|what| form a hump near the neck ||hill|. At the front|ahead| from it there is a blind pit|hole|. All of signs of belonging of teeth are expressed. Define, what type of tooth is it.

A. The lower lateral| incisor

B. The upper medial| incisor

C. The upper|top| lateral| incisor

D. The lower|bottom| medial| incisor
4. Incisor is of a small size|dimension|, with the chisel-shaped crown|shape|. A lip|labial| surface is insignificantly convex. The tongue surface is concave in vertical direction. A root is compressed on both sides. The signs of teeth are not expressed, belonging to|by| that or other sides is determined after a furrow on the lateral| surface of the root. Define, what type of tooth is it.

A. The lower lateral| incisor

B. The upper medial| incisor

C. The upper|top| lateral| incisor

D. The lower|bottom| medial| incisor
5. Indicate the location of the equator of the central incisor of the upper|top| jaw.

A. Between |border| the middle and the neck| third

B. Exactly on the middle|mean| of the tooth crown

C. On the verge of the middle and cutting third of the crown

D. It is not determined in this tooth
6. What form of incisors are most variable| after a form|shape|, and|but| on the degree of reduction occupy|borrow| the second place|seat| in to the dento-alveolar| to the system of man, yielding|renounces| only third permanent|constant| molar|?

A. The lower lateral| incisor

B. The upper medial| incisor

C. The upper|top| lateral| incisor

D. The lower|bottom| medial| incisor
7. What are mamelones|?

A. The lateral crests| on the palatal surface of incisors

B. Longitudinal rollers|, located on the vestibular surface of incisors

C. Cervical belt in the neck| area of incisors on the palatal surface

D. The interchange|alternation| of deepenings and cavities|hollow| on the surface of enamel, which|what| appear at crossing of lines of Rettsius with the surface of enamel
8. Name the incisor in which idenfication signs of the tooth are hardly distinguishable, and|but| belonging to|by| the certain|definite| side is possible only due to a furrow on the distal surface of the root?

A. The lower lateral| incisor

B. The upper medial| incisor

C. The upper|top| lateral| incisor

D. The lower|bottom| medial| incisor
9. Name the sign of the root typical for incisors:

A. The deviation of the longitudinal ax of the root from a medial line, lateral|

B. The deviation of the longitudinal ax of the root from a medial line, distal||

C. The deviation of the longitudinal ax of root from a medial line, medial

D. The apexes|top| of the roots of frontal group of teeth do not have certain|definite| inclination|mood| in any|some| direction
10. What structure|building| of the root canals of the lower|bottom| incisors according to the statistical data is found more often

A. One-root canal located centrally

B. Two root canals which|what| are opened in one apex|top| opening

C. Two root canals, located in the oral and vestibular directions, that end with the separate apex|top| openings

D. One root canal which divides and ends with two separate apex|top| openings

11. In what sequence the examination of the dentition is conducted?

A|but|. From the right upper|top| quadrant to move counter-cloakwise

B. From the left upper|top| quadrant to move clockwise

C. From the lower|bottom| right quadrant to move counter-cloakwise

D. From the right upper|top| quadrant to move clockwise
12. How is the permanent|constant| second premolar| of the upper|top| jaw marked|designated| on the left side in Zsigmondy’ scheme|?

А. V

В. 5

C. 5

D. 4
13. How is the temporal first molar| of the lower|bottom| jaw marked|designated| on the righ side|affair| in a chart of Zsigmondy|?

А. 6

В. IV

C. IV

D. 4
14. How is the permanent|constant| second molar| of the lower|bottom| jaw marked|designated| on the left according to the international scheme of FDI|?

A|but|. 7

B. 47

C. 37


D. 75
15. How many root canals are there in 43-rd tooth?

A. 2


B. 3

C. There is no precise answer

D. Two, that begin with general

E. Equal to the number of roots


16. In order to succeed in the treatment of dental caries, the profound knowledge of the topographical anatomy are necessary. Specify|indicate| the number|quantity| of surfaces of the crown of the 12th tooth

A. 2


B. 3

C. 4


D. 5

E. 6


Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.– 159 p.

  3. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

  4. Dmitrieva AA. Therapeutic dentistry|.– M.: Medpress-inform, 2003.– 896 p.

  5. Pediatric dentistry (Editor prof|. L.O. Khomenko).– K.: Book plus, 1999.– 524 p.

  6. Tsarynskiy M.M. Therapeutic dentistry |.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2008.– 508 p.

  7. Therapeutic dentistry (Editor Yu.M. Maksimovskyj).– M.: Medicine, 2002.– 640 p.

  8. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry | /E.A. Skorikova, V.A. Volkov, N.P. Bazhenova, N.V. Lapina, I.V. Erechev.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2002.– 640 p.

Practical lesson|occupation| No 7
Theme: Clinico-anatomical features of canines of the upper and lower jaws.

Short description of a theme
Canines (dentes canini). Canines are characterized by a wedge-shaped crown and a large single root. Their function is to tear into pieces the dense, hard parts of food during the first phase of masticatory process.

Canines of the upper|top| and lower|bottom| jaws have a cone-shaped form|shape| and are|appear| the most developed among the one-root teeth. A cutting edge|place| is formed by two segments, which meet under an angle forming a cutting cusp|hill| the medial line of which|what| is shorter than lateral one.| Vestibular|labial| surface is convex and divided into 2 facets:| (smaller (medial|) and greater (lateral|) by slightly pronounced roller. On a palatal surface between three rollers|, start|whstartiing from a dental cusp|hill|, two recesses can be distinguished. Contact surfaces have a triangle form|shape|. The root is well developed, cone-shaped|shape|, slightly compressed on both sides. Signs of an angle and a curvature of the crown are clearly marked.

Canines|fang| of the lower|bottom| jaw are smaller than the upper ones|less| |top|. Vestibular surface is convex with slightly expressed roller, that is why|that is why| medial and lateral segments are unclear. The surface directed orally is concave with an expressed tubercle|hill|. There are noticeable furrows on the lateral surfaces of the root.

Control questions to|by| practical lesson |occupation|


  1. What is the role of canines| in the process of mastication?

  2. Describe the anatomical structure|building| of canines| of the upper|top| jaw.

  3. Describe the structure|building| of canines| of the lower|bottom| jaw.

  4. What anatomical peculiarities are typical|character| for the system of root canals of the upper|top| canines|?

  5. What anatomical peculiarities are typical|character| for the system of root canals of the lower|top| canines |?

  6. Sign of a curvature of the crown.

  7. Sign of the corner of the crown.

  8. Sign of the deviation of the root.

  9. Name the sign that confirms that due to the similar features the exact tooth belongs to canines.

  10. Describe the structure|building| of the surface of the crown of the tooth of the upper|top| canine|fang|.

  11. At what period the laying and eruption| of the upper|top| canines| occurs?

  12. At what period the laying and eruption | of the lower|bottom| canines| happens?

  13. What nervous fibres and blood vessels are responsible for the innervation and blood supply of the upper|top| canines|?

  14. What nervous fibres and blood vessels are responsible for the innervation and blood supply of the lower|bottom| canines|?



Situation tasks and test control
1. This tooth is the most developed among the teeth with one root due to its cone-shaped crown|shape|. There are 2 faces| on the vestibular surface (medial and distal|. On the oral surface there are two recesses. A root is well developed of cone-shaped form|shape|, compressed in mesiodistal| direction. Define, what tooth is mentioned.

A. The upper|top| canine|fang|

B. The lower canine

C. The central incisor of the upper|top| jaw

D. The first premolar| of the upper|top| jaw
2. At what age does the eruption of the upper|top| canines| occur?

A. 11-13 years

B. 13-14 years

C. 9-10 years

D. 7-8 years
3. What nerve is responsible for the|secure| innervation of the upper|top| canines|?

A. n. alveolaris| superior| medius|

B. nn|. alveolaris| superiores| anteriores|

C. nn|. alveolaris| superiores| posteriores|

D. all of the above-mentioned nerves are involved
4. Through what arteries is the blood supply| of the upper|top| canines| carried out|from|?

A. nn|but|. alveolaris| inferiores| anteriores|

B. nn|but|. alveolaris| superiores| posteriores|

C. nn|but|. alveolaris| inferiores| posteriores|

D. nnd|but|. alveolaris| superiores| anteriores|
5. What anatomical elements fail to be determined on the surface of the upper|top| canine|fang|?

A. Palatal tubercle|hill|

B. Cutting tubercle

C. Medial and distal tubercles |

D. Additional distal tubercle |hill|
6. What symbol is used to mark the upper|top| right canine|fang| after the international chart of FDI|?

A. 23


B. 13

C. 44


D. 33

E. 26
7. At what age does the eruption| of the lower|bottom| canines| take place?

A. 8-9 years

B. 9-10 years

C. 10-12 years

D. 11-13 years

E. 13-14 years
8. Name the root of thet tooth which is|appear| the longest among all the roots of the dentition, grown to 16-18 mm| in length?

A. The first upper|top| premolar|

B. The upper|top| central incisor

C. The upper|top| canine|fang|

D. The lower canine

E. The first premolar|


9. What form|shape| does the root of the upper|top| canine|fang| possess on the transversal section?

A. Round


B. Oval

C. Figue-of-eight

D. Crack-shaped

E. Conical


10. Name the sign that confirms that due to similar features, the exact tooth belongs to|character| canines|?

A. Sign of curvature of a crown

B. Sign of the corner of a crown

C. Sign of the root

D. All of signs are well expressed

E. All signs are badly expressed


11. How is the lower right canine marked according to the international scheme of FDI|?

A. 43


B. 33

C. 3


D. 13

E. 23
12. What is еру number of the root canals in the lower|bottom| canines|?

A There is only one canal in all cases|accident|

B. In 94% cases|accident| (1 root canal, while|but| in 6% two canals)

C. There are 2 root canals in all of cases|accident|

D. In 55% cases|accident| (1 root canal, while|but| in 45% – two canals)



Reference literature


    1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Dyvosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

    2. Atlas|satin| of microanatomy| of organs of oral cavity of /LA. Lutsik, V.F. Makeev, A.M. Yashchenko, O.E. Zavadka, Yu.V. Makeeva, Yu.Ya. Kryvko.– Lviv: Nautilius, 1999.– 208 p.

    3. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.– 159 p.

    4. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

    5. Dmitrieva AA. Therapeutic dentistry|.– M.: Medpress-inform, 2003.– 896 p.

    6. Pediatric dentistry (Editor prof|. L.O. Khomenko).– K.: Book plus, 1999.– 524 p.

    7. Tsarynskiy M.M. Therapeutic dentistry |.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2008.– 508 p.

    8. Therapeutic dentistry (Editor Yu.M. Maksymovskyj).– M.: Medicine, 2002.– 640 p.

    9. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry | /E.A. Skorikova, V.A. Volkov, N.P. Bazhenova, N.V. Lapina, I.V. Erechev.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2002.– 640 p.



Practical lesson|occupation| No 8
Theme: Clinico-anatomical features of structure of premolars of the upper and lower jaws.

Short description of a theme
Premolars (dentes premolares)  teeth the basic function of which is grinding and squashing of meal. All of the lateral teeth possess masticatory surfaces, on which tubercles are located – buccal and lingual.

The first upper premolar is characterized by the crown of prismatic form, a buccal surface is always wider from a lingual, the diameter of the crown is larger toward buccal-lingual direction. A cheek surface is protuberant (the signs of curvature of the crown are clearly marked), passes to the lateral surface, forming well-rounded corners.

In the first upper|top| premolar| all the signs are well expressed and helpful in determining the belonging of teeth to|by| the right or left half of the jaw.

The second upper premolar is similar to the first, but its crown is somewhat smaller. Both cusps of masticatory surface are equally developed. The tooth has one cone-shaped root, with the lateral surfaces compressed on both sides. Sometimes there is a partial split near an apex.

The first lower premolar has a rounded form of the crown, narrowed to some extent in buccal direction. There are two cusps on a masticatory surface: large, somewhat inclined in the cavity of the mouth (buccal), and small  (lingual). Cusps near the front and back surfaces are united by the enamel rollers. The same roller sometimes lies from the middle of the cheek cusp to the tongue and then two pits appear from its sides.

The second lower premolar. The crown of the tooth is rounded. Due to the greater development of the tongue cusp it is larger than the crown of the first premolar. A masticatory surface has two identically developed cusps, on each side between them there are enamel rollers and a deep furrow. A buccal surface does not differ from the anatomic surface of the first premolar, contact ones are of greater size, protuberant and gradually pass to the lingual surface.



Control questions to|by| practical lesson |occupation|


  1. What is the role of premolars| in the process of mastication?

  2. Describe the structure|building| of the crown of the tooth of the first premolar| of the upper|top| jaw.

  3. What anatomical features are typical|character| for the system of root canals of the first premolars| of the upper|top| jaw?

  4. Describe the structure|building| of the crown of the tooth of the second premolar| of the upper|top| jaw.

  5. What anatomical features are typical|character| for the system of root canals of the second premolars| of the upper|top| jaw?

  6. Describe the structure|building| of the crown of the tooth of the first premolars| of the lower|bottom| jaw.

  7. What anatomical features are typical|character| for the system of root canals of the first premolars| of the lower|bottom| jaw?

  8. Describe the structure|building| of the crown of the tooth of the second premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw.

  9. What anatomic features are typical|character| for the system of root canals of the second premolars of the lower|bottom| jaw?

  10. Reverse sign of curvature of the crown and its|its| role in the process of mastication.

  11. What anatomical elements does the occlusal surface of premolars| consist of|from|.

  12. At what age a laying and eruption| of the upper|top| premolars takes place|?

  13. At what age a laying and eruption| of the lower|bottom| premolars occurs|?



Situation tasks and test control
1. How are the matural depressions on the masticatory surfaces of the molars called?

A. First premolar| of the upper|top| jaw

B. Second premolar| of the upper|top| jaw

C. First premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw

D. Second premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw
2. For which|what| of these teeth a split of the root is typical?

A. First premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw

B. First premolar| of the upper|top| jaw

C. Upper|top| canine|fang|

D. Second premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw
3. A tooth has the oral-shaped crown|shape|. A vestibular surface is protuberant, slighty marked longitudinal roller|, a contact surface is protuberant. There are cusps|hill| of identical size|value| on a masticatory surface. One root, cone-shaped, oblate in mediastinal| direction. What type of tooth is it?

A. First premolar| of the upper|top| jaw

B. Second premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw

C. First premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw

D. Second premolar| of the upper|top| jaw
4. Premolar is the smallest in the group. A crown is rounded, there are two cusps|hill| on a masticatory surface: the buccal more than the lingual, they are divided by a small furrow, on front and back surfaces the cusps are|hill| connected by rollers|. A root is direct, some compressed in mediastinal| direction. What is it a tooth?

A. First lower|bottom| premolar|

B. First upper|top| premolar|

C. Second lower|bottom| premolar|

D. Second upper|top| premolar|
5. Which|what| of these teeth possess 2 root canals more frequently?

A. Second premolar| of the upper|top| jaw

B. First premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw

C. First premolar| of the upper|top| jaw

D. Second premolar| of the lower|bottom| jaw
6. At what age the eruption of the lower|bottom| first molars| occurs?

A. 10-11 years

B. 12-13 years

C. 9-10 years

D. 8-9 years
7. Specify|indicate|, what nerve provides|secure| innervation of the upper|top| premolars|.

A.| alveolaris| superiores| anteriores|

B. alveolaris| superior| medius|

C. |alveolaris| superiores| posteriores|

D. all of the above-stated nerves are involved
8. At what age the eruption of the second upper|top| premolars| occurs?

A. 10-11 years

B. 9-10 years

C. 11-12 years

D. 12-14 years
9. At what age the eruption of the first upper|top| premolars| occurs?

A. 10-11 years

B. 8-9 years

C. 9-10 years

D. 11-12 years
10. Topographo-anatomical differences of the pulp chambers in the 15th and 16th teeth:

A. In the curvature of the palatal wall

B. Appearance|ledge| on a vestibular wall

C. In the form|shape| of medial| wall

D. In the form|shape| of distal| wall

E. In the number of the pulp horns on the root of the pulp chamber|cell|


11. A doctor|physician| anaesthetized rami| alveolares| of the 2-nd branch of n.trigeminus and extracted the tooth which|what| has two roots. Name the type of the tooth?

A. First incisor

B. Second incisor

C. Camne|fang|

D. First premolar|

E. First molar|


12. What signs of tooth belonding is typical for the second upper|top| premolars|?

A. Reverse sign of the curvature of crown

B. Direct sign of curvature of the crown

C. Sign of a root

D. Direct sign of the curvature of the crown, sign of the root and corner of the crown
13. At what age the eruption of the lower|bottom| second premolars| occurs?

A. 8-9 years

B. 9-10 years

C. 11-12 years

D. 12-13 years

E. 13-14 years


14. How is the second lower|bottom| premolar| on the left marked, according to the international scheme of FDI|?

A. V


B. 35

C. 25


D. 45

E. IV


Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Dyvosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Atlas|satin| of microanatomy| of organs of oral cavity of /L.A. Lutsyk, V.F. Makeev, A.M. Yashchenko, O.E. Zavadka, Yu.V. Makeeva, Yu.Ya. Kryvko.– Lviv: Nautilius, 1999.– 208 p.

  3. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.– 159 p.

  4. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

  5. Dmitrieva AA. Therapeutic dentistry|.– M.: Medpress-inform, 2003.– 896 p.

  6. Pediatric dentistry (Editor prof|. L.O. Khomenko).– K.: Book plus, 1999.– 524 p.

  7. Tsarynskiy M.M. Therapeutic dentistry |.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2008.– 508 p.

  8. Therapeutic dentistry (Editor Yu.M. Maksymovskyj).– M.: Medicine, 2002.– 640 p.

  9. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry | /E.A. Skorikova, V.A. Volkov, N.P. Bazhenova, N.V. Lapina, I.V. Erechev.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2002.– 640 p.



Practical lesson|occupation| No 9
Theme: Clinico-anatomical features of the structure of molars of the upper and lower jaws.

Short description of a theme
Molars (dentes molares  from лат. millstones). Large buccal teeth are used to grind hard food. Crown is of large size, with the precise outlines of the masticatory surface. In the upper molars there are three roots, in the lower ones – two roots.. The size of these teeth gradually diminishes from the first to the third.

The first upper molar has a crown of a diamond-shaped form, elongated in the anterior-posterior direction, a masticatory surface is diamond-shaped. Four cusps (two buccal and two palatal) of masticatory surface are separated by H-like furrow. A cheek surface is protuberant, has the well expressed sign of the curvature of the crown, the back is more convex, but as to the sizes the front is greater than the back one.

The first upper|top| molar| has three well – developed roots: two buccal (medial| and distal|) and one palatal. The shortest|brief| root is buccal-distal|. Well-developed buccal roots are flattened out from the front to the|ahead| back|backwards|. A palatal root has a cylindrical form|shape|. All four signs of a tooth are well expressed.



The second upper molar. A form of the crown, as well as the form of masticatory surface, may be of four types.

The third upper molar possesses a different form and size. As a rule, the crown has three cusps, but may have more. The number of roots also varies from one to four or five.

The first lower molar – is the largest among the molars of the lower jaw. A masticatory surface is similar to the cone, with two well-expressed furrows on it. The buccal surface of a tooth is convex and the well-marked sign of curvature of the crown, while the lingual is small and lower.

A tooth has two roots (medial| and distal|, which|what| are bent backward|backwards|. All the signs of differences of the teeth are well expressed).

The pulp chamber|cell| is located on the cervical part|portion| of the crown and on the area of the neck. It passes|turn| through|from| furcation| of the roots and extends in root canals, the one of which|what| is well accessible, located in the distal| and two (medial-buccal| and mesio-lingual|) in the medial| root.

The second lower molar is smaller than the first, but the same form. A masticatory surface has 4 cusps, separated by a cruciform furrow. Very rarely there are 5 cusps. A tooth has 2 roots - distal and medial, rarely they are fused. The signs of the root are well expressed.

The third lower molar belongs to the group of reduced teeth and has different variations. A tooth is subjected to the rule of diminishing of size. A crown keeps the type of crowns of the lower teeth of this group. Sometimes there are few underdeveloped roots. The pulp chamber of the lower wisdom tooth varies in shape, which depends on the form of the crown; canals more frequent 3: one distal and two medial.

Control questions to|by| practical lesson |occupation|


  1. What is the role of molars| in the process of mastication?

  2. Describe the features of anatomical structure|building| of the first upper|top| molars|.

  3. What features of structure|building| of root canals are characteristic|character| for the first upper|top| molars|?

  4. Describe the features of anatomical structure|building| of the second upper|top| molars|.

  5. What features of structure|building| of root canals are characteristic|character| for the second upper|top| molars|?

  6. Describe the features of anatomic structure|building| of the third upper|top| molars|.

  7. What features of structure|building| of root canals are characteristic|character| for the third upper|top| molars|?

  8. Describe the features of anatomical structure|building| of the first lower|bottom| molars|.

  9. What features of structure|building| of root canals are characteristic|character| for the first lower|bottom| molars|?

  10. Describe the features of anatomical structure|building| of the second lower|bottom| molars|.

  11. What features of structure|building| of root canals are characteristic|character| for the second lower|bottom| molars|?

  12. Describe the features of anatomical structure|building| of the third lower|bottom| molars|.

  13. What features of structure|building| of root canals are typical|character| for the third lower|bottom| molars|?

  14. What is meant under the term “tubercle of Carabelli?



Situation tasks and test control
1. What is the name|call| the natural depressions on the masticatory surfaces of the molars|?

A. Blind pits|hole| (fossa| caecum|)

B. Blind foramen (foramen| caecum|)

C. Cracks (rhagades|)

D. Fissures

E. Folds (fissura|)


2. During the review|examination| of the first lower|bottom| molar| from the side of a cheek, the carious cavity with the softened walls and bottom is revealed. What is name of the affected surface of tooth?

A. Facies| of contactus|

B. Facies| of aproximalis|

C. Facies| of vestibularis|

D. Facies| of occlusialis|

Å. Facies| of oralis

|

3. The inflammatory|hot-tempered| process appeared as a result of destruction of the dental trifurcation root. Specify|indicate| the most reliable|trustworthy| causal tooth.

A. First lower|bottom| molar|

B. Second lower|bottom| molar|

C. First upper|top| molar|

D. Second upper|top| premolar|

E. First lower|bottom| premolar|


4. While examining the patients, the dentist revealed the damage of the bifurcation| of root of the permanent tooth. In what exact tooth the complication occurred?

A. First lower|bottom| molar|

B. Second lower|bottom| premolar|

C. First upper|top| molar|

D. Second upper|top| molar|

E. First upper|top| premolar|


5. The main tasks of the dentist who is going to restore completely the damaged tooth is to secure the restoration of the anatomical structure and functions of the tooth. What tooth with its mastificatory surface is the most suitable for the modelling of 4 cups (tubercles)|knoll|?

A. 26


B. 35

C. 43


D. 45

E. 47
6. Number the meskes (opening) of the root canals will be found|exposes| out after opening|dissection| of the pulpal| chamber|cell| in the 26th tooth?

A. 1 palatal, 2 buccal

B. 2 medial|, 1 distal|

C. 2 palatal, 2 buccal

D. 4 medial|, 2 distal|

E. 1 palatal, 1 buccal
7. After opening|dissection| the cavity in the 24th tooth at a review|examination| and probing found|exposes| out the openings of two root canals (palatal and buccal. The location|disposition| of what canal should be defined?

A. The examination and probing of 24th tooth

B. The opened cavity in the 24th tooth

C. Showed the presence of opennings in two root canals

D.

E. There are 2 root canals in the 24th tooth


8. The endodontic treatment of what tooth may be helpful in revealing 3 openings of the root canals on the bottom of a pulp chamber|cell|?

A. 44


B. 25

C. 35


D. 13

E. None in the above-mentioned examples


9. The furrow of the first order resemblingth the X -shaped form is typical for:

A. First molar| of the upper|top| jaw

B. Second molar| of the upper|top| jaw

C. First molar| of the lower|bottom| jaw

D. Second molar| of the lower|bottom| jaw
10. Triangular pit|hole|, the anatomical formation which is located on:

A. The occlusive| surface of the molars|

B. The vestibular surface of the molars|

C. The oral surface of the molars|

D. The contact surface of the molars|

11. For what tooth is the|character| presence of Carabelli tubercle typical|?

A. Third upper|top| molar|

B. First upper|top| molar|

C. First lower|bottom| molar|

D. Second lower|bottom| molar|
12. Name the molar, on the masticatory surfaces of which there may be 6 cups.

A. First lower|bottom| molar|

B. First upper|top| molar|

C. Third lower|bottom| molar|

D. Second upper|top| molar|
13. 5 cups – 2 oral and 3 buccal are revealed on the occlusive surface. Specife the tooth.

A. First lower|bottom| molar|

B. Second upper|top| molar|

C. Second lower|bottom| molar|

D. First upper|top| molar|
14. In which|what| of these teeth (60% of cases) the second mesiobuccal canal occurs most likely|accident|?

A. First upper|top| molar|

B. Second upper|top| molar|

C. First lower|bottom| molar|

D. Second lower|bottom| molar|

Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Atlas|satin| of microanatomy| of organs of oral cavity of /L.A. Lutsyk, V.F. Makeev, A.M. Yashchenko, O.E. Zavadka, Yu.V. Makeeva, Yu.Ya. Kryvko.– Lviv: Nautilius, 1999.– 208 p.

  3. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.– 159 p.

  4. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.

  5. Dmitrieva AA. Therapeutic dentistry|.– M.: Medpress-inform, 2003.– 896 p.

  6. Pediatric dentistry (Editor prof|. L.O. Khomenko).– K.: Book plus, 1999.– 524 p.

  7. Tsarynskiy M.M. Therapeutic dentistry |.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2008.– 508 p.

  8. Therapeutic dentistry (Editor Yu.M. Maksymovskyj).– M.: Medicine, 2002.– 640 p.

  9. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry | /E.A. Skorikova, V.A. Volkov, N.P. Bazhenova, N.V. Lapina, I.V. Erechev.– Rostov.: Feniks, 2002.– 640 p.

Practical lesson|occupation| No 10
Theme: Organization and equipment of dental office. Dental drills, handpieces, regulations of exploitation. Accident prevention. Concept of ergonomics.

Short description of a theme
Equipment of dental office. While organizing the dental surgery – one working place must be a spacious apartment with good natural illumination, by an area not less than 14 m2. For every additional dentist’s chair an area is added not less than 10 m2. Thus, the number of additional dentists chairs must not exceed two, so the dimensions of the dental office for 3 dentist’s chairs must have an area not less than 34m2.

The height of dental surgery must be not less, than three meters, in order to provide, at least, 12 m3 amount of air for one person.

The walls must be smooth, without cracks and slits, painted with the oil|oil-bearing| paints of soft colours. The floor must be covered|cloud| by floor|sex| linoleum on a height of 5-10 cm in order to prevent the penetration of remains|oddments| of mercury while working with amalgam.

The dental office|study| must be equipped with the system of ventilation. In order to normalize the microclimate the domestic air-conditioners should be applied.

The work of a dentist is associated with considerable tension on the eyesight during the working hours. The favourable conditions for implementation of visual work are provided|secure| by rational natural light of the office in combination|study| with artificial light from dental apparatuses.

The dental office must not be cluttered up|spare|.



The work of a doctor|physician| who conducts the differentiated reception of patients only from therapeutic dentistry, has to be equipped with:

  1. The dental chair.

  2. A doctor’s chair|physician|.

  3. Dental illumination, spittoon, suction|, a vacuum cleaner, diathermocoagulator|, an electro-diagnostic device, etc..

  4. Chair-side table of a doctor|physician|.

  5. Office table for current documentation|documentation|.

  6. A washstand for washing|sink| hands|arm|.

  7. A washstand for washing|sink| of dental instruments.

  8. A hood with a sterilizer.

  9. Sterile table.

  10. A built-in closet for storage|economy| of medicines, tools, bandaging and stoppings materials|fabric|.

  11. Table for diagnostic and medical apparatus.

Expediently, that the left half of dental office is at disposal of a doctor, at some|physician| distance from tables with medicines and sterile instruments, as well as from the place where the patients are seen. Right half of the office is for an auxiliary personnel.

Ergonomics is a science which is engaged in the study of rational organization of the work. A term is formed according to the two greek words: ergo work, nomos law.

In dentistry it|her| deals with four basic|main| problems:

  1. dentists, co-workers and patients;

  2. an apparatus, tools and materials|fabric|;

  3. organization of the work in dental office|study|;

  4. working conditions|environment|.

The most optimal is|appear| the work of a dentist in sitting position|rule| with a patient in recumbency. The stress is laid on the following variants:

  1. The technique which|what| can be named|call| „Centric|” – a doctor|physician| works without an assistant, and that is why occupies|borrow| a central place|seat|, to have a good|kind| access, to both the patient and to|by| all of necessary devices and instruments|tool|.

  2. The technique of work with „four hands|arm|”, which|what| requires:

    • |according| qualified assistant;

    • proper additional equipment.

The rational work of a dentist must take into account all of methods depending on a necessity, in fact none of them is|appear| universal. Principles of rationalization in dentistry require the proper to|by| this procedure position|rule| of doctor|physician|, assistant and patient. It improves not only the hygiene of work of dentist team, but also considerably promotes|raise| the productivity and efficiency of the work and.make a patient feel comfortable.

Basic|main| medical interference|intervention| in the clinic of therapeutic dentistry is|appear| preparing of hard tissues of teeth by|by means of| the circulating coniferous forests.

Evolutional development of unit can be represented in that way: hand|manual|, foot (stand-up foot undemountable, demountable, difficult|complex|; combined foot and with a motor|engine|), electric (stand-up with an electromotor (stationary), hangings wall from electromotor|, portable), ultrasound|, turbine (pneumatic), laser drills.

Dental handpieces serve for fixing of all of rotating instruments in various interferences. The handpieces of several types are produced: direct with an automatic clamp, angle-shaped with a turning head, turbine.

The strictly specialized handpieces are divided into endodontic (NZ-3-2) |, preventive|, for sound and ultrasonic treatment of root canals, for the compression of amalgam, for the curretage in periodontal manipulations, etc.



Operating conditions:

  • low-speed with reduction of revolutions up to 300-800 revolutios per min. (green ring). Dental| Werk|: 1:1,8 (LT| Incolight| Excalibur|) and 4:1 (LT| Incolight| Endo| Cursor|), Endo-Lift| M4| (Kerr|) 4:1, MM| 324 (Tulsa| Deuxal|, France), MM10E| (France) 6:1.

  • Reversed-forward (after and against a clockwise pointer|arrow|) on 90°| (yellow ring): MM 324 (Tulsa| Deuxal|, France), W8H| (Austria) 4:1.

  • Reversed-forward motions|movement| on 90° and upward-downward motions|movement| with amplitude 0,3-1,0 mm. (Canal Leader T-1 (Siemens), Canal-Leader 2000 (Set, Germany).

There are also handpieces for sound (with frequency of vibrations 1500-6500 Hertzs) and ultrasonic (20000-30000 Hertzs) treatment of root canals. The transmission of fluctuating motions in a canal is carried out in all directions, predetermining the effect of cavitation. The permanent supply of irrigator (NaOCl) and cooling is needed.

Prophylactic handpieces provide a circular, reversed-forward motions within the limits of 360°.

Handpieces for the compression of amalgam create fluctuating motions of the special instruments for the compression of amalgam (ON-1, Kavo Amalgam Kondensator 66LD).

Handpieces for mechanical curretage at periodontal manipulations of the system „Profin” with attachments of Eva Dentatus (saws) and „Per-io-Tor” provide motion of instruments only for axes.

Straight and contra-angle handpieces have frequency of rotation of drills up to 10 thousand rotations per min. (NP-10-À, NP-10, NUM-10, WELL-10-02, Well-10) and up to 30 thousand rotations per min. (NP-30À, WELL-30, Well-30/45). The handpieces for microengines have frequency of rotation up to 10-40 thousand rotations per min. (NPB-10-1, NUB-10-1). Turbine handpieces have frequency of rotation 150 thousand rotations per min. (NT-100) and 300 thousand rotations per min. (NTS-3000-2); dentotechnical handpiece (NTZ-16) – up to 160 thousand rotations per min.



Control questions to|by| practical lesson


  1. What must be the area of premises for the organization of a dentistry office for|study| two working places?

  2. What are the demands to|by| illumination|lighting| of a dentistry office|study|?

  3. Describe the equipment of a dentistry office|study|.

  4. What is ergonomics?

  5. Name|call| the main ergonomic provisions of both the doctor|physician| and patient at implementation of dentistry manipulations.

  6. Name|enumerate| the types of drills, their setting|purpose| and principle of work.

  7. What modern drills do you know?

  8. What speed of revolutions of the instrument|tool| do modern drills are able to get|receive|?

  9. What types of handpieces do you know?

  10. Name|enumerate| the strictly specialized handpieces.

  11. Name|call| the modes of operations of endodontic handpieces.

  12. What is the frequency of rotation of the drill to the turbine handpieces and micromotor handpieces possess|?



Situation tasks and test control
1. Modern dental settings are usually equipped by micromotors |. What is the range of frequency of rotation of the working instrument|tool| which is provided|secure| by micromotor |?

    1. 1000-30 000 revolutions per minute

    2. 0-3000 revolutions per minute

    3. 10 000-100 000 revolutions per minute

    4. 100 000-500 000 revolutions per minute

    5. 0-10 000 revolutions per minute


2. Most stages of the operative|efficient| treatment of dental caries and possible|its| complications|complication| are |implement|performed with a help of handpiece. What actions|act| from the above-mentioned are impossible to handpiece execute|do| by a turbine tip?

  1. Opening|dissection| of the carious cavity

  2. Forming the walls of the carious cavity

  3. Treatment of the root canals by rotatory instruments|tool| |wrapped|

  4. Opening|dissection| of the pulp chamber|cell|

  5. Extraction of the coronal pulp


3. The demands of accident prevention during the work in a dentistry office|study| set|establish| minimal permissible distance between a doctor|physician| who|what| works with the dental setting, and earth-grounded object (batteries of the central heating, water-pipes). What must this distance (in meters) be?

  1. 0,5 m.

  2. 2 m.

  3. 2,5 m.

  4. Not important

  5. 1 m.


4. Characterizing|describe| the possibilities of the dental setting, the producers often utillize|use| a concept|notion| „turbine three” („troika”). What elements are necessarily|of course| included in this concept|notion|?

  1. Turbine handspiece, air|aerial| |, pistol|tommy-gun| for water

  2. Air|aerial||, salivary ejector|, turbine handpiece

  3. Three turbine handpieces of different|diverse| power|capacity|

  4. Turbine, mechanical|mechanics|, angular and direct

  5. Air|aerial||, mechanical|mechanics| and turbine handpieces


5. For drilling the carious cavity on the masticatory surface of the 47th tooth a turbine handpiece and cylinder diamond were selected. What device is the most suitable for the fixation of drill in the turbine handpieces?

  1. Tsangoviy a spring or spiral|screw| clamp

  2. A lateral bolt and eventual|end| is on end of the drill|

  3. Screw-thread|fretwork| connection|compound|

  4. Rusk connection|compound|

  5. Bayonett became drenched


6. Specify|indicate| the range of frequencies of rotations of the working instrument|tool| in turbine handpieces during the opening|dissection| of the carious cavity?

  1. 3000- 10 000 revolutions per minute

  2. 300 000-500 000 revolutions per minute

  3. 30 000-50 000 revolutions per minute

  4. 10 000-30 000 revolutions per minute

  5. 300-400 revolutions per minute


7. One of the demands to|by| premises for the dental surgery is the|its| area. What must the minimal dimensions |dimbe for three dental chairs|armchair|?

  1. 28 м2

  2. 18 м2

  3. 14 м2

  4. 38 м2

  5. 24 м2



Reference literature


  1. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.I.– Poltava: Divosvit, 2005.– 392 p.

  2. Borovskiy E.V. Therapeutic dentistry: a textbook is for the students of dental faculties of higher medical educational establishments.– M.: Med. Inform. agency, 2006.– 840 p.

  3. Nikolyshyn a.K. Therapeutic dentistry /A.K. Nikolyshyn: a textbook is for the students of dentistry faculties of higher medical educational establishments of IV level of accreditation in two volumes, T.IІ.–Poltava: Divosvit, 2007.– 280 p.

  4. Preclinical course of therapeutic dentistry: course of lectures|fabric| /L.O. Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2002.–159 p.

  5. The methodological manual for|by| practical of therapeutic dentistry /L.O.Tsvykh, O.A. Petryshyn, V.V. Kononenko, M.V. Hysyk.– Lviv, 2003.– 98 p.


Practical lesson|occupation| No 11
Theme: Dental instruments, their settings. Cutting instruments. The rules of sterilization.

Short description of a theme

While treating the patient a dentist applies various|varied| instruments|tool| which|what| are necessary for conducting of this or that manipulation. As to their expediency they may be divided into seven groups: 1) instruments|tool| for the inspection of the mouth, 2) instruments|tool| for drilling of the carious cavity, 3) instruments|tool| for filling the carious cavity, 4) instruments|tool| for polishing and polishing of fillings, 5) instruments|tool| for medicamental treatment and treatment of root canals, 6) instruments|tool| for the extraction of dental deposits, 7) instruments|tool| for the preparation of amalgam.

Instruments|tool| used for the inspection of the mouth: 1) dental mirror, 2) dental pincers, 3) probe.

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