Name Section Biology 1205: Laboratory



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Name Section — Biology 1205: Laboratory

Worksheet 1: Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System (Exercise 15)



Muscles of the Head and Neck


Muscle

Location

Origin

Insertion

Action

A


FRONTALIS

Covers forehead

cranial aponeurosis

Skin of eyebrows and root of nose

Raises eyebrows

B


ORBICULARIS OCULI

Surrounds orbit

Frontal and maxillae; eyelid ligaments

Eyelid tissue

Closes, blinks and squints eye

C


TEMPORALIS

Covers temporalis

Temporal

Mandible

Closes jaw

D


ZYGOMATICUS

Extends diagonally from mouth to cheekbone

Zygomatic

Skin and muscle at corner of mouth

Raises corners of mouth

E


MASSETER

Covers lateral jawbone

Zygomatic arch

Mandible

Closes jaw

F


ORBICULARIS ORIS

Surrounds mouth; forms lips

Maxillae & mandible

Muscle & skin at angles of mouth

Closes mouth; purses lips

G


STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID

Anterolateral neck deep to platysma

Sternum & clavicle

Temporal

Together flex head; alone turn head

__


PLATYSMA

Superficial neck

Chest fascia

Mandible; skin & muscle around mouth

Depresses mandible; sags mouth








Muscle

Location

Origin

Insertion

Action

A

Pectoralis major

upper chest



clavicle, anterior sternum and costal cartilages of ribs 1-6; aponeurosis of external oblique muscle

lateral humerus (greater tubercle)


adducts and flexes arm; medially rotates arm


B

Pectoralis minor

deep to muscle A above



anterior ribs (near costal cartilages of ribs 3-5)

coracoid process of scapula



moves scapula anteriorly & inferiorly; OR moves ribcage superiorly

C

Serratus anterior


lateral rib cage; deep and inferior to muscle A

lateral aspect of upper ribs


anterior/medial scapula


moves scapula anteriorly and laterally


D

Trapezius


superficial muscle of posterior neck and thorax

very broad; occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and spines of C7 - T12

scapula (acromion and spine) and clavicle

extends head, adducts and raises (superior fibers) and lowers (inferior f.) scapula

E

Latissimus dorsi


superficial muscle of lateral and lower back

by aponeurosis to lower 3-4 ribs, inferior 6 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest

anterior proximal humerus

(intertubercular groove)



extends, adducts and medially rotates arm

F

Rectus abdominis


medial superficial muscle of abdominal region, underneath aponeurosis

pubic crest and symphysis

xiphisternum and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7

flexes vertebral column; depresses ribs; stabilizes pelvis

G

External oblique


superficial lateral abdomen (fibers run down from lateral- medial); ensheathed in aponeurosis

anterior aspect of ribs 5-12

linea alba, pubis, and iliac crest

flexes vertebral column; depresses ribs; rotates and laterally flexes trunk

H

Internal oblique


deep to muscle G; fibers run at right angles to those of muscle G

lumbodorsal fascia, iliac crest, and inguinal ligament

linea alba, pubic crest, cartilages of last 3 ribs

flexes vertebral column; depresses ribs; rotates and laterally flexes trunk

I

Transversus abdominis


deep to muscle H; fibers run horizontally

inguinal ligament, iliac crest, cartilages of last 5 ribs

linea alba and pubic crest


compresses abdomen


J

Deltoid


in shoulder region; superior muscle of shoulder

lateral clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula

lateral humerus

(deltoid tuberosity)



abducts arm; w/selective activation, flexes, extends, or rotates humerus



Muscle

Location

Origin

Insertion

Action

K

BICEPS BRACHII

anterior arm; has two heads



short head - coracoid process of scapula;

long head - capsule of joint



proximal/medial radius (radial tuberosity)

flexes forearm at elbow; supinates forearm


L

Brachialis

deep to muscle K


distal anterior humerus



proximal anterior ulna (coronoid process)

flexes forearm at elbow

M

triceps brachii

posterior arm; has three heads



long head - inferior margin of glenoid fossa

lateral and medial heads - posterior humerus


proximal posterior ulna (olecranon process)


extends forearm at elbow


N

pronator teres


anterior elbow and proximal forearm

distal medial humerus (medial epicondyle) and coronoid process of ulna

middle of radius


pronates and flexes forearm


O

flexor carpi radialis

anterior forearm



distal medial humerus (medial epicondyle)

base of metacarpals II and III

flexes wrist and abducts hand

P

palmaris longus

anterior forearm; medial to muscle O


distal medial humerus (medial epicondyle)


palmar aponeurosis


flexes wrist


Q

flexor carpi ulnaris


anterior forearm; medial to muscle P

distal medial humerus (medial epicondyle) and olecranon process of ulna

base of metacarpal V


flexes wrist and adducts hand


R

flexor digitorum superficialis


anterior forearm; deep to muscles O, P, and Q

distal medial humerus (medial epicondyle), medial ulna, anterior radius

middle phalanges of digits II to V

flexes wrist and fingers


S

Extensor carpi radialis longus

lateral forearm



lateral distal humerus


base of metacarpal II


extends and abducts wrist


T

Extensor carpi radialis brevis


posterior forearm; posterior to muscle S

lateral distal humerus

(lateral epicondyle)


base of metacarpal III


extends and abducts wrist






Muscle

Location

Origin

Insertion

Action

U

extensor digitorum


posterior medial forearm; between muscles T and V

lateral distal humerus

(lateral epicondyle)



by four tendons onto distal phanges of digits II to V

extends wrist and digits; abducts fingers

V

extensor carpi ulnaris

posterior medial forearm



lateral distal humerus

(lateral epicondyle)


base of metacarpal V


extends and adducts wrist


W

brachioradialis

lateral anterior forarm



lateral distal humerus

(ridge)

styloid process of radius

flexes forearm


Muscles of the Lower Extremities (see Figures)




Muscle

Location

Origin

Insertion

Action

A

Gluteus maximus


buttocks region; largest and most superficial

dorsal ilium, sacrum, and coccyx

posterior/proxi-mal femur and facia lata

extends hip; laterally rotates thigh

B

Gluteus medius


deep to the gluteus maximus

lateral ilium



PROXIMAL/LATERAL femur (greater trochanter)

abducts and medially rotates thigh





Gluteus minimus

deepest gluteal muscle

ilium

PROXIMAL/LATERAL femur (greater trochanter)

abducts and medially rotates thigh

C

Iliopsoas


anterior/proximal thigh

iliac fossa and vertebrae T12 and L1-L5

PROXIMAL/MEDIAL femur (lesser trochanter)

flexes hip


D

Sartorius


runs obliquely across anterior thigh from hip to knee

anterior/superior iliac spine

medial/proximal tibia

flexes and laterally rotates thigh;
flexes knee

E

Tensor fascia latae

on lateral thigh



anterior iliac crest and anterior/superior iliac spine

fascia lata



flexes, abducts and medially rotates thigh

F

Biceps femoris

most lateral hamstring


ischial tuberosity and distal femur



head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia

extends thigh; laterally rotates leg; flexes knee

G

Semitendinosis

medial to muscle F


ischial tuberosity


medial upper tibia



extends and medially rotates thigh; flexes knee;

H

Semimembranosus

deep to semitendinosis


ischial tuberosity


medial condyle of tibia



extends and medially rotates thigh; flexes knee;

I

Adductor magnus

medial thigh


ischial and pubic rami


linea aspera of femur



adducts, laterally rotates, and flexes thigh



Muscle

Location

Origin

Insertion

Action

J

Adductor longus

medial thigh


medial pubis


linea aspera of femur



adducts, laterally rotates, and flexes thigh




ADDUCTOR BREVIS

medial thigh


body and inferior pubis


linea aspera of femur



adducts, laterally rotates, and flexes thigh

K

Rectus femoris


superficial muscle of anterior thigh (quadriceps)

anterior/inferior iliac spine and superior acetabulum

tibial tuberosity



extends knee and flexes thigh at hip

L

Gracilis


superficial muscle of medial thigh

inferior and body of pubis


medial head of tibia



adducts thigh; flexes and medially rotates leg

M

Vastus lateralis

lateral/anterior thigh



PROXIMAL/LATERAL femur (greater trochanter); linea aspera

tibial tuberosity


extends knee


N

Vastus medialis

medial/anterior thigh


linea aspera


tibial tuberosity


extends knee





VASTUS INTERMEDIUS

deep to recus femoris


anterior and lateral femur


tibial tuberosity


extends knee


O

Tibialis anterior


superficial/anterio-lateral leg; parallels tibial crest

lateral condyle and proximal 2/3 of tibia; interosseus membrane

inferior surface of tarsal and metatarsal

dorsiflexion and inverts foot


P

Extensor digitorum longus


anterolateral leg; lateral to muscle O

lateral condyle of tibia; proximal 3/4 of fibula; inter-osseus membrane

middle and distal phalanges of toes

toe extension; dorsiflexes and everts foot


Q

FIBULARIS (Peroneus) longus


superficial lateral muscle of leg

head and proximal fibula

under foot of metatarsal and medial tarsal

plantar flexes and everts foot

R

FIBULARIS (Peroneus) brevis

deep to fibularis (peroneus) longus


distal fibula shaft



behind lateral maleolus to prox-imal metatarsal V

plantar flexes and everts foot

S

Gastrocnemius

superficial posterior leg



by two heads—medial and lateral condyles of femur

calcaneus



plantar flexes foot and flexes knee

T

Soleus

deep to gastrocnemius


proximal tibia and fibula


calcaneus


plantar flexes foot






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