Complete the following abbreviated taxonomy using your book and the website http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/classification/Primates.html
PART 2: PRIMATE BEHAVIOR
Station 5: Social Strategies: Behavioral ‘Currencies’ A) Grooming: pretend you are an adult female monkey, why would you spend time grooming:
a) an infant ______________________________________________________
b) an adult male ____________________________________________________
c) another adult female _______________________________________________
B) Alloparenting: why might the following individuals partake in this energetically costly behavior?
a) an adult female ______________________________________________
b) an adult male ________________________________________________
c) a juvenile ___________________________________________________
Station 6: Group Living
A) Name 3 reasons why a primate would want to live in a group:
B) Name 5 types of social systems & identify a primate which exemplifies each:
Station 7: Dominance A) How do dominance hierarchies reduce aggression?
B) Name 2 costs & benefits associated with being dominant:
Station 8: Infanticide A) Why would a male primate commit infanticide?
B) Why would a female mate with a male after he killed her baby?
In your opinion, do you think chimps have culture? Why or why not? Provide supporting evidence for your argument from Article # 19.
PART 3: HUMAN SKELETAL ANATOMY
Note: Handle the bones with extreme care and respect.
Some of the following questions may require you to refer to your textbook or an osteological website.
Station 10: Skull
The skull (cranium and mandible) plays an important role in biological anthropology in terms of determining age, sex, ancestry, and understanding evolution history.
Name the bones/suture marked with dots. (No order required for the bones)
Teeth are one of the best preserved elements of skeletal remains. Their morphology is useful in constructing phylogenetic relationships among extinct and extant organisms.
Examine the dental casts provided and answer the following questions.
What are the four tooth types of human?
2. What is the dental formula of human? The dental formula is determined by looking at each tooth type from the midline to the back and counting how many there are of each type (# Incisors : # Canines : # Premolars : # Molars)
Station 12: Pelvis
Human pelvis is composed of three bones: the os coxae (right and left), sacrum, and coccyx. The pelvis serves to protect and support abdominal organs, and anchor abdominal and leg muscles. It is an area that provides critical information on locomotion patterns and sex determination.
There are two human pelves (A and B) in this station. Refer to the comparative graphs provided here, answer the following questions.
Which sex does pelvis A represent? Briefly state your reasons.
Name the bone marked with blue dot.
Station 13: Thorax
The thorax, or chest, is a cage-like structure that serves to protect vital organs and assist breathing. Its shape and orientation are important traits in human evolution.
What is the bone in the tray? ________
Observe the articulated skeletons near this station, how many pairs of this bone are on a human skeleton? __________
What does this bone attach to on the back of the body? _____________
Station 14: Upper limb
Observe the provided specimen and the articulated skeleton near this station when answering these questions.
Which bone of the lower arm is on the same side as your pinkie? _____________
Which bone of the lower arm is on the same side as your thumb? _____________
What is the other bone that is a part of the elbow joint? ________________
Station 15: Lower limb
Lower limbs are directly associated with locomotion. The bones in this area are responsible of bearing and transporting body weight during locomotion.
Refer to the diagram provided and the articulated skeleton near this station and answer the following questions.
What are the three bones that form the knee joint?
Name the two landmarks marked with dots on the femur and os coxa.
Station 16: Spinal Column
What characteristic of the spinal column allows humans to maintain a vertical center of gravity when standing in an upright position?
PART 4: HOMINOID COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
Station 17: Dentition Which set of teeth is human and why?
Write down the dental formula for each of the following sets of teeth:
Answer the following question using the labeled sets of teeth.
Is “A” a NW monkey, OW monkey, ape or human? How do you know?
Does “B” have bilophodont or Y-5 cusp molars?
Which is a Strepsirhine? How do you know?
Station 18: Tail
In terms of a tail, what distinguishes hominoids from all other haplorhines?
Station 19: Dentition
A1) Describe the shape of the human dental arcade.
A2) Describe the shape of the ape dental arcade.
B1) What is the space between the incisors and canines called?
B2) What is the functional importance of this space?
Station 20: Lower Limb Morphology
A) What is the valgus angle?
B) Why is the valgus angle important for human bipedality?
Station 21: Divergent Hallux
A) Which foot (‘A’ and/or ‘B’) has a divergent hallux?
B) What is the ecological and locomotor importance of the divergent hallux?
Station 22: Foramen Magnum
A) Describe the position of the human and ape foramen magnum:
Sexual dimorphism is the difference in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. Such physical differences between males and females are thought to have evolved through sexual selection and/or ecological selection.
A. Here is a skull of a male gorilla and a skull of a female gorilla. Identify one difference in their cranial structure and morphology: ______________________________________
B. Here is a skull of a male chimpanzee and a skull of a female chimpanzee. Identify one difference in their dental morphology:_________________________________________
STATION 25: Human vs. nonhuman
Refer to your book or the anatomical specimens in this classroom and answer the following questions.