Short, stocky, robust skeleton, prominent brow ridges, large nose, not much chin
6. Why would H. neanderthalansis have been adapted cold climates?
Northern Europe going through ice age
were able to build shelters from hides
living in bands of 8 to 25 individuals
females believed to move between groups
range of 50 km2
cared for injured and aged
decorated and buried dead
The Neanderthal genome was published in 2010 – analysis showed 1 to 4% of genome of present day humans in Europe and Asia originated from original Neanderthal genome. This suggests that H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis interbred in Europe after modern H. sapiens had migrated there from Africa. The genome in present day people of Africa does not have Neanderthal DNA.
7. Describe the life style of H. neanderthalensis.
Cave dwellers, hunter gatherers, living in territorial groups, caring for injured and aged, females moving between groups
8. Describe the evidence that suggests that Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis interbred in Europe.
1 to 4% of Neanderthal genome found in present day humans in Europe and Asia
In 2011, genome analysis of bones and teeth found in the Denisova Cave in Siberia identified a group called Denisovans. Analysis suggests that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans shared a common ancestor about 1 million years ago.
Genome analysis suggests:
that Denisovans ranged across SE Asia and bred with modern humans who arrived in SE Asia
two waves of migration into Asia from Europe – first wave interbred, second wave did not
9. What is the evidence that suggests that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans shared a common ancestor?
10. How many waves of migration flowed into Asia?
Two – first wave interbred with Neanderthals and second wave did not
H. neanderthalensis used Mousterian stone tool culture, co-operative hunting and improved communication skills made them effective hunters of large game – ambush using stabbing spears. Diet was largely meat – 90%, cooked with vegetables.
sophisticated, diverse and finely worked
made from flakes
created scrapers, spear tips, axe heads with re-sharpened edges that were attached to other materials for accurate handling
required skill, time and learning to make
11. What did Mousterian tools like?