Nabone codes 8th edition January 2002



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NABONE CODES 8th edition January 2002

NABONE


ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL DATABASE
RECORDING SYSTEM CODES

North Atlantic Biocultural Organization



Zooarchaeology Working Group
8TH Edition , January 2004

Objectives


This recording manual is the 8th working version of the NABO Zooarchaeology Working Group Data Records Project, authorized by the January 1997 working group meeting in NYC. The basic structure follows James Rackham’s database (Microsoft Access) with some changes and clarifications for North Atlantic applications. The Hunter Bioarchaeology lab was charged with adapting the Rackham system to the realities of modern work in the North Atlantic, and to balance recorded detail with the need for rapid and consistent processing of the large bone collections now becoming common in our research area. A particular concern was the need to promote long term data comparability and to provide both a long term data archive and a set of analytic tools immediately addressing current joint research objectives. The NABONE system will eventually comprise a complete manual (including this coding system) a developed Access database with useful queries and reports, and an Excel spreadsheet set providing analytic output similar to the Hunter College QBONE system (which currently holds a great deal of North Atlantic bone data). This package will be posted on the NABO website (www:geo.ed.ac.uk/nabo) and will eventually be available for download to any interested user.

Lab Testing


The Data Records project has used a series of large (ca 50k TNF) archaeofauna from excavations of the 9th-19th c sites in Iceland with the kind cooperation of the Archaeological Institute, Iceland (FS) and the Icelandic National Museum. Following the WG recommendations, we have done extensive testing of the present codes and recording system with the help of zooarchaeologists at different levels of training and experience to attempt to improve clarity and promote consistent use by different workers. We have also used this system as a teaching tool in introductory courses. While we feel that the seven versions since Jan 1997 have improved the utility of the system, there is certainly room for improvement- please help us by pointing out errors and areas for improvement !
Development and testing 1997-2003 by Tom McGovern, Colin Amundsen, Sophia Perdikaris, Jim Woollett, Yekaterina Krivogorskaya, Ramona Harrison, Seth Brewington.

Bioarchaeology Laboratory

Hunter College City Univ. of New York

695 Park Ave,

NYC 10021 USA


Species Codes

Note that codes are not provided for all possible species in the N Atlantic region (a large task), but only as a short hand reference for the most commonly appearing taxa. For species not included, simply enter the full scientific name (not your own special code please) following current nomenclature. If you find yourself doing this a great deal, please contact us (nabo@voicenet.com) and we will provide an official addition to these species codes on the NABO website. It is often a good idea to use the search & replace function in access to replace codes for less common taxa with the full scientific name after you are done data entry to make sure of correct interpretation by later users (eg OVI is pretty transparent, but PV is more mysterious). Thanks!
Code Scientific Taxon English Common Names




MAMMALS

EQU Equus (domestic) Horse

BOS Bos t. (domestic) Cattle

SUS Sus scrofa (dom.) Pig

OVCA Caprine (dom.) Sheep/Goat indeterminate

OVI Ovis aries (dom.) Sheep

CRA Capra hircus (dom.) Goat

CAN Canis familiaris (dom.) Dog

FEL Felis domest. (dom.) Cat
LTM Large terrestrial mammal cow-horse-large deer sized

MTM medium terr. mammal caprine-pig-small deer sized

STM small terr. mammal dog-fox-hare sized

VSTM very small terr. mam. mouse-vole sized


UNIM indeterminate mammal unidentifiable MAMMAL fragment

UNI indeterminate completely unidentifiable fragment


PG Pagophilus groenl. Harp seal

PV Phoca vitulina Harbor or Common seal

PH Phoca hispida Ringed seal

EB Erginathus barbatus Bearded seal

CC Cystophora cristata Hooded seal

HG Halichoerus gryphus Grey seal

WAL Odobenus rosmarus Walrus

LP Large Phocid bearded-grey-hooded seal size

SP Small Phocid harp-harbor-ringed seal size

PSP Phocid sp. Seal species indeterminate

LCET Large Cetacean Great whale (baleen or sperm)

SCET Small Cetacean Porpoise-Beluga-Narwhal sized toothed

CESP Cetacean sp. Whale species indeterminate
NB: For cetacea identified to species please enter the full scientific name

RAN Rangifer tarandus Caribou/Reindeer

CER Cervus elaphus Red Deer

DAM Dama dama Fallow Deer

CLS Capreolus capreolus Roe Deer

DSP Cervid sp. Deer species indeterminate


LUP Canis lupus Wolf

FOX Vulpes v. Red fox

AFX Alopex lagopus Arctic fox

FXSP Fox sp. Fox species indeterminate


NAN Ursus maritimus Polar bear

URS Ursus arctos Brown bear

URSP Bear sp. Bear species indeterminate
SOAR Sorex araneus Common shrew

ASL Apodemys sylvat. Meadow mouse

MUS Mus musculus House mouse

MSP Mouse sp. Mouse species indeterminate

NORV Rattus norveg. Brown rat

RAT Rattus rattus Black rat

RTSP Rat sp. Rat sp. indeterminate

LEP Lepus europeaus Hare

ORC Oryctolagus cun. Rabbit

LAGO Lagomorph Hare/ Rabbit indeterminate



BIRDS (NB: we recommend you do a search & replace in Access to provide the full scientific names after you are done entry for clarity- bird name codes can become confusing rapidly)
AVSP Bird Species Indeterminate bird

FRA Fratercula arctica Puffin

ALA Alle alle Little auk

PLA Pluvialis apricaira Golden plover

HER Larus argentatus Herring gull

LAS Larus species Gull species

LAC Larus canus Common gull

ALT Alca torda Raxorbill

FUL Fulmarus glacialis Fulmar

URA Uria aalge Guillemot

SUB Sula bassana Gannet

SOM Somateria mollissima Eider duck

PHC Phalacrocorax carbo Cormorant

PHA Phalacrocorax aristotelis Shag

PHSP Phalacrocorax sps. Cormorant/Shag sps.

GAL Gallus gallus Domestic fowl

LAM Lagopus mutus Ptarmigan

NUA Numenius arquata Curlew


FISH (When in doubt use full scientific name)

COD Gadus morhua Atlantic cod

LIN Molva molva Ling

HAD Melan. aeglf. Haddock

GAD Gadidae Cod Family

SAL Salmo salar Atlantic Salmon

TRT Salmo trutta Trout

CHR Savelinus alp. Arctic Char

SMD Salmonid sp Salmon species

HAL Hippoglossus hippoglossus Atlantic Halibut

ANA Anarhichas lupus Atlantic Wolf fish

BRO Brosme brosme Cusk

POL Pollachius virens Pollack

PLE Pleuronectiformes Flatfishes

RAJ Rajidae Skates

FISH Fish sp. indet. fish indeterminate


MOLLUSCA

MED Mytilus edulis Common Mussel

CLM Mya sp. Clam sp.

MOLSP Mollusca sp. Indeterminate mollusca

LIT Littorina littorea Common periwinkle

NB: Please enter full scientific name for all Mollusca identified to sp level


BONE ELEMENTS (Mammal & Bird)
HCO HORN CORE (FRAG) STE STERNUM

ANT ANTLER ( FRAG) RIB RIB

ANTS ANTLER, SHED PEDICLE CC COSTAL CARTILAGE

S+A SKULL+ ATTACHED ANTLER SCP SCAPULA

S+H SKULL + ATTACHED HORN CORE HUM HUMERUS

SKL SKULL (FRAG) RAD RADIUS

FRN FRONTAL RUL RADI US + ULNA

PAR PARIETAL ULN ULNA

TEM TEMPORAL CAR CARPAL

PET PETROUS (BULLA) TAR TARSAL

ZYG ZYGOMATIC AST ASTRAGALUS

OCC OCCIPITAL CAL CALCANEUS

NAS NASAL TRC NAVICULOCUBOID

ROS ROSTRUM CTA CARPAL/ TARSAL RAG

PMX PREMAXILLA MTC METACARPAL

MAX MAXILLA MC1 METACARPAL 1

MAN MANDIBLE MC2 METACARPAL 2

IN INCISOR MC3 METACARPAL 3

PM PREMOLAR MC4 METACARPAL 4

MO MOLAR MC5 METACARPAL 5

CN CANINE PHA PHALANX FRAG

PC POST CANINE (SEALS) PH1 PHALANX 1

TTH TOOTH (FRAG) PH2 PHALANX 2

HYD HYOID PH3 PHALANX 3

SES SESAMOID

FEM FEMUR

ATL ATLAS TIB TIBIA

AXI AXIS TIF TIBIA+FIBULA (SEALS)

CEV CERVICAL VERT LML LATERAL MALLEOLUS

TRV THORACIC VERT FIB FIBULA

LMV LUMBAR VERT MTT METATARSAL

CDV CAUDAL VERT

VER VERTEBRAL FRAG MT1 METATARSAL 1

SAC SACRUM MT2 METATARSAL 2

MT3 METATARSAL 3

PAT PATELLA MT4 METATARSAL 4

PES ARTICULATED FOOT MT5 METATARSAL 5

INN INNOMINATE frag

ACE Acetabulum only MTP METAPODIAL FRAG

VLV VALVE (MOLLUSCA) BAC BACULUM

UMB Umbo (univalves, eg Limpet centers)


LBF LONG BONE FRAGMENT

UNI UNIDENTIFIED FRAG



BONE ELEMENTS ( Additional for Birds)

SYN SYNSACRUM

TBT TIBIOTARSUS FUR FURCULA

PPX PROX PHAL. (WING) CLV CLAVICULA

LSA LUMBOSACRALE COR CORACOID

CMT CARPO-METAC. TMT TARSO-METATAR.

RNG TRACHEAL RING (birds)

BONE ELEMENTS (Fish)

ETH ETHMOID SUP SUPRAOCCIPITAL

PRF PREFRONTAL EXO EXOCCIPITAL

VOM VOMER MTR MESOPTERYGOID

MES MESETHMOID MET METAPTERYGOID

ALI ALISPHENOID HYO HYOMANDIBULAR

PARA PARAPHENOID SYM SYMPLECTIC

SPH SPHENOTIC INH INTERHYAL

PTE PTEROTIC EPH EPIHYAL

EPI EPIOTIC CER CERATOHYAL

OPI OPISTHOTIC HYH HYPOHYAL

PRT PROOTIC BAH BASIHYAL

OTO OTOLITH PP PHARYNGEAL PLATE

IB INVESTING BONES EPB EPIBRANCHIAL

NAS NASAL CEB CERATOBRANCHIAL

FRN FRONTAL HYP HYPOBRANCHIAL

STP SUPRATEMPORAL BAB BASIBRANCHIAL

SPB SUPRAORBITAL BP BASIBRANCHIAL PLT.

LAC LACHRYMAL URO UROHYAL

SUB SUBORBITAL PHA PHARYNGOBRNCHL.

DEN DENTARY POS POSTEMPORAL

ANG ANGULAR SPC SUPRACLEITHRUM

RET RETROANGULAR CLE CLEITHRUM

SUO SUPRAOPERCLE PCM POSTCLEITHRUM

PRO PREOPERCLE QUA QUADRATE

SUM SUPRAMAXILLA MCC MESOCORACOID

OPE OPERCLE RAD RADIALS

SBO SUBOPERCLE BAM BASIPTERYGIUM

INT INTEROPERCLE IS INTERHAEMAL SPINE

BR BRANCHIOSTEGAL RAY PV PRECAUDAL VERT.

PAL PALATINE UV ULTIMATE VERT.

ECT ECTOPTERYGOID HRP HYPURAL

EPU EPURAL ENS EXPANDED NRL SPN.

EHS EXPANDED HAEMAL SPINE BAS BASIOCCIPITAL

PEN PENULTIMATE VERTEBRAE URN Uroneural

CBP Caudal Bone Plate



END

PRO PROXIMAL

DIS DISTAL

S SHAFT


MED MEDIAL (On the center line of the body)

LAT LATERAL (Off the center line of the body)

UP UPPER (TEETH)

LW LOWER (TEETH)

P+E PROX. SHAFT + DETACHED EPIPHYSIS

D+E DISTAL SHAFT + DETACHED EPIPHYSIS

PE PROXIMAL EPIPHYSIS (DETACHED)

DE DISTAL EPIPHYSIS (DETACHED)

ANT ANTERIOR

POS POSTERIOR

V+E VERTEBRA + DETACHED EPIPHYSIS

W WHOLE BONE

F FRAGMENT (UNIDENTIFIED)

E DETACHED VERTEBRAL EPIPYSIS

W-S Fish vertebrae with intact centra but lacking all spines

FRAGMENT SIZE (FRAG) Maximum dimension

1 BELOW 1 CM MAXIMUM DIMENSION

2 FROM 1 - 2 CM

5 FROM 2 - 5 CM

10 FROM 5 - 10 CM


  1. LARGER THAN 10 CM MAX. DIMENSION

DIAGNOSTIC ZONE - SEE ILLUSTRATIONS

(RACKHAM VERSION)

FUSION STATE

F FUSED COMPLETELY, LINE OBSCURED U UNFUSED ( LOOSE EPIPYSIS MUST BE GLUED ON) I INTERMEDIATE : FUSED BUT LINE CLEARLY VISIBLE



BUTCHERY

CH CHOPPED (HEAVY BLOW)

KN KNIFED (SCRATCHES)

SP SPLIT DOWN SAGGITAL PLANE

TR SPLIT TRANSVERSELY (ACROSS MIDLINE) BP BIPERFORATED (METAPODIALS ONLY) POL GLOSSY POLISH (SET ASIDE) SW SAWN (SET ASIDE)

DR DRILLED (SET ASIDE)

WO OTHER WORKING (SET ASIDE)

IM IMPACT FRACTURE

BI BILATERAL IMPACT- HAMMER & ANVIL

SV Svið preparation (split cranium)



BURNING

B BLACK BURNED

W WHITE- GREY BURNED

S SCORCHED (Black and dk brown patches on unburned background)



GNAWING

DOG DOG/ CANINE

ROD RODENT

OH OTHER (USE COMMENTS)



AGE ESTIMATE

This column is for the analyst ‘s best estimate of age based on overall bone condition, not simply fusion or eruption state. Note that all frags will be assumed adult or no assessment possible if blank. Juveniles (unfused) should be recorded in the FUSION column. “Neonatal” refers to the commonly found elements that are rough textured, unfused and usually deriving from animals < = 3 –4 months old. “Fetal” refers to extremely young animals, either really late fetal or 1-2 weeks old (medially unfused metapodials etc). Both categories are regularly recovered from North Atlantic sites, and may be worth separating. “Old” elements are from animals showing clear marks of age (not only fused, but obliterated epiph. Lines, exteoses, etc)- do not apply to all adults, thanks!

NN NEONATAL (rough texture, unfused)

FT FOETAL (late fetal or just born- younger than NN

O OLD ANIMAL

SEX

M MALE


F FEMALE

C CASTRATE



METRICS / TOOTH ROWS

Enter here the working codes for measurable elements and tooth rows (mandible). The columns provided on the record form can be used for either Grant (1982) tooth wear codes on dp4, P4, M1,M1,M3 or for common measurements (we follow von den Dreisch 1976, see lab manual). Each bone element selected for measurement needs its own reference number, usually proceeded by the site code (eg HST 125). Preferred order for common metrics is Bp, SD, GL, Bd . If you have lots more measurements you may want to use a separate form- make sure it is stapled to the original sheet. Reference numbers should be inked onto measured bones so they can be retrieved if necessary along with full context information (as HST97 G 6b 217/470 124). ALL mandibles scored for eruption and wear are also to get a reference number inked onto the bone and should be bagged individually with full context data. Use foam padding if mandibles are in poor condition. Maxillae should have eruption state recorded (M1 in wear, M3 in wear etc).



Comments

Use the comments section to record observations specific to the bone - non metrical characters, pathologies, or any other information that may be helpful. Use more than one line per bone if necessary. For lengthy discussions, use the analysis notebook provided but make sure to enter all the notes in the appropriate part of the access database.






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