Musical instruments of india



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4.KATHAKALI- KERALA

  • comparatively recent origin.

  • Chakiarkoothu, Koodiyattam, Krishnattam and Ramanattam are few of the ritual performing arts of Kerala which have had a direct influence on Kathakali in its form and technique. 

  • Kathakali is a blend of dance, music and acting and dramatizes stories, which are mostly adapted from the Indian epics.

  • Kathakali is a visual art where aharya, costume and make-up are suited to the characters, as per the tenets laid down in the Natya Shastra.

  • The face of the artist is painted over to appear as though a mask is worn. The lips, the eyelashes and the eyebrows are made to look prominent. A mixture of rice paste and lime is applied to make the chutti on the face which highlights the facial make-up.

  • The characters in a Kathakali performance are broadly divided into  satvika,   rajasika and  tamasika types. Satvika characters are noble, heroic, generous and refined. 

  • A large oil-fed lamp is placed in front of the stage and two people hold a curtain called Tirasseela on the stage, the main dancers stand behind it before the performance.

  • The technical details cover every part of the body from facial muscles to fingers, eyes, hands and wrists.

  • The facial muscles play an important part. The movement of the eyebrows, the eye-balls and the lower eye-lids as described in the Natya Shastra are not used to such an extent in any other dance style.

  • The weight of the body is on the outer edges of the feet which are slightly bent and curved.


5.ODISSI- ODISHA

  • Archaeological evidence of this dance form dating back to the 2nd century B.C. is found in the caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri near Bhubaneshwar.

  • With Hinduism taking roots in Orissa by about the 7th century A.D., many imposing temples were erected. The Sun Temple at Konarak, built in the 13th century, with its Natya mandap or Hall of dance, marks the culmination of the temple building activity in Orissa. These dance movements, frozen in stone, continue to inspire Odissi dancers even today.

  • The maharis, who were originally temple dancers came to be employed in royal courts which resulted in the degeneration of the art form. Around this time, a class of boys called gotipuas were trained in the art, they danced in the temples and also for general entertainment. Many of today's gurus of this style belong to the gotipua tradition.

  • Facial expressions, hand gestures and body movements are used to suggest a certain feeling, an emotion or one of the nine rasas. 

  • The techniques of movement are built around the two basic postures of the Chowk(above) and the Tribhanga(left). The chowk is a position imitating a square - a very masculine stance with the weight of the body equally balanced. The tribhanga is a very feminine stance where the body is deflected at the neck, torso and the knees.

  • With the lower half of the body remaining static, the torso moves from one side to the other along the axis passing through the centre of the upper half of the body. Great training is required for this control so as to avoid any shoulder or hip movement.

  • There are certain foot positions with flat, toe or heel contact. These are used in a variety of intricate combinations.

  • Almost all leg movements are spiral/circular

  • Hand gestures play an important role both in nritta where they are used only as decorative embellishments and in nritya where they are used for communication.

  • orchestra - pakhawaj , flute, sitar / violin and manjira 

  • In each performance, even a modern Odissi dancer still reaffirms the faith of the devadasis or maharis where they sought liberation or moksha through the medium of dance.

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