Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck Laboratory Exercise 20 Background



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Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck

Laboratory Exercise 20


Background
The skeletal muscles of the face and head include the muscles of facial expression,

which lie just beneath the skin, the muscles of mastication, which are attached to the

mandible, and the muscles that move the head, which are located in the neck.



Materials Needed
Textbook

Human skull

Articulated skeleton

Purpose of the Exercise
Review the locations, actions, origins, and

insertions of the muscles of the face, head,

and neck.

Procedure
1. Label figures 20.1, 20.2, and 20.3.
2. Try to locate the following muscles in your own body: epicranius (frontalis and

occipitalis), orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, buccinator, zygomaticus,

platysma, masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid,

sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, longissimus

capitis.
3. Demonstrate the action of these muscles in your own body.
4. Locate the origins and insertions of these muscles in the human skull and

skeleton.


5. Complete Parts A and B.

Figure 20.1 Label the muscles of expression and mastication.


Figure 20.2 Label these muscles of mastication.


Figure 20.3 Label these deep muscles of the posterior neck (trapezius removed).


Part A
Complete the following statements:

1. When the _______________ contracts, the corner of the mouth is drawn upward.


2. The _______________ acts to compress the wall of the cheeks when air is blown out of the mouth.
3. The _______________ causes the lips to close and pucker.
4. The _______________ and platysma help to lower the mandible.
5. The temporalis acts to _______________.
6. The _______________ pterygoid can close the jaw and pull it sideways.
7. The _______________ pterygoid can protrude the jaw, pull the jaw sideways, and open the mouth.
8. The _______________ can close the eye, as in blinking.
9. The _______________ can pull the head toward the chest.
10. The _______________ can pull the head to one side, rotate it, or bring it into an upright position (extend head).
11. The muscle used for pouting and to express horror is the _______________.
12. The muscle used to smile and laugh is the _______________.
Part B
Name the muscle indicated by the following combinations of origin and insertion.

Origin Insertion Muscle

1. Spinous processes of cervical and

thoracic vertebrae



Base of skull




2. Occipital bone


Epicranial aponeurosis




3. Zygomatic bone

Angle of mouth





4. Zygomatic arch

Lateral surface of mandible





5. Inferior process of sphenoid

Medial surface of mandible





6. Superior margin of

sternum and upper clavicle




Mastoid region of skull





7. Medial margin of orbit


Skin around eyelids





8. Cartilage of rib to acromion


Mandible and skin of cheek





9. Temporal lines

Coronoid process and anterior

ramus of the mandible







10. Spinous processes of cervical

and thoracic vertebrae




Mastoid process of temporal bone

and occipital bone








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