Muscle Anatomy and Physiology Lab Student Learning Goal



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Muscle Anatomy and Physiology Lab

Student Learning Goal:



  1. Identify various muscles in the human body using images and human muscle models.

  2. Identify the action, origin and, insertion of each muscle identified.

  3. Identify prime movers (agonists), antagonistic muscles, synergistic muscles, and fixators/stabilizers of each muscle action.

As we begin our discussions of muscle anatomy and physiology it is important to recall knowledge of planes of the body (Chapter 1) and movement patterns among joints in the body (Chapter 8), and various new terminology regarding muscles. To properly identify a muscle, you must identify the muscle’s origin and insertion. The origin of a muscle is the point at which the muscle attaches to a bone (via a tendon) and is static. The insertion of the muscle is the point at which the muscle attaches to a bone (via a tendon) and moves that bone upon contraction.

The three planes of the body are the frontal (coronal), sagittal, and transverse (horizontal) planes. The frontal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior halves. An example of moving a body part within the frontal plane is to raise your arm from your side. The proper terminology for a movement along the frontal plane includes abduction and adduction. As the arm moves away from the body this movement represents abduction. As the arm moves towards the body, this movement represents adduction. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves. An example of moving a body part within the sagittal plane is bending the head forward and back (shaking your head yes). The proper terminology for a movement along the sagittal plane includes flexion, extension, and hyperextension. As the head leans forward this movement represents flexion. As the head moves back to the normal position, this movement represents extension. As the head extends even further back towards the posterior portion of the body, this movement represents hyperextension. The transvers plane divides the body into superior and inferior halves. An example of this of moving a body part within the transvers plane is to flip the palms upward and downward while holding the arms in front of the body. The proper terminology for a movement along the transverse plane includes supination and pronation. As the palms rotate upward this movement represents supination. As the palms rotate down, this movement represents pronation.

In addition to these movements, some joints have the ability to move in special ways. Elevation and depression are inferior and superior movements of joints such as the mandible. Inversion and eversion are medial and lateral movements of joints such as the ankle. Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are anterior and posterior movements of joints such as the ankle

To complete the lab assignment we must also review the definition of agonist, antagonist, synergist, and fixator/stabilizer. An agonist the primary muscle acting as the prime mover to complete the action. The antagonist must relax to allow the agonist to work. The antagonist would become the agonist if the opposite movement was attempted. A synergist is a muscle or group of muscles that hold the body in correct position to complete the action. A fixator/stabilizer is a special synergist that stabilizes the bone of the prime movers origin.

Part 1: Muscles of the Head and Neck

Label the following muscles on the figure provided and the model provided.



After you have identified the muscles on yourself and labeled the figure above, locate the muscles on the human muscle models using the chart below. Use figures and the accompanying tables in your lab manual for help.



Head and Neck*




5,9

Occipitofrontalis aka epicranius

10

Orbicularis oculi

6,7

Temporalis

13

Orbicularis oris

14

Zygomaticus major

17

Risorius

20

Mentalis

11

Zygomaticus minor

28

Sternocleidomastoid

25

Omohyoid

27

Sternohyoid

*Numbers represent numbers located on the mini-man model*

Part 2: Muscles of the Torso



Complete the following muscle actions and list the muscles involved in the action. After you have identified the muscles on yourself and labeled the figure below, locate the muscles on the human muscle models using the chart below. Use figures and the accompanying tables in your lab manual for help.

figure_10_13_a-jle

figure_10_13_c-jle

  1. Abduct the entire arm

    1. Name the major muscle _Deltoid______________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _clavicle and scapula______

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _humerus_____________

    4. Name the antagonist _Lattisimus dorsi__________________

  2. Adduct the entire arm (butterfly curl)

    1. Name the major muscle _Pectoralis major_______________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _clavicle and ribs__________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _humerus_____________

    4. Name the antagonist _Supraspinatus___________________

  3. Compress the abdomen

    1. Name the major muscle _Transverse abdominis__________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _ribs and iliac crest________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _pubic crest___________

    4. Name the antagonist _NA______________________________

  4. Flex waist

    1. Name the major muscle _Rectus abdominis_____________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pubic crest and symphysis_

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _xiphoid process and ribs_

    4. Name the antagonist _ Erector spinae __________________

  5. Extend (Hyperextend) waist

    1. Name the major muscle _Erector spinae________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _iliac crest and ribs________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _ribs and vertebrate_____

    4. Name the antagonist _Rectus abdominis________________

Torso




100-102

Pectoralis major

114

Rectus abdominus

98

Serratus anterior

111

External oblique

118

Transverse abdominus

110

Internal oblique

95-97

Trapezius

90

Infraspinatus

91

Teres minor

92

Teres major

93

Latissimus dorsi

104

Diaphragm

*Numbers represent numbers located on the mini-man model*

Part 3: Muscles of the Arm



Complete the following muscle actions and list the muscles involved in the action. After you have identified the muscles on yourself and labeled the figure above, locate the muscles on the human muscle models using the chart below. Use figures and the accompanying tables in your lab manual for help.

figure_10_15_a-jle

figure_10_16_a-jle

  1. Flex forearm

    1. Name the major muscle _Biceps brachii_________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _scapula and humerus_____

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _radius_______________

    4. Name the antagonist _Triceps brachii__________________

  2. Extend forearm

    1. Name the major muscle _ Triceps brachii________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _scapula and humerus_____

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _ulna_________________

    4. Name the antagonist _Biceps brachii___________________

  3. Flex hand

    1. Name the major muscle _Flexor carpi radialis/ulnaris______

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _humerus_______________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _carpals______________

    4. Name the antagonist _Extensor carpi radialis/ulnaris_______

  4. Extend hand

    1. Name the major muscle _ Extensor carpi radialis/ulnaris____

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _ humerus_______________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _carpals______________

    4. Name the antagonist _Flexor carpi radialis/ulnaris_________

  5. Pronate forearm

    1. Name the major muscle _Pronator teres________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _humerus and ulna________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _radius_______________

    4. Name the antagonist _Supinator______________________

  6. Supinate forearm

    1. Name the major muscle _Supinator____________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _humerus and ulna________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _radius_______________

    4. Name the antagonist _Pronator teres___________________



Upper arm




10

Deltoid

7

Infraspinatus

8

Teres minor

9

Teres major

6

Supraspinatus

11,12,13

Biceps brachii

14

Brachialis

16,17,18

Triceps brachii

Lower arm




19

Brachioradialis

20

Extensor carpi radialis longus

21

Extensor carpi radialis brevis

22

Pronator teres

23

Flexor carpi radialis

24

Palmaris longus

25

Flexor carpi ulnaris

32

Extensor carpi ulnaris

31

Extensor digiti minimi

30

Extensor digitorum

34

Supinator

29

Pronator quadratus

*Numbers represent numbers located on the human arm model*

Part 4: Muscles of the Leg



Complete the following muscle actions and list the muscles involved in the action. After you have identified the muscles on yourself and labeled the figure above, locate the muscles on the human muscle models using the chart below. Use figures and the accompanying tables in your lab manual for help.

figure_10_20_a-jle

figure_10_21_a-jlefigure_10_23_a-jle


  1. Flex entire leg

    1. Name the major muscle _Iliopsoas and Rectus femoris___

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis/femur and pelvis/tibia

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _femur and tibia________

    4. Name the antagonist _Gluteus maximus________________

  2. Extend entire leg

    1. Name the major muscle _Gluteus maximus and hamstrings_

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis__________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _femur and tibia/fibula____

    4. Name the antagonist _Iliopsoas_______________________

  3. Abduct entire leg

    1. Name the major muscle _Tensor fasciae latae___________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis__________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _tibia________________

    4. Name the antagonist _Adductors______________________

  4. Adduct entire leg

    1. Name the major muscle _Adductors (magnus/brevis/longus)_

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis__________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _femur_______________

    4. Name the antagonist _Tensor fasciae latae______________

  5. Cross the leg in seated position

    1. Name the major muscle _Sartorius_____________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis___________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _tibia_________________

    4. Name the antagonist _NA______________________________

  6. Flex lower leg

    1. Name the major muscle _Hamstrings___________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis__________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _tibia/fibula____________

    4. Name the antagonist _Quadriceps_____________________

  7. Extend lower leg

    1. Name the major muscle _Quadriceps___________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _pelvis___________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _patella/tibia____________

    4. Name the antagonist _Hamstrings_____________________

  8. Dorsiflex foot

    1. Name the major muscle _Tibialis anterior________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _tibia____________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _metatarsal____________

    4. Name the antagonist _Gastrocnemius__________________

  9. Plantar flex foot

    1. Name the major muscle _Gastrocnemius________________

    2. Name the origin of the muscle _femur__________________

    3. Name the insertion of the muscle _calcaneus____________

    4. Name the antagonist _Tibialis anterior__________________



Upper leg




20

Rectus Femoris

21

Vastus Lateralis

23

Vastus Medialis

24

Sartorius

26

Adductor Longus

27

Gracilis

28

Adductor magnus

29

Semimembranosus

30

Semitendinosus

31

Biceps femoris

11

Gluteus maximus

12

Gluteus medius

25

iliopsoas

Lower leg




33

Tibialis anterior

34

Extensor digitorum longus

35

Fibularis (Peroneus) longus

37,38

Gastrocnemius

39

Soleus

43

Flexor hallucis longus

42

Flexor digitorum longus

41

Popliteus


*Numbers represent numbers located on the human leg model*


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