Ms. Bates December 2011 I. 753-500 bce roman (Etruscan) Monarchy

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Ms. Bates December 2011
I. 753-500 BCE Roman (Etruscan) Monarchy
assembly of clans (citizens)
12 tablets
similarities to U.S. law

II. 500-27 BCE Roman Republic
A. government structure

2 consuls/executives, 1 senate, 2 assemblies (citizens); all ruled together

12 tablets
benefits and drawbacks
emergency provision

B. Roman roads

Via Appia (Appian Way)
stepping stones

C. Arches versus post and lintel construction


D. 312 BCE onward – aqueducts

"to lead water"
14 CE – Pont du Gard

E. Roman military

264-146 BCE – Three Punic Wars
First Punic War 264-241 BCE ( 23 years)
Second Punic War 218-201 BCE ( 17 years)
Hannibal and Scipio
Third Punic War ("Scipio's Revenge") 149-146 BCE ( 3 years)
outcome for Carthage
outcome for Rome
Describe the Roman Republic after the Punic Wars:

F. 59-44 BCE – Julius Caesar’s reign as consul/caesar (king)

Julius's early achievements
"Veni, vidi, vici."
59 BCE
50 BCE
49 BCE
Crossing of the Rubicon
triumvarate (3 rulers) and General Pompey
Civil War
46 BCE



Julius Caesar's achievements

Ides of March (March 15th), 44 BCE
"Et tu, Bruté?"
nine months later
Julian Calendar

III. 27 BCE-381 CE Roman Empire
A. 27 BCE-14 CE – Caesar Augustus (Octavian) leads empire
meaning of name Caesar Augustus
Pax Romana (46 BCE-180 CE)
commissions Aeneid by Virgil
American manifest destiny
B. Achievements during the Pax Romana
60 CE – Circus Maximus

Juvenile: “People long for two things: bread and circus.”

79 CE – Flavian Ampitheater (a colosseum)
marble facade
other colosseums (Nimes, Arles, London)


Bath Houses
±120 CE – Pantheon ("all the gods")
Roman Forum
Basilica Maxentius and Basilica Constantine

C. 200-300 CE Downward slide of the Roman Empire

Revolts and civil wars

Expanding borders

Economic policy

Tax policy

Decline in population

284 CE Constantine moves center of empire eastward from Rome to Nicomedia (eastward); empire governed with two halves from this point on

D. 313 CE – Edict of Milan (Constantine embraces Christianity; freedom of religion)
Tertullian (200 CE): "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church."

P and X
330 CE – Constantine moves the empire’s eastern capital to Constantinople; Milan and Ravenna are successively the capitols of the Western Empire

337 CE – Constantine declares Christianity the state religion
381 CE – Emperor Theodosius declares Christianity the sole religion

IV. "Fall" of the Western Empire and Rise of the Eastern Empire
A. 395 CE Emperor Theodosius dies and completely splits empire into East and West (gives to two sons)
B. 400s CE in the Western Empire

“Fall” of West to “barbarians” (Vandals from Africa, Ostrogoths from Italy, Angles and Saxons from Britain, Visigoths from Spain, Franks and Huns from Gaul and the Rhineland)

Rise of Byzantine empire (Constantinople) in the east, which lasts another thousand years
See map of Europe showing barbarian lands and Byzantium:

Yellow 2nd ed. CI pages 154-155 Maps 6.3 and 6.4 or Blue 4th ed. CI page 191

QUESTION: What holds western Europe together after the “fall” of the Western Roman Empire?

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