Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (mdas): associated references

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Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS): associated references

HUMPHRIS GM, MORRISON T and LINDSAY SJE (1995) 'The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: Validation and United Kingdom Norms' Community Dental Health, 12, 143-150.

GREEN RM, HUMPHRIS GM, LINDSAY SJE, MELLOR AC, MILLAR K, SIDEBOTHAM B (1997) 'Minor psychiatric morbidity, pain and fear in patients in general dental practice' Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 25, 187-188.

  • Further paper with details of use of the MDAS in a dozen practices around the UK.

HUMPHRIS GM, FREEMAN RE, TUTTI H, DESOUZA V (2000) ‘Further evidence for the reliability and validity of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale’ International Dental Journal 50,367-370.

  • Details of MDAS scores in a number of countries following translation into native language of country concerned. Further reliability and validity information.

DAILEY Y-M, HUMPHRIS GM, LENNON MA (2001) ‘The use of dental anxiety questionnaires: a survey of a group of UK dental practitioners’ British Dental Journal 190(8) 450-453.

  • Survey of specialists in dental anxiety management and their use of formal psychometric instruments in their daily practice.

DAILEY YM, HUMPHRIS GM, LENNON MA (2002) ‘Reducing patient’s state anxiety in general dental practice. A randomised controlled trial’ Journal of Dental Research 81(5): 319-322. (Abstract chosen for reprinting in the British Dental Journal under ‘Behavioural Science’ banner, vol 193(4):215).

Humphris GM, Clarke HMM, Freeman R. (2006) Does completing a dental anxiety questionnaire increase anxiety? A randomised controlled trial with adults in general dental practice. British Dental Journal,

  • Study shows that giving the MDAS to patients attending their general practitioner does not increase state anxiety in patients immediately prior to seeing their dentist

Freeman R, Clarke HMM, Humphris GM. (2007) Conversion Tables for the Corah and Modified Dental Anxiety Scales. Community Dental Health Mar;24(1):49-54

  • Conversion tables and regression equations presented so that investigators can compare their results to other published sources regardless of whether they adopt Corah’s DAS or the MDAS

Humphris G, Hull P. (2007) Do dental anxiety questionnaires raise anxiety in dentally anxious adult patients? A two wave panel study. Primary Dental Care Jan;14(1):7-11

  • Using the MDAS with Dental Access Patients. No significant increase in anxiety following MDAS completion.

YUAN S, FREEMAN R, LAHTI S, LLOYD-WILLIAMS F, HUMPHRIS G. (2008) Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes Mar 25;6(1):22 (free copy: )

  • Use of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling to show validation of a new Chinese language version (sample within Beijing) with comparisons to an English sample from the North-west of England

Newton JT, Edwards JC. (2005) Psychometric properties of the modified dental anxiety scale: an independent replication. Community Dent Health. Mar;22(1):40-2.

● Study with 135 dental patients confirming reliability and some aspects of validity

of the MDAS in England
Ilguy D, Ilguy M, Dincer S, Bayirli G. (2005) Reliability and validity of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale in Turkish patients. J Int Med Res. Mar-Apr;33(2):252-9.

  • Psychometrics of the Turkish version of the MDAS (294 dental patients)

See Hyperlink:

Coolidge T, Chambers M, Garcia LJ, Heaton LJ, Coldwell SE Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures. BMC Oral Health 2008, 8:15
● Psychometrics of the Spanish version of the MDAS (various convenience samples)
See Hyperlink:

COOLIDGE T, ARAPOSTATHIS KN, EMMANOUIL D, DABARAKIS N, PATRIKIOU A, ECONOMIDES N, KOTSANOS N. Psychometric properties of Greek versions of the Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) and the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). BMC Oral Health. 2008 Sep 30;8:29.

● Psychometrics of the Greek version of the MDAS (two convenience samples, one from private practice and the other from a dental school)
See Hyperlink:
Humphris GM, Dyer T, Robinson P. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale: UK population norms in 2008 with further psychometrics and effects of age. BMC Oral Health. 2009
● New norms for UK derived from telephone survey representative sample (n=963) questioned in 2008, including respondents from all countries within UK. Includes a table of percentiles for practitioners to estimate the percentage of people who would score the level of dental anxiety that a particular patient may present with. This table gives greater precision as estimates are provided by sex and three age bands.
See Hyperlink:

KING K, HUMPHRIS GM. Evidence to confirm the cut-off for screening dental phobia using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. Social Science and Dentistry. 1 (1)

● Study conducted in St Andrews by undergraduate psychologist which confirmed the MDAS cut-off of 19 was the score best able to identify dental phobics, using ROC analysis. (n > 1200)

HULL P, HUMPHRIS GM Anxiety reduction via brief intervention in dentally anxious patients: a randomized controlled trial. Social Science and Dentistry (in press)

● Study conducted in North-west of England Access Centres. A replication of Dailey et al’s (2002) RCT using the MDAS as an intervention. An extra arm was added which tested the possible effect of patient expectancy on anxiety reduction. Sample size: n=182. Results indicated that the handing of the MDAS to the dentist appeared critical (i.e. significant reduction in state anxiety) especially when the issue of dental anxiety was raised in the dental surgery.
HUMPHRIS GM, KING K, (2011) The prevalence of dental anxiety across previous distressing experiences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 25(2):232-6

  • Study shows (using St Andrews students) that dental anxiety (MDAS) was associated with dental trauma and also other non-dental trauma including past self-reported abuse.

HUMPHRIS G, CRAWFORD J, HILL K, GILBERT A, FREEMAN R. (2013) UK population norms for the modified dental anxiety scale: Adult Dental Health Survey 2009 results. BMC Oral Health. 13:29 doi:10.1186/1472-6831-13-29. Published: 24 June 2013

  • Latest set of norms for UK (excluding Scotland) from data collected from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. A calculator is also available for practitioners to download from this web site and also the personal website of the creator of the application (Prof John Crawford from University of Aberdeen). This is the largest set of MDAS data collected in a single study.

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