Ministry of health of ukraine vinnitsa national medical university

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Tab. 1

Medial measuring points on a skull and the person

point name

Points of an osteal basis (краниометрические)

Points of soft tissues (кефалометрические)

Trichion (tr)

Point of forward border of a hair part of a forehead on a median-sagittal plane

Ophryon (on)

Point of a crossing of a median-sagittal plane with a line spent horizontally through a point of the narrowest part of a forehead which passes through a frontal bone.

Point of a crossing of a line which passes the upper edge of brows with it is median-sagitalnoj a plane (a little above a bridge)

Glabella (g)

most acting point on the bottom part of a forehead on it is median-sagitalnoj planes above a root of a nose and between brows

Nasion (n)

Crossing point sutura nasofrontalis with a median-sagittal plane (a nose root)

Point of a root of a nose which is crossed by a seredinno-sagittal plane and which can be defined on the person by a palpation sutura nasofrontalis. Schwarz characterises this point as the most expressed excavation between a forehead and a nose

Subspinale (ss)

Point on it is median-sagitalnoj planes where the bottom first line spina nasalis anterior passes in a forward wall of the top alveolar process.

Subnasale (sn)

Point of transition of the bottom part of a nose in an upper lip

Nasospinale (ns)

deepest point of bottom edge apertura piriformis which is projected on a median-sagittal plane

Spina nasalis (sp)

Point at top spina nasalis anterior

Pronasale (prn)

point of an end of a nose most acting forward at a head establishment on the Frankfurt horizontal

Labiale superius (es)

most acting point of an upper lip

Prostion (pr)

point most acting forward on a first line of the top jaw on a median-sagittal plane between the central incisors

Point at bottom edge of a gum of the top jaw, located most low between the central incisors on a median-sagittal plane (on 1 mm is deeper, than краниометричексая a point prostion)

Stomion (sto)

Line point of intersection смыкания labiums with a median-sagittal plane

Labiale inferius (li)

most acting point of a lower lip

Ifradentale (id)

Point between the bottom central incisors where the median-sagittal plane crosses a first line of an alveolar process

Supramentale (spm)

Point on sulcus labiomentalis on a median-sagittal plane

Pogonion (pg)

most acting point of a mandible on a median-sagittal plane

Gnation (gn)

most bottom point of a mandible on a median-sagittal plane

bottom point of a chin which answers osteal gnation

Opistocranion (ор)

point of a nape most acting back on a median-sagittal plane

Basion (ba)

Point on a first line foramen magnum пo a median-sagittal plane

Gonion (go)

most bottom and behind located point of an angle of a mandible

Tab. 2

Латеральные measuring points on a skull and on the person

point name

Points of an osteal basis (краниометрическая)

Points of soft tissues (кефалометрическая)

[Orbitale (or)

deepest point of bottom edge of an eye fossa

deepest point of bottom edge of an eye fossa which is easily palpated on the person. On Simonu is a point of bottom edge of an eye fossa below a pupil at open eyes which look forward. On Schwarz is a point which settles down on width of a palpebral fissure below a pupil at open eyes which look forward.

Zygion (zy)

point of a malar arch most acting from the outside

Tragion (t)

Point at the upper edge of a tragus of an ear (tragus)

Auriculare (au)

Point which settles down on a root of a malar process of a temporal bone over the middle porus acusticus externus

Porion (po)

Point which is in the middle of the upper edge porus acusticus externus

Bregma (b)

Point in an ascension place стрелоподобного and coronal seams

Vertex (v)

point most highly located in a median plane of a skull,

Focused on the Frankfurt horizontal

Lambda (l)

Point on crossing lambdo - similar and seams

Eurion (eu)

Lateral an acting point on a lateral wall of a skull or a head

Cheilion (ch)

Point a shod company: transition of a red bordering of an upper lip in the bottom

Table 3 Anthropological measurements on a skull and the person

Investigated parametres

Craniometer. Measurements

Kefalometric. Measurements

longest part of a cerebral skull (a craniometer.) or heads (кефалометр.)

Rectilinear distance between glabella and opistocranion

widest part of a cerebral skull (a craniometer.) or heads (кефалометр.)

Rectilinear distance between both eurion that

Goes perpendicular to median-sagittal


Width of the person at level of the malar


Rectilinear distance between both zygia

Width of the person at level of angles of a mandible

Rectilinear distance between both gonia

Width of a nose

Distance between both lateral points of wings of a nose

Width of a stomatic cleft

Rectilinear distance between both cheilia

Физиономич. Height of the person

Rectilinear distance between trichion - gnation

Morphological height of the person

Rectilinear distance between nasion - gnation

Физиономич. Height of the top part of the person

Rectilinear distance between nasion - stomion

Morphological height of the top part of the person

Rectilinear distance between nasion - prostion

Nose height

Distance between nasion-subnasale

Depth of a nose

Distance between subnasale-pronasale

Forehead height

Distance between trichion-nasion

Upper lip height

Distance between Subnasale-stomion

Lower lip height

Distance between Supramen tale - stomion

Height of a red bordering of labiums

Distance between Labiale superior - labiale inferior

Height of the bottom part of the person

Distance between gnation-stomion

Median, or medial, points settle down according to a median-sagittal plane on a line which begins from border of a pilar part of a forehead, passes to a profile of the person and comes to an end with points basion and opistocranion.

Symmetrically in both sides from this median line points settle down lateral, or латеральные.

Distance measure by a special caliper or an anthropometer.

Table 4 the Form of the person depending on index number

Very narrow person

Index 93,0 and more

narrow person

Index 88,0-92,9

The person of average width

Index 84,0-87,9

wide person

Index 79,0 83,9

Very wide person

Index 78,9 and less

form of the person can be defined by means of a facial index beyond Izarom (IFM) - an index facial morphological.

Length of the person define from a point оph to gn, width of the person between zy - zy y mm.

size of an index 104 and more characterises the narrow person, from 97 to 103 — an average, 96 and less — the wide person.

Width of head define between points еурион; frontal - between the most convex frontotemporal points; malar - between points зигион; width between mandible angles - between points gonion.

In cases of small difference between these relations - the form of the person square, in cases of the big difference - oval.

For A. M. With Schwarz (1951) allocate 6 basic forms of the person: the round; the square; the six-sided; the oval; triangular with a basis referred upwards or downwards.

V.Ju.Kurljandsky (1958) distinguished the person square, cone-shaped - narrowed up in the form of a return cone. For convenience of definition of a face type the author recommended to press to the person of a ruler in a site tragus and mandible angles. The long and narrow person was characterised by an index - 90-94; wide and short-80-84; oval - 86-89,9.

In prescription for definition of proportionality of the person used "a golden section" principle. "Golden section" two parts of a piece in which the smaller part concerns to larger as big all a piece name. "Golden section" passes the person from a frontal point to the mental; in gnatic parts of facial department of a skull - from a nose end to a mental point passes for closed a mouth on a line labiums, for open is a distance equals to distance from a mental point to an upper lip. For "golden section" definition there are specially developed compasses which parts somehow size in the specified parities. "Golden section" define at studying of the person en face, and also in a profile.

Investigating a profile of the person, spend lines, study the linear and angle sizes; define the form of the person - direct, convex, bent.

For Angle spend a line of harmony from a point глабела to a point погонион. For ортогнатичного an occlusion it passes through a nose wing. Concerning this line the author has learnt a locating of a profile of the person, and also labiums in a frontback direction. For a photometry use a line which bridges a dermal point назион to a dermal point погонион for the aforementioned purpose. For definition of camber or ввігнутості persons on its pictures spend a perpendicular to a profile from a dermal point назион on the Frankfurt horizontal and continue it to the bottom border of the person; in addition spend a line from an orbital dermal point which answers bottom a contour of the osteal eye fossa, parallel to the first. The distance between these lines wears the name of "a biometric profile field of Drejfusa».

Fig. 3. A biometric profile field beyond Drejfusom.

Analyzing a face type and disturbances of its aesthetics, define a locating of a wing of a nose, a point субназион, a red bordering of the top and bottom labiums, and also a contour of a chin concerning these lines.

Schwarz recommended to bridge in a photometry a line (a stomatic tangent) points субназион and погонион and to measure size of a profile angle «Т», formed by this line and its crossing with a perpendicular to the Frankfurt horizontal, lowered with a dermal point назион (a nasal plane). This angle characterises a locating подносовой and mental points concerning a nasal plane, it use for definition of camber or concavity of the person. For angle sizes «Т», peer 10 °, - a profile of the bottom part of the person of a straight line, the most high-grade from the aesthetic point of view; for its sizes it is more 10 ° - the profile is cut back; for sizes it is less 10 - cut forward. In the latter case size of a profile angle designate a sign "-". Concerning a stomatic tangent define a locating of labiums: average — if the red bordering of an upper lip is crossed by this line and parted half-and-half and the line concerns a red bordering of a lower lip; Positive - if labiums are ahead from average position and negative - if labiums are for.

At studying of photos of a profile of the person the thickness of soft tissues, size of bones of a facial skeleton and their mutual relation cannot be considered. For more detailed studying of features of a structure of person A. M, Schwarz recommended to analyze the data of measurements of lateral teleroentgenograms of a head. Such research a thickness of soft tissues of the person define more precisely.

And divergences of the form of the person at children and at their parents define similarity by comparison of the form of the ranges drawn in photos of the person. Investigating the person en face, spend: a median plane of the person (ME); a tangent to a pilar part of brows from above to its crossing with a pilar part of head in a site of temples and bases of a tragus of auricles with points of angles of a mandible; tangents to mandible contours. If at the child of the person narrower, than in her parents, and crowns of teeths big average size it can serve one of indications to treatment with excision of separate teeths in the presence of dentoalveolar anomaly.

Investigating the person in a profile, spend lines which bridge points трагуса to points назион, орбитале, субназион, погонион, гонион. After that consistently bridge the named points. If at comparable forms of ranges en face and a profile at children and their parents tap narrower person at the child, than in her parents, anomalies of an occlusion and closer position of teeth in one or in both parents such disturbances eliminate after excision of separate teeth at the child taking into account an occlusion kind. It is important to compare also size of an angle of camber of the person, which образовывается at bond of points назион, субназион, погонион.

Materials for self-checking:

1. En face estimate:

Symmetry and proportionality of the person

Profile of the person

Symmetry of the right and left half of the face

Position of labiums

2. Depending on which parity of points estimate a profile of the person:

n, sn, pg ZY-ZY

oph, gn EY-EY

3. Length of a head measure between points:

n, sn, pg OP-GL

oph, gn EY-EY

4. The full morphological height of the person is defined between points:


PR - gn N-GN

5. The bottom morphological height of the person define between points:


PR - gn



recommended literature:

The basic literature:

1. Flis P. S. Orthodontics. - Vinnitsa: «the New book», 2006.

2. Plastovaja G. V, Rogozhnikov Г _. Orthopedic stomatology of children's age. М, "Medicine", 1991.

3. A management on orthodontics / under the general edition of prof. F.JA.Horoshilkinoj/М "Medicine" 1982.

4. Lectures which are read on chair of stomatology of children's age.

The additional:

1. Grape So-called «Stomatology of children's age» М "Medicine", 1987.

2. Головко N.V.preventive maintenance зубощелепних anomalies. - Vinnitsa: the New Book, 2005.

3. Grigoriev L.P.occlusion in children. - Kiev: Health, 1995 - 231 with.

Kasparov and co-workers. «Disease of an is temporal-nizhne-maxillary joint in children and teenagers» М "Medicine", 1981.

4. Kolesov A.A. «Stomatology of children's age» М "Medicine", 1991.

5. Криштаб SI., Vasilevskaja Z.F., Muhina A.D., Nesprjadko V.P.Lechenie of zubo-gnathic deformations Kiev, "Health", 1982 with. 190.

6. Kurljandsky Century Ю. Orthopedic stomatology. М "Medicine", 1977.

7. Фалин L.JA.histology and a fetology of an oral cavity and teeth. М, 1963.

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