FOR INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS BY PREPARATION FOR PRACTICAL (SEMINAR) EMPLOYMENT
substantial module №
Photometry in orthodontics
Theme urgency: the Beauty of the person should combine a harmony of development not only its body, and and separate parts: heads, persons, a trunk and extremities. The form of the person and harmony of its lines estimate in the course of survey and application of objective methods of research which provide clinical inspection, anthropo- and photometric research.
2. Specific goals: to learn a technique of definition of height, lengths of a head and height, depth, a profile of the person, the form of the person on authors, to be able to work with photos, to expose points for research.
Base knowledge, abilities, the skills necessary for studying of a theme (interdisciplinary integration)
Names of the previous disciplines
nobility anatomic formations on the person, reference points punctual persons.
To be able to inspect the person of the patient, the nobility as is defined фас and a profile.
4. A problem for independent preparation for employment. Photometry - That for a method and for what purpose it use it.
What parametres define on a photo for the characteristic of the sizes of a head and the person of the patient.
How to define morphological фациальный an index of Izarda and what information it gives.
How to define width, depth, length of the person.
What indexes use for the characteristic of the form of a head.
Practical problems, situational problems, oral poll under the standardised lists of questions.
Textbooks, grants, methodical references.
Initial level of preparation.
Control of final level of preparation.
general estimation of educational activity of the student.
Informing of students on a theme of following employment.
Photometry in orthodontics
Anthopometrical and photometric methods of research
The beauty of the person should combine a harmony of development not only its body, but also separate parts: heads, persons, a trunk and endings.
The form of the person and harmony of its lines estimate in the course of survey and application of objective methods of research which provide clinical inspection, anthropo- and photometric research, studying of masks of the person, head teleroentgenograms (in lateral and direct projections).
Size and the form of the person influences not only a structure of a facial skeleton, but also expressiveness of soft tissues: muscles, fascias, a connecting tissue, a hypodermic fatty layer, a skin. Individuality of the person depends on degree of its development, and also a state of health, racial features, constitutional, age and a floor. The the more sharply expressed osteal relief, the thicker soft tissues and on the contrary, than thicker than a face muscle, especially expressed osteal relief, that is between them exists directly proportional dependence.
The anthopometrical method of research is based on patterns of a structure of facial and cerebral departments of a skull, proportionality of a parity of three departments of a head and their relation to certain planes. Studying it is spent on gnatostatic models of jaws, on the person of the patient, in photos of the person and teleroentgenograms.
Anthopometrical research of a head consists in studying of its sizes, the sizes and the form of the person and its separate parts, and also interrelation of the sizes and the form of facial department of a skull and dentagnatic arches.
Anthropological points and skull and person measurements.
The head of the person consists of two departments - cerebral and facial. The form of a head and the person appreciably defines individuality of a structure of a skeleton which change with the years. The person gets outlines of the adult person. Head proportions, the person, especially in the periods of active growth of jaws change.
Studying a head use 3 focused planes on Simonu (1923): median-sagittal, an ear-orbital and face-to-face. These planes are located mutually perpendicularly one to one. Concerning them study a deviation in a structure of the person, and also occlusion disturbance in трансверзальном, sagittal and vertical directions (fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Skull planes () and the person () 1 - median-sagittal; 2 - an ear-eye, or the Frankfurt horizontal; 3 - face-to-face, or orbital planes.
cerebral skull contains головный a brain. In it distinguish frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital sites, and also a skull basis. Doctors-ortodonty do not influence development of these bones in the course of orthodontic treatment.
Thoughts on borders of the person разны. One authors define its borders from a hair part of a head to the most acting point of a chin; others - from a tangent spent to the upper edge of brows, to most posterial the located point of a bridge.
To learn the person of the patient and to spend on it different measurements, it is necessary to know a locating of the basic anthropological points on a skull (craniometric) and on the person (кefalometric) (fig. 2).