Ministry of environment, water and natural resources state department of natural resources report of the kenya implementation of the



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REPUBLIC OF KENYA

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MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, WATER AND NATURAL RESOURCES

STATE DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES


REPORT OF THE KENYA IMPLEMENTATION OF THE

UNEP/WHO/Government Of Kenya EAST AFRICA DENTAL AMALGAM PHASE-DOWN PROJECT





http://www.aesolutions.com.au/images/category_images/c214ce9379792e788de1dfd7a956bb47mercury-droplets-web.jpg

MARCH 2014

Acknowledgements
The Ministry of Environment, water and Natural Resources is graeful for the cooperation with UNEP Chemicals Branch, the World Health Organisation and Kenya Federation of Dentists in implementing the East Africa Dental Amalgam Phase down Project (EADAP).
Special thanks go to Desiree Narvaez of UNEP who has kept the Ministry informed on the project progress
The project also is a clear manifestation of the kind of action required to implement the joint activities between the sectors of environment and Health.

Contents


1.0 INTRODUCTION 3

1.1 NATIONAL INVENTORIES 3

1.3 Actions already taken 4

1.4 Mercury Negotiations 4

1.5 Dental Amalgams 5

2 Project on the Phase down approach to dental Amalgam 6

2.1 Project Objectives 6

2.2 Project Components and Activities: 6

2.3 Project Expected Output 7

3. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 8

3.1 Validation of the Dental Amalgam Waste Practices and Trade and Supply of Restorative Dental Materials 8

3.2 Aim 8

3.3 Materials and Methods 8

4 RESULTS 9

4.1 Dental Restorative Waste Management Practices 9

4.1.1 Type of Restorative Materials in use 9

4.1.2 Protective equipment and dental clinic set up 9

4.2 Practice guidelines and standardisation 10

4.3 Handling of dental amalgam and dental amalgam waste 10

4.4 Trade and Supply of Restorative Materials 11

4.4.1 Stocking and supply of restorative materials 11

5.CAPACITY BUILDING WORKSHOP HELD IN UGANDA ON 6TH TO 7TH MARCH 2013 13

5.1 UNEP-WHO-IDM-FDI curriculum on dental amalgam Best Management Practices (BMP), prevention and alternative materials 13

5.1.1Mercury life cycle and global health, and the Minamata Convention 13

5.1.2 BMP on dental amalgam usage and environmentally sound waste management 14

5.1.3Alternative materials for dental restoration 15

6. Annex 1 - Stakeholders Workshop On Amalgam Phasedown Held At Kenya Institute Of Education On 29th October 2013, From 8am To 4pm 16

7. Annex 2 - LIST OF STAKEHOLDERS 24




1.0 INTRODUCTION


Mercury is recognized as a toxic and persistent element, and it is documented that it has serious impacts on human health and environment. When released it is transported globally in the atmosphere and is as such a global problem. To reduce the risk from anthropogenic mercury releases to human health and the environment the UNEP governing council decided in 2009 to develop a global legally binding convention on mercury. Kenya supported the decision and has been an active participant in the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee formed by UNEP.

Information on releases of mercury is important to inform the national policy-making towards the current negotiations, to identify priority mercury sources in the countries and to provide a baseline for national mercury management.


1.1 NATIONAL INVENTORIES


National inventories are also important in supporting the verification of global mercury release inventories. Kenya has undertaken a desktop inventory on POPs. Possible sources of mercury could include:

  • Production of copper from concentrates

  • Disposal Hg thermometers from hospitals and schools

The individual mercury release sub-categories contributing with the highest mercury inputs were;



Sources kg/A

  1. Use and disposal of other products

  2. Use and disposal of dental amalgam fillings 5,700

  3. Other material production 998.50

  4. Crematoria and cemetery 255.00

  5. Production of recycled metals 419.00

  6. Waste incineration and open burning 30,014

  7. Informal dumping of general waste

From the inventory it is estimated that the treatment and disposal of waste represented substantial flows of mercury. The origin of the mercury in the waste is products and materials with intentional mercury use which are disposed without some form of segregation and small concentrations of mercury impurities in large-volume waste (paper, plastic, organics, etc.) are distributed in an environment that has low natural sources of mercury.

The individual mercury release sub-categories contributing with the highest mercury releases to the atmosphere were;


  1. Waste incineration

  2. Informal and open burning of general waste

  3. Use and disposal of products containing mercury

  4. Other materials production; primarily cement production.

It is recognised that the inventory faced major data gaps including


  • Availability of recent data on coal combustion

  • Accurate figures for emission sources because we had no legal no requirement for it to be collected and documented.

  • Waste water treatment has not been monitoring systematically discharges of mercury

  • Under estimation for crematoria and cemeteries because no data and information available as none are documented

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