Midterm notes

The English colonies sent to England

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The English colonies sent to England:

  • Lumber

  • Fur

  • Rice

  • Tobacco

  • iron ore

  • The colonies bought manufactured items from England:


    The Scientific Revolution

    Key Terms

    • Scientific Revolution:

      • A period of time beginning during the 1600s in which scholars made great progress in understanding the workings of nature

    • Geocentric Theory

      • Theory that the Earth is the center of the universe

        • During this time, people were unaware of solar systems

    • Heliocentric Theory

      • Theory that the sun is the center of the universe

        • We now know the sun is the center of the solar system


    Field of Study


    Method of Discovery

    Published Works

    Additional Information


    2nd Century

    Medicine and human anatomy

    The human body, how it functions, and how to treat it

    Dissected the bodies of dogs, pigs, and monkeys

    Many volumes on his idea of how the human body works

    Thought to have known all about the human body


    Field of Study


    Method of Discovery

    Published Works

    Additional Information

    Claudius Ptolemy

    2nd Century

    Astronomy and geography

    The Earth was the center of the universe

    Used math to formulate a geocentric model of the solar system


    His theory became known as the Geocentric theory


    Field of Study


    Method of Discovery

    Published Works

    Additional Information

    Nicholas Copernicus



    The earth and the planets revolve around the planets– disagreed with Ptolemy

    Applied math to the movements of the sun and the planets and found that Ptolemy’s theory didn’t add up

    On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies

    Criticized thinkers of his time, for not questioning ancient writings


    Field of Study


    Method of Discovery

    Published Works

    Additional Information

    Galileo Galilei



    & astronomy

    Improved the telescope, thermometer and compass
    Discovered the Milky Way was a mass of starts clustered together
    Discovered 4 moons orbiting Jupiter
    Telescope discovered the Earth moves around the sun

    Observed the sky through his improved telescope

    The Starry Messenger, Dialogue

    Faced trial for saying that the Earth revolved around the sun!
    Wrote a paper saying that he was wrong

    7.3.2 and 7.3.3

    Scientific Revolution


    Field of Study

    Idea Discovery

    Method of Discovery

    Published works

    Additional Information

    Francis Bacon


    Law and philosophy

    Reinforced the idea that observation and experiment was necessary to acquire knowledge


    The Advancement of Learning, The Essays, and lot of other stuff 

    He was the originator of the expression “Knowledge is power”


    Field of Study

    Idea Discovery

    Method of Discovery

    Published works

    Additional Information

    Rene Descartes



    & Philosophy

    Cartesian coordinate system:

    Math could be used to explain everything in nature

    Use algebra and geometry to prove this system

    Principles of Philosophy, Meditations on First Philosophy

    Founder of Modern Philosophy and Father of Modern Mathematics


    Field of Study

    Idea Discovery

    Method of Discovery

    Published works

    Additional Information

    Isaac Newton


    Astronomy, mathematics, and physics

    Theory of universal gravitation
    White light makes up different colors of the spectrum
    Three laws of motion

    Experiments and observations

    Mathematical Principles of Natural

    Elected President of the Royal Society
    Most celebrated scientist of his time!


    Field of Study


    Method of Discovery

    Published Works

    Additional Information

    Andreas Vesalius


    Medicine and Human Anatomy

    Galen had been incorrect about many aspects of the human anatomy

    Dissected human corpses

    On the Structure of the Human Body

    Book gave the first really accurate pictures of human anatomy

    If we combine the ideas of Bacon and Descartes

    • Science has combined the ideas of these men and created the “scientific method”

      • Step by step process for gathering information

      • Process that is used by all scientists


    The Age of Enlightenment

    John Locke’s Early Life

    • Born around the time of the English Civil War

      • Father was a “Roundhead”

      • When Locke was a student in London, King Charles I was executed.

      • Locke wanted to attend the execution, but his teacher wouldn’t let him.

    • Attended Oxford University, and became a physician.

    • Galileo and Newton had focused on investigating the physical world.

    • Other thinkers began to suggest that there also may be laws that apply to the social world.

    • Social World– the world of human activity and government

    • John Locke and others though:

    laws or principles of the social world could be understood by applying the power of human reason

    Age of Reason:

    1600s to 1700s

    Also been called the Enlightenment because so many thinkers believed that reason could illuminate truth

    Plot to Assassinate the King!

    • Charles II:

      • trouble with parliament and had Catholic ties

      • A few men (some friends of Locke) plotted to assassinate the king! Locke’s writings show that he did not approve of the king.

    • Their plot was discovered and Locke ran off to the Netherlands as others were arrested.

    • John Locke believed there are moral laws at work in the universe. He called this moral order natural law

    Natural Rights:

    • Life

    • Liberty

    • Ownership of property

    Who is subject to Natural Laws?

    • EVERYONE Even kings!!

    • The government is there to respect natural law and protect natural rights.

    • When the king follows his own rules, rather than natural law, Locke said it was okay to disobey the king.

    The Glorious Revolution

    • King James II appointed Catholics to high positions in

      • Army, government, universities

      • Subjects protested ignored them

    • The people wanted the throne to go to James’s daughter Mary, and her Dutch husband, William of Orange.

    • The English people called the overthrow of King James the Glorious Revolution

    • William and Mary (new rulers) had to accept a Bill of Rights

      • Limited the power of the king, and formally increased the power of parliament.

    The Bill of Rights

    • King needed Parliament’s permission to set aside laws, maintain an army in peacetime, or tax people.

    • Government had to be based on laws, not the desires of the King.

    • No Catholics could hold the English throne.

    Two Treaties of Government

    • Locke returned when Mary and William took the throne.

    • Wrote famous essays, titled Two Treatises of Government.

      • Explained that the government should protect people’s life, liberty, and property.

    If the government robs people of those rights, then the people have a right to revolt!!!

    Let’s wrap it up!

    The Enlightenment

    Time when people used reason to discover laws of society

    John Locke

    “Natural Laws” and “Natural Rights”


    The Enlightenment- FRACE

    King Louis XIV

    • Called himself the “Sun King”

      • considered himself as important as the sun

    • Believed in the Divine right of kings

    • He and his courtiers lived lives of splendor and excess

    • Didn’t care about:

      • The working

      • The poor

      • Religion

      • Pretty much anything but himself…. And being fancy


    • French philosopher and writer

    • Questioned teachings of the church

    • Made fun of French government

    • Believed people should be free to use reason and make up their own minds about

      • Religion

      • Politics

      • Philosophy

    • Believed “enlightened” advisors should advice the king on policies and laws


    • French philosopher who lived in England

    • The Spirit of Laws

      • Three kinds of government:

        • Monarchies: King and queen hold limited powers

        • Republics: aristocracy (few hold power) or democracy (the people hold power)

        • Despotic: Controlled by a tyrant he opposed this one

    • Best way to protect liberty was to divide powers among 3 branches

      • Legislative (law making)

      • Executive (law enforcing)

      • Judicial (courts)

    Benjamin Franklin

    • American Scientist

    • Inventor

    • Philosopher

    • Statesman

    • Brought many idea of the Enlightenment to the American colonies

    • He was the only person to sign the four key documents of American History!

      • The Declaration of Independence

      • the Treaty of Alliance with France

      • the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain

      • the Constitution of the United States

    • Franklin’s newspaper, the "Pennsylvania Gazette," was one of the most successful papers in the colonies

    Impact on Pennsylvania

    • He became Philadelphia's postmaster in 1737.

    • Philadelphia Accomplishments:

      • Founded a city hospital

      • organized a fire department

      • helped found what eventually became the University of Pennsylvania

    • Inventions included:

      • Electricity

      • The Franklin Stove

      • Bi-focal lenses

      • The lightening rod

    • His Scientific studies promoted an understanding of the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean and he encouraged daylight-savings time in the summer

    • He did not patent any of his inventions or use them for profit, preferring to give them to the world for everyone's comfort and convenience

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