Midterm notes

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  • In Panama, Pizarro

  • 1524& 1526: failed attempts in search for Inca gold

  • Told to go back to Panama but he refused

  • Pizarro and 13 men encountered a small group of Inca

  • Returned to Panama with:

    • Few captives

    • Llamas

    • Clothing

    • Pottery

    • GOLD

    • Traveled to Spain for permission to conquer

  • 1531: returned to devastation

    • Small pox decreased population

    • Civil war between ruler’s two sons (Atahualpa was the victor)

  • Spanish took Atahualpa (ah-tah-WAHL-pa)

  • Inca offered lots of gold and silver in exchange for his release and Spanish agreed

  • Spanish instead executed Atahualpa

  • 1537: Capital city (Cuzco) was taken and renamed Lima

  • North:

    • Mexico

    • Aztec land taken by Spanish

  • South:

    • New Spain

    • Inca land taken by Spanish


  • Soon after Spain, the Portuguese came to the New World

  • S&P took/ wanted:

    • Gold

    • Silver

    • Animal hides

    • Foods (sugar cane, cacao beans, corn, tomatoes, potatoes, etc.)

  • Americas brought the Spanish and Portuguese mad $$$

  • Viceroy: appointed governors that kept products flowing into the system

Class Structure

  • Peninsulares:

    • Enforced will of the king

    • Native Spaniards

  • Creoles:

    • Members of Spanish families

    • Born and raised in Americas

    • Lowest official jobs (this was rare)

  • Mestizos:

    • Mixed race (Spanish and native)

    • Craftsman or military

    • Poor

  • Natives:

    • Hard laborers

Encomienda System

  • “Entrust”

  • Encomieneros (colonists) forced natives to work from dawn until dusk in the fields or the mines

    • Expected to:

    • Protect Indians

    • Teach them about Christianity

    • Teach them European customs

  • Abuse was common

The Friars and the Indians

  • Did not go to the New World to plunder Aztec and Inca treasure

  • Friars went to spread Christianity

  • Many cared deeply about the Native people

  • Learned local languages

  • Studied traditional beliefs and looked for similarities to explain Christian ideas

Destruction of the Native Populations

  • 1519: 16-18 million people lived under Aztec rule

  • 1569: ½ of that population remained

  • 1605: just over 1 million remained

  • What happened?

    • Many died from:

      • Hunger

      • Exhaustion

      • Beatings

    • Most died from diseases like small pox– they had no immunity to European diseases


Bartolome de Las Casas

  • Wrote A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies

  • Catholic missionary

  • Concern with saving souls


What is the Columbian Exchange?

  • The transfer of peoples, diseases, plants, and animals between the New and Old Worlds.

What are the New and Old Worlds?

  • The New World refers to the Western Hemisphere

    • the Americas

  • The Old World refers to the Eastern Hemisphere

    • Europe, Asia, and Africa

The Columbian Exchange

  • Europeans sailing to America carried:

    • People

    • Plants

    • Animals

    • Diseases

    • Effects of the exchange changed the world

Things we should already know:

  • Spanish Explorers brought diseases

  • Native population died

  • Spanish turned to slaves to replace the native populations

Worlds of Change

  • Europeans sailing to America carried:

    • People

    • Plants

    • Animals

    • Diseases


So… the Natives died off…

  • Since there were so many plantations in the Americans (sugarcane, tobacco, etc.) he settlers needed free labor to work their plantations

  • Which is why enslaving Africans became a thing

Great Changes and Great Tragedies

  • The Age of Exploration was in many ways a great leap forward in our world’s history.

    • Adventurers made bold voyages

    • Sailed around the world

    • Ideas and goods were traded much faster

  • However – sometimes great changes also bring about great tragedy

Mostly Tragedy

  • 16th Century:

    • Slave trade costs millions their freedom and their lives

  • Slavery existed for thousands of years before this

    • ancient Greece

    • ancient Rome

    • Aztec Empire

    • African slave trade with the Muslim world

  • But this slave trade was different…

    • Millions of Africans taken against their will to the Americas


  • Savannah:

    • grassy plain with a few scattered trees

    • In Africa, there is one south of the Sahara

  • Rain Forest:

    • wet woodland filled with gigantic trees

    • Home to many different types of animals

What was going on in Africa?

  • African kingdom of Songhai capital:

  • Ruler of Songhai during its peak:

    • Askia Muhammad

    • Muslim

  • 1300s:

    • Mali captured much of Songhai territory

Benin: Kingdom of the Rain Forest

  • People were fierce warriors

  • Clever traders

  • All powerful ruler:

    • The Oba

  • “Great trading kingdom and a military power that dominated its neighbors.”

What does this have to do with the slave trade?

  • African kingdoms went to war, right?

  • They kept their prisoners of war from other African nations and sold them to the Muslims and Europeans as slaves!

    • They thought of themselves as tribal groups, not “Africans”


The Portuguese go to Benin

  • Originally not interested in slaves

    • Portuguese wanted gold from the west coast– the west coast wanted slaves

    • Portuguese got slaves from Benin traded slaves for gold

  • How could Africans sell other African into the slave trade?

    • Not a united group, thought of them as Edo or Songhai– members of different groups

      • ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Foreigner

Why was Slavery needed in the Americas?

  • Sugarcane

    • New to the Americas

    • Very labor intensive

    • Enslaved the natives to work the fields but most died from diseases

The Middle Passage

  • The “journey” slavery took

  • Europe Africa  Americas

  • 1: Ships carried manufactured European goods

  • 2. Transported slaves to the Americas

  • 3. Sugar and tobacco were transported back to Europe

  • Called the “Middle Passage” because:

  • It was the middle of a 3 part trade route, where the merchants transported slaves across the Atlantic and sold them in the West Indies or elsewhere.


  • Transatlantic slave trade:

  • Middle Passage

    • Route from Europe  Africa  Americas

    • It was the middle of a 3 part trade route, where the merchants transported slaves across the Atlantic and sold them in the West Indies or elsewhere.

Unit 7


Background- Henry VIII

  • King Henry VIII did everything in his power to make sure he had a male heir to England’s throne.

  • He married six times, in hopes of having sons.

    • He ended up having two girls and one boy

  • He broke from the Catholic Church in Rome and established the Church of England because he wanted to divorce his wife and the church would not allow it.

After Henry VIII

  • After Henry VIII died, his son Edward became king at just 9 years old.

    • He became sick and died just 6 years later

    • Next to the throne was Henry’s first daughter, Mary.

  • She was the first woman to rule England.

Queen Mary

  • Mary wanted to bring England back to the Roman Catholic Church

  • She announced her plan to marry King Phillip of Spain, and a revolt broke out against the Protestants. (because Spain was a Catholic nation)

  • Mary brought back laws against heresy and tried to outlaw the new Protestant Churches

  • More than 300 people were burned at the stake for heresy and many Protestants fled the country.

  • She was often called (insert name here).

Queen Elizabeth

  • Second Queen of England

  • Her reign is known as the “Golden Age”

  • As Queen of England, Elizabeth had to deal with many problems including:

    • Religious turmoil

    • Spanish competition

    • World Exploration

A Queen for the Golden Age

  • Elizabeth’s reign in England is known as the Golden Age

    • What does this mean?

      • England was becoming a major world power and was very prosperous

Elizabeth’s Legacies

    • Restores English Monarchy to the head of the Church

  • Exploration

    • Drake is the first captain to circumnavigate

    • North America (Virginia) is colonized by England

      • Raleigh sets up the first colony

  • Spain and the Spanish Armada

    • Spanish Armada failed numerous times

  • Marriage

    • Claimed she was married to England

Edmund Spenser vs. William Shakespeare

  • Spenser

    • Poet

    • The Faire Queene (written about Elizabeth)

      • Supposed to be 12 books long but died after writing the 3rd one

  • Shakespeare

    • Playwright

    • 38 plays survive today

    • He and his partners build their own theatre for his plays– the Globe Theatre

    • Do we see his work today?

      • Twelfth Night= “She’s the Man”

      • Taming of the Shrew= 10 Things I Hate About You

      • Romeo and Juliet= EVERYONE knows this one!


Sir Walter Raleigh

  • Accomplished Soldier, Sailor and Courtier

  • Outgoing personality

  • Granted a Charter to start the first English colony of Virginia in North America

    • “Lost Colony” of Roanoke

    • Did the English join the Croatian?

Francis Drake Takes on Spain

  • King Philip II of Spain: “defender” of the Catholic Church against Protestantism

  • Philip also possessed the wealth of Spain’s territories in the New World

  • English saw and wanted their own wealth

  • English sailors set sail to explore areas in the Caribbean – much to Spain’s alarm

    • Drake “pirates” Spanish treasure ships


  • Elizabeth made England into a Protestant nation once again

  • At first she did not punish Catholics for practicing their religion in private

    • No desire to “make windows into men’s hearts”

      • Dictate their private life

  • Policies did not last long…

    • Later Catholics were tried for treason

Conflict with Spain

  • Reasons for hostility

    • Raleigh’s expansion threatened Spain

    • Francis Drake showed everyone that Spain did not rule the seas

    • Elizabeth I funded Dutch Protestants fighting for Independence

      • Who were under Spanish control

    • Religious differences

War with Spain

  • Spanish Armada sailed into English Channel

  • Invincible Armada is challenged by smaller English ships

    • More fire power and easier to move around

  • “The Protestant Wind”

  • Defeat of Spanish Armada

  • What was the impact?

    • England became a world power


The English Civil War: A Chain Reaction

Great Britain

United Kingdom







Northern Ireland

James I Becomes King

  • 1603 – James VI of Scotland became James I: King of England

    • Protestant

    • United the Kingdoms of England and Scotland

King James I Causes Tension

  • James was Scottish

    • Thick accent and limited understanding of English laws and traditions

  • Believed in the Divine Right of Kings

    • Pushed for absolute authority

    • Clashed with Parliament

  • Divine Right of Kings:

    • The idea that kings received their power directly from God

    • Kings answer to God alone– NOT Parliament 

England’s Political Structure

King James I

Succeeded: Queen Elizabeth I

Religion: Protestant


Primary Duties: Advise the English king, help make laws, and impose taxes

House of Commons

  • Members:

  • Representatives elected by men who owned property– some were Puritans

House of Lords

  • Members:

  • Nobles who inherited their titles or were appointed by the king

  • Included Puritans and high-ranking clergy of the Church of England

James I and Parliament

  • James I needed money

    • Past wars with Spain and France

    • Luxurious lifestyle with many ceremonies

    • Parliament could grant permission for new taxes

      • James I attempted to go around Parliament by raising import duties (taxes on goods that were imported)

    • What was Parliaments Reaction?

      • They were angry because that was THEIR job—only they had the power to do that!

James and the Puritans

  • Puritans:

    • Followers of the Protestant reformer John Calvin

    • wanted to “purify” the Church of England because they thought it was too much like the Catholic Church

The Bonnie Prince Charlie (King Charles I)

  • Viewed as pro-Catholic by Puritans (he married a Catholic)

  • Divine Right of Kings

    • Periodically dissolved Parliament and ruled on his own

    • Uprising in Scotland

      • Charles I needs money and calls upon Parliament

Charles I and Parliament

  • Parliament tried to get Charles I to accept limits on his power

    • I.e.: Parliament cannot be adjourned (dismissed and brought back later)

  • Charles I with his guards attempts to arrest leaders of Parliament


England had divided into two sides

Royalists (Cavaliers)

Parliamentarians (Roundheads)

Supported the king

Great Horsemen


Large landowners

Church officials

Supported Parliament




The War

  • Beginning:

    • Forces were fairly evenly matched

  • Middle:

    • Roundheads started to advance– winning more battles

  • End:

    • Roundheads win!

The Roundheads win the war. Why?

  • They fought the king’s armies across England, especially in the north and west of the country. Thanks to Oliver Cromwell they won great victories.

What were the results of the Civil War?

  • Charles I was tried before a special court

    • set up by Parliament

    • He was executed – Regicide (the killing of a monarch)

So what happened next?

  • Charles II fled to the south coast by dressing like a girl

  • England became a Commonwealth

    • With Oliver Cromwell as the lord protector

So how did it go?

  • Cromwell and Puritans banned:

    • Theatre

    • Christmas

    • FUN!

  • After Cromwell died in 1658 they brought Prince Charles II back as king Charles II

    • Back to a monarch

The People Loved Charles II

  • Good relations with Parliament

  • Supported Church of England but sympathized Catholics (did not make the Puritans happy though)

  • Granted some Puritans gifts of land in the new world!


English Colonies


  • The first permanent English settlement in the Americas

  • The settlers were more interested in playing cards, and searching for gold than building homes

  • John Smith became the leader of Jamestown

    • Set up guidelines and rules for the settlers

    • Forced the settlers to work in the fields and build forts


  • King Charles I granted a charter to Lord Baltimore in the New World

    • Baltimore said he was naming the colony after King Charles’ wife, Henrietta Maria

      • HOWEVER…

    • Named it Mary land after the mother of Jesus

      • Wanted Protestants and Catholics to live in peace

New York

  • New Netherland was settled by the Dutch

    • Busy port on the Island of Manhattan

    • Governor Peter Stuyvesant

  • In 1664, English warships sailed into New Amsterdam’s harbor and threatened the Dutch

    • Fearful and not well armed, the Dutch surrendered

    • New Netherland was renamed New York

Carolina and Pennsylvania

  • Using the practice of granting charters to reward friends and eliminate enemies, Charles II created more colonies…

    • Carolina

      • Rich soil and fine harbor of Charles Town

    • Pennsylvania

      • Land granted to William Penn to pay off family debt

      • Center of religious tolerance


  • Nearly every American colony had:

    • An elected assembly that passed laws for the colonists

      • Colonists had to own property in order to vote for representatives to the assembly, but property was cheap so many male colonists voted

    • A Governor

      • The governor was sometimes appointed by the king

      • Often paid by the colonial assembly

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