Midterm notes



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4.2.2

Japan’s Geography



  • 4 major islands and thousands of smaller ones

  • About 500 miles off the coast of China

  • Honshu is the main island

  • Islands are mountainous (little land for farming) but they have easy access to seafood

  • Island locations protect it from invaders

  • Vulnerable to typhoons

    • But typhoons also drove away invading armies

Religion

  • Shintoism

    • Native religion of Japan

    • Believes that all things in nature have spirits

  • Buddhism

    • Originated in India

    • Spread by missionaries

    • Believes that followers rise above temptation and detach from worldly goods

  • Both

    • Build shrines

Social Structure: Feudalism

  • Japan was organized on the principles of feudalism

  • Feudalism is a system where rulers grant land to those who pledge their loyalty and military service in return



  • Shogun/shognate: commander in chief of Feudal Japan

  • Daimyo: warlord who supports the Shogun

  • Samurai: personal attendant/ warrior for the daimyo

  • Peasant: farmers who worked daimyos land (farmers)

Taking a closer look at Samurai

  • The word Samurai means “one who serves”

  • Samurai were professional warriors employed by the Daimyo

  • They received land in exchange for their dedicated service

  • They followed a strict code of behavior, called bushido

    • The code required devotion to duty and absolute bravery and loyalty

The Tokugawa Shogunate

  • For many years, powerful warlords struggled for rule of Japan.

  • In the early1600s , one man defeated all other warlords and united Japan under one rule

  • He came from the Tokugawa family and his name was Ieyasu

  • Japan prospered under the dynasty of the Tokugawa Shogunate and enjoyed a 250-year period of peace

  • Western traders and Jesuits missionaries began to visit Japan. More and more Europeans came.

  • The Tokugawa became alarmed at the number of Japanese converting to Christianity

  • They also feared that European nations might someday threaten their rule

  • The Tokugawa expelled many Christian missionaries, and persecuted Japanese Christians

  • They closed Japan’s borders to all, except a handful of foreign traders

4.3.2

From Vikings to Vladimir



  • The Vikings or the Rus settled down next to the Slavs in cities along rivers

  • Each city had a prince, but the prince of Kiev was less a monarch than a leader of a loose alliance of arguing city states

  • Vladimir took leadership in 980 and decided to use religion to unite the people

  • He sent agents out to investigate Judaism, Islam and Christianity before deciding the state religion would be Eastern Orthodox

  • By the 12th century, Kiev had four HUNDRED churches

  • Despite the attempt to unify, there was still tension between local rulers

  • Princes treated each other as rivals even when Mongol horseman began to appear…

The Mongols Invade Russia

  • In 1240, Mongols destroyed Kiev, looting its treasure and massacring its people 

  • Russian princes now had to pay tribute to the Tatar (Mongol) rulers

Ivan III/Ivan the Great

  • Gained control of other princes’ territory by buying land, persuading them to give it to him, or winning it in war

  • Freed Russia from Mongol rule and became tsar/czar (ruler/king/emperor)

  • Developed the Russian Orthodox Church

  • Ruled during the time of the Renaissance he wanted his country to be equally as awesome as Rome, Florence, etc. so he started a building and intellectual project in Moscow (capitol)

Rebuilding Kremlin

  • Kremlin: fortress; in Medieval times this protected cities sometimes enclosing cathedrals or palaces

“Three great stone cathedrals rose inside the Kremlin’s walls. It was all that Ivan had hoped– a mighty fortress, a symbol of Russia’s power, and a bustling court full of artists and scholars from all over Europe

  • Ivan was not a fan of the arts, but he saw the influence as power

  • Invited scholars and artists into the Kremlin to keep up with Europe– to prove Russia was just as hip!

Accomplishments

  • Defeated the Tatar and set Russia free

  • Made Moscow the center of the Russian Church and the state

  • Extended his rule

  • But he still did not have power over all of Russia

    • He passed that ambition onto his grandson, Ivan IV…

4.3.3

Poor Ivan 



  • Actually, he was Ivan IV

  • His father died, so his mother ruled Russian how she wanted, ignoring the boyars (Russian nobles) opinions and advice

    • She was poisoned 5 years into her reign

  • The boyars ran the country how they wanted: killing rivals, funneling money to their family and friends, and murdering anyone who got in their way

    • Ivan was surrounded by cruelty so that is all he knew

Ivan and the Peasants

  • Peasants were poor but were able to pay off their debts to land lords and move

  • This was a problem for nobles who served in Ivan’s army, because if they were away the peasants could pack their bags and leave

  • Ivan then forced peasants to be tied to the land they were born on

  • Eventually they became serfs, legally bound to remain on the land of their lord

Peasants

  • One bad crop could lead to starvation…Many survived on grass, tree bark, straw and whatever else they could find

  • Overwhelmed by heavy taxes and rent to pay to the landlords

  • Debts made it difficult to leave

Ivan the Terrible Grows an Empire

  • Expands Russia’s boarders by conquering land from the Tatars then pushing into Siberia

  • This is when he became “Ivan the Terrible”– he struck fear into the hearts of his enemies

  • To celebrate he has St. Basil’s constructed using Russian architecture

Ivan Gets More Terrible

  • He became very paranoid– seeing traitors everywhere

  • The tsar’s black-hooded secret police roamed the country, torturing and killing Ivan’s subjects

  • A huge portion of the boyar class was killed and peasants lived in fear

Unit 5

5.1.1


WHAT DID THE EUROPEANS NEEED?

  • 1. Silk from China

  • 2. Gems from India

  • 3. Spice

    • Flavored food

    • Preserved food before refrigeration

    • Used in medicine

WHY SAIL INSTEAD OF TRAVEL BY LAND?

  • The ancient land route known as the Silk Road was long and dangerous

    • Sandstorms

    • Bandits

    • Mountain Passes

  • Ottoman Turks now controlled the Silk Road and wanted it for their own

Henry the Navigator

  • Never did much exploring himself, but encouraged others to explore.

  • Henry was interested in mysterious land of Africa, which was rumored to have more gold than anywhere else in the world.

  • He sent over 50 explorations to and around Africa.

  • These explorers learned how to navigate the open seas and mapped much of the west coast of Africa

Tools of the trade

  • Astrolabe: It was used to locate and predict the position of the sun, moon planets and starts which gave local latitude and longitude

  • Quadrant: It was also used for navigation. There were a variety of types of quadrants. For example: the solar quadrant helped to measure the altitude of the sun.

New “Speed” Boats

  • The Portuguese invent a new small sailing vessel called a CARAVEL.

  • It road high in the ocean to avoid scraping against the bottom of unfamiliar coasts.

  • It utilized Arabic triangle sails to catch even the slightest winds

Even with all this new equipment, the Portuguese didn’t make it very far!!!

  • Sailors who sailed too far in the open sea often panicked and returned to the familiar waters. Some examples of the “terrors” of unfamiliar land were:

    • Sea monsters

    • Boiling oceans

    • Sun so hot it charred men’s skin

The Portuguese Breakthrough!

  • Portuguese sailors…

    • Make it past Cape Bojador and begin to map new territory.

    • Begin to barter with Africans for the first time.

      • Trading horses and wheat for gold and slaves (The beginning of the slave trade).

    • Mapped 2000 miles of the African Coast.

So how exactly did they make those maps?

  • Map making is easy today. We have very precise satellites that can map even the tiniest details.

    • Google “street view” and brand new Google “Trekker”

  • However, early cartographers didn’t have pictures or satellites.

  • They had to use math, particularly distance formulas as well as astrological data to determine latitude.

  • A keen eye and quick hand to draw what they saw was also important.

  • Also lots of graph paper!!!

5.1.2

Dias finally rounds the Cape



  • 1487 King John of Portugal sent an explorer and 3 ships to try and find the southern tip of Africa. ( A feet no one had yet accomplished)

  • Bartolomeu Dias led his crew through a massive storm and got so lost they actually had to sail north to find the southern tip!

  • He called it the “Cape of Storms” but John renamed it “Cape of Good Hope”

  • No one thought Africa was as big as it turned out to be.

Christopher Columbus

  • Birthplace: Present day Italy

  • Year of first voyage: 1492

  • Where did he leave from: Spain

  • Name of ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria

  • Christopher Columbus wanted to sail west to get to Asia.

  • He estimated the Earth circumference which probably helped to win over Isabella and Ferdinand’s help who were the two Spanish monarchs that funded his voyage.

  • His numbers were way off.

  • He was of course wrong, but in the process he landed in the Caribbean.

Columbus Sails West

  • Columbus and his crew of 3 ships and 90 men sailed for nearly 70 days before seeing land

  • Finally landed in the Bahamas; named the land San Salvador, claiming it for Spain

  • Natives were Taino people, but he assumed they were in India… hence the term “Indians”

    • Not extravagantly dressed and had no spices to trade. (However they did smoke tobacco, a substance no European had ever seen.)

  • Sailed to several islands assuming they were in Indonesia.

    • Landed on Cuba, Columbus assumed they were in China, and sent letters to the Emperor of China.

Truths to Misconceptions!

  • He did not “discover” America, Leif Erikson landed in the Americas before Columbus did

  • He did not prove that the world was round, people of the Middle Ages even knew it was round (The “Dark Ages” actually were not that dark)

  • He did not make friends with the natives. He was actually kind of awful to them.

    • ”His exploration of the New World was brutal and tyrannical. Native Americans were forced into slavery and mass murdered during his conquest.” 

More Columbus stuff!

  • Columbus never knew he was on a completely different continent. Remember: He had assumed he was in Asia

  • It wasn’t until another explorer Amerigo Vespucci realized that this new land was somewhere completely different. He named it “The New World”

  • Map makers decided it should have a better name and called it America in honor of Vespucci.

5.3.1

Dias finally rounds the Cape



  • 1487 King John of Portugal sent an explorer and 3 ships to try and find the southern tip of Africa. ( A feet no one had yet accomplished)

  • Bartolomeu Dias led his crew through a massive storm and got so lost they actually had to sail north to find the southern tip!

  • He called it the “Cape of Storms” but John renamed it “Cape of Good Hope”

  • No one thought Africa was as big as it turned out to be.

Christopher Columbus

  • Birthplace: Present day Italy

  • Year of first voyage: 1492

  • Where did he leave from: Spain

  • Name of ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria

  • Christopher Columbus wanted to sail west to get to Asia.

  • He estimated the Earth circumference which probably helped to win over Isabella and Ferdinand’s help who were the two Spanish monarchs that funded his voyage.

  • His numbers were way off.

  • He was of course wrong, but in the process he landed in the Caribbean.

Columbus Sails West

  • Columbus and his crew of 3 ships and 90 men sailed for nearly 70 days before seeing land

  • Finally landed in the Bahamas; named the land San Salvador, claiming it for Spain

  • Natives were Taino people, but he assumed they were in India… hence the term “Indians”

    • Not extravagantly dressed and had no spices to trade. (However they did smoke tobacco, a substance no European had ever seen.)

  • Sailed to several islands assuming they were in Indonesia.

    • Landed on Cuba, Columbus assumed they were in China, and sent letters to the Emperor of China.

Truths to Misconceptions!

  • He did not “discover” America, Leif Erikson landed in the Americas before Columbus did

  • He did not prove that the world was round, people of the Middle Ages even knew it was round (The “Dark Ages” actually were not that dark)

  • He did not make friends with the natives. He was actually kind of awful to them.

    • ”His exploration of the New World was brutal and tyrannical. Native Americans were forced into slavery and mass murdered during his conquest.” 

More Columbus stuff!

  • Columbus never knew he was on a completely different continent. Remember: He had assumed he was in Asia

  • It wasn’t until another explorer Amerigo Vespucci realized that this new land was somewhere completely different. He named it “The New World”

  • Map makers decided it should have a better name and called it America in honor of Vespucci.

5.3.2

Magellan’s Early Life

  • Born in 1480 in northern Portugal

  • Parents died when he was only 10 years old

  • At the age of 12, Magellan was appointed as the queen’s messenger in the royal court

    • Young boys were appointed as messenger as a source of education

    • He learned about many famous explorers and the most important information about navigating ships.

  • First voyage at sea – 25 years old

Landfall: Brazil

  • Sail west from Spain

  • Storms & calms in the Atlantic

  • All 5 ships make landfall on east coast of South America

  • Trade with natives and restock food/water supplies

Wintering over in Patagonia

  • Expedition leaves Brazil

  • Heads south along the coastline

  • Stop and Anchor in a bay for the winter

  • Meet the natives of Patagonia

  • Lose 1 ship during a storm

The Mutiny

  • Group of Spanish Offices mutinies and takes control of 3 of the 4 remaining ships

    • Why? Possibly due to Magellan being Portuguese.

  • Magellan regains control of the fleet

    • Mutineers are severely punished

Discovering the Straight

  • Spring arrives and begin sailing south

  • Enter a large bay….

    • Magellan sends 2 ships to explore it

  • Ships return with news of a small channel entering another bay

  • 4 ships enter

    • But Mutineers on 1 ship sneak away and heads back to Spain.

  • 3 ships make it through to the Pacific

Crossing the Pacific

  • 3 months – sail WNW across the Pacific

  • Food rots

    • Eat rats, leather, and sawdust

    • Scurvy kills many sailors

  • Fleet makes landfall on Guam and Rota

    • Resupply on food and water

  • 13,000 miles of Pacific

    • Finally reach the Philippines

Disaster in the Philippines

  • Magellan claims islands for Spain

  • Trades with natives & Baptizes many

  • One island chief refuses to welcome him

    • Magellan attacks the island

    • As they land on the beach, Magellan’s crew is attacked

    • Some of his crew escape

  • Magellan is killed

The Voyage Home

  • After Magellan’s Death

    • Crew burns one ship and continues to sail towards the Indies

    • Reach the Spice Islands and load cargo.

  • 2 remaining ships head in opposite directions

    • East to try to reach Mexico

    • West to head to Spain

      • Returns after 3 years

      • Only a crew of 18 remains

5.5.1

New World: Land that was “new” to the Europeans



  • People living in North & South America had been there for thousands of years before they were “discovered”

The Olmec

  • Believe to be the earliest civilization in the Americas

  • The civilization thrived between 1200 and 400 B.C. on Mexico’s Gulf coast

The Mayans

  • Timeframe – 250-900 AD

  • Ruled – by Kings

  • Capital City – Tikai

Mayan Religion

  • Polytheistic

    • Worshipped many Gods & Goddesses

      • including a sun god and a rain god

  • Priests performed rituals

    • to keep the gods happy

  • Celebrated religious festivals

  • Temples were located on stone pyramids

  • Believed in an afterlife

Mayan Achievements

  • Farming

    • Built terraces to grow crops on hillsides

    • Drained swamps for more farmland

    • Grew beans, squash, and corn

  • Cities

  • Built

    • Stone Pyramids

    • Stone Monuments, called Stalae

  • Writing & Math

    • Hieroglyphics

    • “Zero” as a number

  • Advanced understanding of astronomy

  • Predict eclipses

  • 365 day calendar

5.5.2

Aztecs


  • Nomads from the North that traveled from culture to culture.

  • They never really fit in… Why?

  • No culture understood their devotion to Huitzilopochtli, their god of war.

  • The Aztec wandered until they found a deserted Island in the middle of a lake.

  • They called the island and eventual city, Tenochtitlan.

  • The city eventually became bigger than most European cities.

  • The original island was too small so the Aztecs built their own islands to add on to the city!

  • As wonderful as this new city was… It had a dark side…

Satisfying Huitzilopochtli

  • Aztecs were one of the most brutal cultures in human history.

  • Warriors didn’t kill their enemies in battle, they captured them.

  • Prisoners were sacrificed every day to their god in incredibly gory fashion.

  • Priests usually preferred to cut out prisoners still beating hearts with stone knives.

  • There are some claims that after the Aztecs captured another civilization they sacrificed 84,000 people in 4 days!

Mexico: Name and Flag History

  • Symbols on the flag:

    • Aztec legend says that their war god sent them south and told them they would find a new home in a place where an eagle spread its wings as it tore apart a serpent. When the Aztec reached a remote island in the middle of a lake, they saw an eagle land atop a cactus, holding a snake in its beak.

  • Why did the conquering Spaniards name their new colony Mexico?

    • The Spaniards called their new colony Mexico after its native inhabitants, the Mexica. The ruling class of the Aztec empire referred to themselves as the Mexica.

The Incas

  • They didn’t focus on war and sacrifices like the Aztecs.

  • Instead they were much more focused on building great fortress and connecting their entire empire of 20 million people!!!

  • With such a vast empire that spans huge mountains they used Khipu to send messages.

  • They didn’t have formal writing and people would forget verbal messages so they used string and knots with varying colors and types to convey messages.

Unit 6

6.1.1

The Spanish and the Aztec



  • In the early 16th century, Spanish soldiers set out to conquer much of the Americas

    • They came for glory – for themselves and their country

    • They came to convert others to Christianity

    • They came in search of gold

  • A Spanish soldier who marched for glory, God, and gold was called a conquistador, which means conqueror.

Hernan Cortes

  • Hernán Cortés : Spanish conquistador who was very interested in glory and gold

  • He took part in the conquest of Cuba when he was 19 years old

  • He later led an expedition to Mexico in search of glory and gold

  • The Aztec people were alarmed by the Spanish – They had never seen horses, steel weapons, or shiny armor before

Path to Conquest

    • The news of the Spanish arrival soon reached the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán. Aztec ambassadors arrived in Vera Cruz bringing gifts and greetings from the emperor, Montezuma. Cortés said that he would like to meet this emperor and ask if the emperor had any gold. Yes, the Aztec told him. The emperor’s palaces were filled with gold.

“Send me some of it,” Cortés replied, “because my companions and I suffer from a disease of the heart which can be cured only with gold.”

  • The Spanish has strange weapons made from steel (swords), rode on large beasts (horses), and had black powder that when burned made the Aztecs dizzy (cannons and gunpowder)

  • Montezuma gave the Spanish what they wanted… gold, hoping they would go away

  • But that wasn’t enough… they wanted MORE!

  • Cortés journeyed to the capital city Tenochtitlán, recruiting native people that the Aztecs had conquered along the way

The End of the Aztec Civilization

  • Cortés took Montezuma hostage and took over Tenochtitlan

  • Lots of fighting between the Spanish and the Aztec

  • The Spanish brought small pox – it spread throughout the Aztec people – they had no immunity to this European disease.

  • The Spanish built a new capital city, New Spain– the capital of New Mexico

  • Reasons Aztec were defeated:

    • Disease

    • Starvation

    • Unfamiliar technology (Steel swords, armor, horses, etc.)
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