This is a complete set of notes from units 2-7. You may use this to complete your 50 question midterm assessment.
I know this is a 61 page document, but don’t worry. Each unit is a different color! This will make it easier for you to look through the notes! I URGE you to skim your notes BEFORE you take the midterm.
The French word for “rebirth”
What was “reborn” in the Renaissance?
Interest in the classic civilizations
Scholars hunted for lost Greek and Latin works
Poets wrote with the inspiration of Greek and Latin models
Architects, painters, and sculptors created a new world by studying and old forgotten one
Grew up in the Italian city-state of Florence
Held a government position… but politics got him into trouble
Had to travel to Rome to get things sorted with the Pope but he was held hostage
When he was released he was exiled from Florence
Had to travel from town to town
The mountains were dangerous
There was no common language of Italy (36 different dialects) so it was hard to make friends
But despite all the bad... He got to practice what he was passionate about
Dante’s Inferno/Divine Comedy
Began writing it in 1308
Dante was a Christian who believed in eternal life… but he struggled with who could gain it
there were too many bad people in the world for him to believe everyone could get it
The Inferno was the first part
It tells the journey of a man to the seven circles of hell and all the bad people he meets along the way
This story shook people to the core!
He was actually mentioned in Dante’s Divine Comedy
Paintings showed an artist breaking away from old styles
Medieval art painted objects as flat but he painted humans with round faces
Also recognized human emotions which was unlike Medieval art
He was often hailed as the pathbreaker for Renaissance painting
A period of artistic and literary achievements in Europe--from the late fourteenth to the early seventeenth centuries--inspired by new interest in the classics
Artists and writers created extraordinary art and literature that combined new and traditional subjects with classical styles and new ideas.
Things started to be written in Italian (Like Dante’s Divine Comedy)
Why was this important?
PEOPLE COULD READ IN ITALIAN!
The average Joe could not read Latin which was all the classics were… so this new stuff inspired by the classics they could read!
Loved reading the ancient Greek and Roman works
Started writing poems about this lady he liked
Also wrote poems about the beauty of nature
Wrote biographies of heroes of ancient Rome
He became so popular, he was awarded a prize by the Roman Senate for his poetry
“Petrarch gave a speech calling for a rebirth of classical wisdom and poetry.”
Because he was part of the church he got to travel the country… Looking for lost classical works!
Known as the Father of Humanism
Humanism: New concern with human nature and potential; stressed dignity of man and placed confidence in human potential
Gutenberg got the idea from working at the mint with his dad
Let blocks would be formed and lined up
Ink on letter clocks
Piece of paper would be stamped down by the press
Printer would remove sheet of paper and ink had to dry
Once the ink was dry they could put the page in the book
2.2.2 and 2.2.3
What is a City State?
“A city-state consisted of a principal city where most people resided and the land around it that they claimed. Some city states were ruled by kings, as in ancient Sumer. Others, such as Athens in ancient Greece, were democracies. Italian city-states in the Renaissance were often Republics led by powerful merchant families.”
The people vote on issues
The people elect others to represent them on issues
Associations that set standards for their work and protected their interests (examples: Blacksmith guild, glassmakers guild, stone mason guild…)
Important families often controlled a single guild, so that the guild’s representative could gain power in the city government
Wanted influence in government because they wanted changes to be made to the city to steer wealth in THEIR guilds’ direction
Life in Italian City States
Merchants and craftsmen tried to improve their products or sell rare items to increase their profits
Wealthy families built elegant homes, funded town projects, supported local artists and often took special interest in donating to their city’s church to make it the finest one around
Early Renaissance cities were dangerous
Crowded, dirty and unsanitary
Thieves lurked, waiting to strike
There were also deadly schemes to get rid of people who were in power
Collection of 120 islands in a lagoon
Used canals as streets with boats to transport them
Traded with Byzantium
Trade: glass making
Doge (dohj): Venetian leader, usually from a wealthy family
Almost all city states were led by a Doge
Venice was a center of learning, translation, and printing
Brought scholars from all over to translate ancient texts
Was the center of the Papal (where the Pope, leader of the Christian Church ruled)
After the “fall of Rome” the city lied in ruins. But when the Pope returned in 1417, an intense change took place. One pope after another set out to rebuild the city in order to restore it to its former glory.
The Pope ruled nearby cities but the cities sometimes ignored them
In this case… the Pope would have to send troops
I.E.: Pope Julius II led his own troops and became known as “the warrior pope.”
Famous Florentines: Dante, Giotto, and Petrarch
Wealthy family held power… who was that family?
The family made wealth a compactions… making many wealthy families of city states donate large sums to their cities or organized building projects to make their city-state magnificent
We will talk about this family later on in the unit… I think you will like them. They were pretty awesome
Why was Florence so awesome?
Simple: Florentine merchants and craftsmen learned that making luxury goods could make them RICH!
Florence specialized in wool, silk, gold jewelry, and tooled leather
Patronized the arts, learning and building projects to make their city beautiful
competed with each other by giving money to the city
Florence has elaborate libraries, hospitals, and palaces
Which means they could hire the best artists and architects to make the city beautiful
Had a “republic” like ancient Rome
Even though the Medici’s ran the city
Conquered surrounding territories
Because Florence was wealthy they could hire all the best artists and architects to make their city beautiful.
Giovanni: made his fortune in textiles
Comino: made his fortune in banking
Operated the largest bank in Europe
Spend lots of money on art for monasteries, chapels and convents in Florence
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Brought the most brilliant painters, sculptures, and scholars to Florence
Birth of the Renaissance was in Florence
Important people from Florence
Dante, Giotto, and Petrarch
Shifting from Medieval to Renaissance Art
Many paintings were still religious but…
Focus shifted from salvation
New focus: the beauty of creation
Tried to depict human beings as living individuals
Sculpted the statue of David- the first of its kind since classical times
After conquering Asia Minor the Ottomans moved to invade Eastern Europe
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Prize to capture
2 month siege on the city, until the Ottoman Sultan used his special forces, Janissaries, to attack.
After the victory…
The Sultan went to the Hagia Sophia (city’s largest Christian Church)……gave thanks to Allah.. And ordered the church be turned into a Mosque.
Then, he renamed the city Istanbul
Janissaries: Slave Warriors of the Sultan
Christian Boys (Eastern Europe)
Taken from their families
Forced to become slaves of the Sultan and convert religions
Isolated taught fighting techniques
Loyal to the Sultan
Ruled Ottoman Empire at its’ height in 1600’s
Bright Military Leader
Liked luxury items
Known as Suleyman the Magnificent by outsiders
Known as Suleyman the Lawmaker by the Ottomans
For all people living in the Ottoman Empire
People could appeal clear up to the Sultan if they felt the law was unjust.
Early Safavid Empire
Group of nomads conquered Persia
Their first Emperor, or Shah, was Ismail.
Ismail tried to conquer lands belonging to the Ottomans, but was unsuccessful, and lost many battles.
9. In the early sixteenth century a group of Muslim nomads from the north, called the Safavid, invaded and conquered Persia. Soon after, they began fighting with the Ottomans.
10. The Ottomans and the Safavids were enemies because:
The Ottomans- the Sunni (SOO-nee) branch
The Safavids- the Shi’ite (SHEE-iyts) branch
11. Differences between Suuni and Shi’ites:
Sunni: believed the most capable Muslim should lead
Shi’ite: believed that the Islam leader should always be someone from Muhammad’s family
16th Century Fighting
Throughout most of the 16th century, the Ottomans under Suleyman the Magnificent beat the Safavids in battle.
What advantages did the Ottomans have?
Better weapons, discipline, and numbers!
New Shah in Town
In 1587, Shah Abbas I came to power.
He copied the Ottoman fighting techniques
Captured slaves for his army
Got his army the best equipment
Won back most of the land taken by the Ottoman Turks.
Peak of Safavid
Occurred under Abbas
Persian carpets and pottery became popular as far away as Western Europe
The Shah supported poets and painters
Breaking from the Past
Early Muslims believed that only Allah could make a living thing, therefore, people should not portray anything living in art.
Persian painters rejected this idea, and painted lifelike paintings.
Connecting to Earlier Units
It was not coincidence that there were similarities in what happened in Europe and what happened in the Safavid Empire.
(#12) There was trade between Europe and Persia, so Persian artists had access to Renaissance ideas. They used their techniques in their own works.
In the 1520s, while Suleyman ruled in Istanbul and the Reformation fractured Christendom, a Muslim chieftain from Central Asia invaded northern India. His name was Babur (BAH-bur), and he founded a dynasty of rulers known as the Mughals. Babur’s grandson Akbar (AK-bur) went on to conquer most of northern and central India. Under Akbar in the second half of the sixteenth century, the Mughal’s build a large and powerful empire.
The Mughal Empire: Akbar
Most of the people in India followed Buddhism or Hinduism (mostly Hinduism)
Akbar ruled an empire of religious and cultural diversity by treating his people with respect
He did away with the dhimmi(or tax) that non-Muslims had to pay to live under a Muslim ruler
Banned the killing of cows, a sacred Hindu animal
Scholars of all different religions gathered in his palace
He felt like all religions has something worth teaching
Hired painters to make a portrait for him who learned their techniques from the Safavid painters (who learned from the Renaissance painters)
Respected the culture of the Safavids
Isfahan (the capitol under Akbar) had mosques built with brightly colored tiles and huge domes
Constructed from 1632-1653
Has both Indian and Persian elements
Before the Ming
Ruled by the Mongols (not to be confused with Mughals!)
Paid high taxes
Had little say in government
Endured terrible famines
It was just not a good time!
Peasant who lived during Mongol rule
Joined a Buddhist monasteries to escape famine but the Mongols burned it down!
Joined a rebel group and became their leader
His group beat out all the other rebel groups and he took over the southern part of the empire
Took over the Mongol capital of Dadu and begun building a new empire
Named the “Ming” dynasty because Ming means brilliant
Civil Service:The body of government officials appointed to help run a government
Recruited from schools but they had to pass a rigorous test
Arts and crafts flourished
Perfected ceramic making by using other colors
Capitol moved and renamed Beijing
Took 14 years to rebuild
Few Chinese and no foreigners were allowed in the city... It was forbidden!
The Forbidden City
The Emperor’s home, office and retreat
Designed to show the magnificence of the Ming Dynasty
Skilled Chinese sailor who sailed with a fleet of 62 LARGE ships and 225 SMALL ships all around the world
Brought back captives from 36 different countries
FUN FACT: from an African King, he was given giraffes to take to the Emperor
After Zheng died, exploration came to a halt because China had to deal with a threat from the north, the Mongols again
The Great Wall
Original was wall was built in c. 200 BC and greatly strengthened under the Ming Dynasty to keep the Mongols out
The Ming Dynasty managed repelled invaders and ruled China for nearly 300 years, from 1368 to 1644