Midterm notes

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This is a complete set of notes from units 2-7. You may use this to complete your 50 question midterm assessment.

I know this is a 61 page document, but don’t worry. Each unit is a different color! This will make it easier for you to look through the notes! I URGE you to skim your notes BEFORE you take the midterm.




  • The French word for “rebirth”

  • What was “reborn” in the Renaissance?

    • Interest in the classic civilizations

      • Greece

      • Rome

  • Scholars hunted for lost Greek and Latin works

  • Poets wrote with the inspiration of Greek and Latin models

  • Architects, painters, and sculptors created a new world by studying and old forgotten one


  • Grew up in the Italian city-state of Florence

  • Educated

  • Held a government position… but politics got him into trouble

    • Had to travel to Rome to get things sorted with the Pope but he was held hostage

    • When he was released he was exiled from Florence

  • Had to travel from town to town

  • The mountains were dangerous

  • There was no common language of Italy (36 different dialects) so it was hard to make friends

  • But despite all the bad... He got to practice what he was passionate about

    • Poetry

Dante’s Inferno/Divine Comedy

  • Began writing it in 1308

  • Dante was a Christian who believed in eternal life… but he struggled with who could gain it

    • there were too many bad people in the world for him to believe everyone could get it

  • The Inferno was the first part

    • It tells the journey of a man to the seven circles of hell and all the bad people he meets along the way

  • This story shook people to the core!


  • Painter

  • He was actually mentioned in Dante’s Divine Comedy

  • Paintings showed an artist breaking away from old styles

  • Medieval art painted objects as flat but he painted humans with round faces

    • Also recognized human emotions which was unlike Medieval art

  • He was often hailed as the pathbreaker for Renaissance painting



  • A period of artistic and literary achievements in Europe--from the late fourteenth to the early seventeenth centuries--inspired by new interest in the classics

  • Artists and writers created extraordinary art and literature that combined new and traditional subjects with classical styles and new ideas.

Important Note

  • Things started to be written in Italian (Like Dante’s Divine Comedy)

  • Why was this important?


    • The average Joe could not read Latin which was all the classics were… so this new stuff inspired by the classics they could read!


  • Loved reading the ancient Greek and Roman works

  • Started writing poems about this lady he liked

  • Also wrote poems about the beauty of nature

  • Wrote biographies of heroes of ancient Rome

  • He became so popular, he was awarded a prize by the Roman Senate for his poetry

  • “Petrarch gave a speech calling for a rebirth of classical wisdom and poetry.”

  • Because he was part of the church he got to travel the country… Looking for lost classical works!

  • Known as the Father of Humanism

    • Humanism: New concern with human nature and potential; stressed dignity of man and placed confidence in human potential

  • Led by example

  • Brought learning to the center of Italian life



Early Renaissance

  • Flat, 2 dimensional

  • No human emotions

  • ALL religious paintings

  • Proportions are way off

  • More depth (i.e.: round faces)

  • Emotions portrayed

  • Some religious paintings but not all

  • Proportions are more accurate

  • More realistic


The Printing Press

  • Manuscripts

    • Hand written

    • Took a very long time

  • Printing press

    • Much faster

    • Gutenberg got the idea from working at the mint with his dad

    • Let blocks would be formed and lined up

    • Ink on letter clocks

    • Piece of paper would be stamped down by the press

    • Printer would remove sheet of paper and ink had to dry

    • Once the ink was dry they could put the page in the book

2.2.2 and 2.2.3

What is a City State?

  • “A city-state consisted of a principal city where most people resided and the land around it that they claimed. Some city states were ruled by kings, as in ancient Sumer. Others, such as Athens in ancient Greece, were democracies. Italian city-states in the Renaissance were often Republics led by powerful merchant families.”



The people vote on issues

The people elect others to represent them on issues


  • Associations that set standards for their work and protected their interests (examples: Blacksmith guild, glassmakers guild, stone mason guild…)

  • Important families often controlled a single guild, so that the guild’s representative could gain power in the city government

  • Wanted influence in government because they wanted changes to be made to the city to steer wealth in THEIR guilds’ direction

Life in Italian City States

  • Merchants and craftsmen tried to improve their products or sell rare items to increase their profits

  • Wealthy families built elegant homes, funded town projects, supported local artists and often took special interest in donating to their city’s church to make it the finest one around

  • Disadvantages

    • Early Renaissance cities were dangerous

    • Crowded, dirty and unsanitary

    • Thieves lurked, waiting to strike

    • There were also deadly schemes to get rid of people who were in power


  • Collection of 120 islands in a lagoon

  • Used canals as streets with boats to transport them

  • Traded with Byzantium

  • Trade: glass making

  • Doge (dohj): Venetian leader, usually from a wealthy family

    • Almost all city states were led by a Doge

  • Venice was a center of learning, translation, and printing

    • Brought scholars from all over to translate ancient texts

Rome and the Papal States

  • WAS the capital of the old Roman

  • Was the center of the Papal (where the Pope, leader of the Christian Church ruled)

  • After the “fall of Rome” the city lied in ruins. But when the Pope returned in 1417, an intense change took place. One pope after another set out to rebuild the city in order to restore it to its former glory.

  • The Pope ruled nearby cities but the cities sometimes ignored them

  • In this case… the Pope would have to send troops

  • I.E.: Pope Julius II led his own troops and became known as “the warrior pope.”


  • Famous Florentines: Dante, Giotto, and Petrarch

  • Wealthy republic

  • Wealthy family held power… who was that family?

    • The Medici

  • The family made wealth a compactions… making many wealthy families of city states donate large sums to their cities or organized building projects to make their city-state magnificent

  • We will talk about this family later on in the unit… I think you will like them. They were pretty awesome 


Why was Florence so awesome?

  • Simple: Florentine merchants and craftsmen learned that making luxury goods could make them RICH!

  • Florence specialized in wool, silk, gold jewelry, and tooled leather

Wealthy Families

  • Patronized the arts, learning and building projects to make their city beautiful

  • competed with each other by giving money to the city

  • Florence has elaborate libraries, hospitals, and palaces

Florentine Pride

  • Proud because….

    • Wealthy

    • Which means they could hire the best artists and architects to make the city beautiful

    • Had a “republic” like ancient Rome

    • Even though the Medici’s ran the city

    • Conquered surrounding territories

  • Because Florence was wealthy they could hire all the best artists and architects to make their city beautiful.

The Medici

  • Giovanni: made his fortune in textiles

  • Comino: made his fortune in banking

    • Operated the largest bank in Europe

    • Spend lots of money on art for monasteries, chapels and convents in Florence

  • Lorenzo the Magnificent

    • Brought the most brilliant painters, sculptures, and scholars to Florence


The Renaissance

  • Birth of the Renaissance was in Florence

  • Important people from Florence

    • Dante, Giotto, and Petrarch

Shifting from Medieval to Renaissance Art

  • Focus

    • Many paintings were still religious but…

      • Focus shifted from salvation

      • New focus: the beauty of creation

  • Tried to depict human beings as living individuals


  • Sculpted the statue of David- the first of its kind since classical times

  • Was a symbol of Florentine courage against tyrants and a celebration of man

Renaissance Man: Leonardo Da Vinci

  • Painter

  • Sculptor

  • Architect

  • Engineer

  • Scientist

  • Philosopher

  • Visionary

  • Commissioned by the duke of Milan to create a huge bronze statue of his father on a horse


  • Used mythology in his paintings

  • Birth of Venus was one of the most famous paintings of the Renaissance

Trailblazer: Masaccio

  • Known as a Renaissance art trailblazer

  • Became known as the “Father of Renaissance Painting” because he used the new approach in painting


  • Wool merchants of Florence held a contests to see who could built the most elaborate and classic-like gilded bronze doors for the Baptistery

  • Brunelleschi and another artist won, but Brunelleschi didn’t want to share the prize, so he turned it down

  • “I had surpassed everyone”

  • Studied ancient Roman architecture techniques in Rome

  • Selected to build the dome for the Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence

    • Why was the Santa Maria del Fiore so special?

      • No one could figure out how to build such a big dome

      • The Emperor Justinian was the last one when the Hagia Sophia was built in the 6th century

  • Took 16 years to build

    • Herringbone pattern

    • Invented a hoist to raise materials to the sky!

*Many others tried to construct buildings based off the styles and techniques of Ancient Rome


Some people weren’t happy with all these new “vanities”

  • Friar of the church

  • Worried that people were distracted from God by their wealth and possessions

  • Rejected Petrarch’s simultaneous embrace of classical wisdom and the Christian faith

    • Said that the ancients knew nothing of Christ

  • Would tell people that the rulers were corrupt, bankers were stealing their money, and priests were more concerned with power and wealth than saving souls

  • When Lorenzo the magnificent died he claimed it was a sign from God

  • Then France invaded in 1494

    • The Medici were driven from the city

    • Their palace ransacked

    • Priceless art destroyed

  • At one point he urged Florentines to collect their “vanities”- make up, playing cards, dice, paintings of women, books of poetry, musical instruments… and throw them into a huge bonfire

  • Finally, he verbally attacked Pope Alexander VI saying he was immoral and corrupt and that was the last straw!

    • He was publically killed


Leonardo Da Vinci: The Renaissance Man

  • Painter, inventor, scientist, mathematician, engineer, writer, musician and more!

  • Painter of the Mona Lisa

  • Fun facts:

    • Dissected a human body to learn the inner workings (This sounds creepy, but it was all in the name of science!)

    • He was a vegetarian!


  • Created many statues for Florence

  • First artist to use central point perspective

  • Hired by Cosimo de’ Medici to sculpted the bronze David for the Palazzo Medici



  • Known as the “Prince of Painters”

  • Famous Work: Madonnas (painting of Mary and baby Jesus), frescoes the School of Athens

    • * a Fresco is anything painted on fresh plaster.. It is actually more like a plaster painting

  • Painted the School of Athens in Pope Julius II’s library

    • Painted himself in the scene and possibly Leonardo Da Vinvi (he was a big fan )

      • Leonardo has a big beard

      • Raphael is wearing a blue hat

    • Painted Michelangelo also!

      • Michelangelo has a pair of leather boots on


  • Painter, sculptor

  • Famous work: David

  • By 1805 he was the most famous sculptor in Italy, so Pope Julius II asked him to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel


Rome in the Early 1400s

  • Not a great place to live

    • Buildings were in poor shape

    • Bath houses were filled with shady people

  • But by the mid-15th century the Pope was restored back to his historic home

    • The leader of the Christian Church for many years has resided in the city of Rome

    • For many years of the Roman Empire, Rome has been home of the Pope, whom was the leader of the Christian faith (and today leader of the Catholic faith.. We will talk about that later this year )

  • Since Florence was so awesome and filled with a “rebirth” of classical culture, every Pope wanted to catch up and make Rome just as magnificent

  • All over Europe, kings, princes, the Holy Roman Emperor, and ordinary folk gave their money to the Church as a sign of their faith.

  • For the next 200 years , one pope after another worked at reviving the ancient city

    • Became patrons of the arts

      • Rubble was cleared

      • Sewage was cleaned up

      • Replaced columns and arches with new churches and palaces

      • Turned barren ruins into gardens

  • Popes were also interested in classical learning – since they were in Rome they had an advantage!

    • Found ancient statues that were buried

    • Collected coins, books, and other relics

    • Transformed the Vatican (the headquarters of the Church) to a palace

    • Welcomed scholars

    • Built a new library housing ancient texts

Sixus IV

  • Built new roads

  • Repaired aqueducts

  • Restored city walls

  • Sought out Greek, Latin, and Hebrew writings

  • Built the new Vatican chapel… the Sistine Chapel!

  • Did what Dante condemned in his Divine Comedy—sold church offices and privileges to pay for all of the new restorations

Julius II

  • All popes tried to outdo the last but none more than Pope Julius II

  • Had a bad temper

    • Was known as “the Terrifying Pope”

  • Led his own troops to fight off neighbors when Rome was being threatened by Perugia and Bologna

  • Focused on rebuilding Rome when not at war

    • Paved streets

    • Replace ancient sewers, dredge the Tiber River so ships could come through

    • Invited scholars to the city

    • Collected books and purchased classical art

    • Hired the best painters, sculptors and architects to beautify the city

    • Added courtyards, fountains, a theatre, sculpture garden, and an arena for bull fights to the Vatican



The Church

  • The church was a very corrupt place

  • Popes were concerned with worldly power and luxury

    • Remember when Popes were selling offices to pay for things during the Renaissance?

  • Bishops wanted to live like princes

  • Some people began to question everything that was going on… but no one said anything

  • Pope Leo X needed money to finish St. Peter’s Basilica.. So he started selling these things called “indulgences”.

    • What is an indulgence?

      • A promise from the church before someone died to shorten a person’s time in punishment (purgatory) if they perform acts of charity or prayers

  • So instead of praying or performing an act of charity, all people now had to do was pay money to get into heaven more quickly

    • Price depended on the sin

Martin Luther

  • Traveled to St. Peter’s in Rome

    • Thought to himself… where are they getting this kind of money from?!

    • Saw all the fancy paintings in Rome

  • And one day it struck him…..

    • Humans are too sinful to EARN forgiveness, they must live by the faith that God will forgive them

  • One day a man named Johann Tetzel came to Wittenberg selling indulgences

  • Luther was FURIOUS because the people of Wittenberg were already poor enough!

  • So he decided to stay silent no more!

  1. Theses

  • 95 arguments against the church

  • Publically criticized the misuse of indulgences

  • Nailed to the church of Wittenberg doors on October 31, 1517 and soon translated into German... The vernacular (or language) of the people!

    • Because of Gutenberg’s printing press, his writings began to spread far and wide!

  • Within a year, Luther started questioning whether a Pope was actually needed

    • Pope Leo was NOT happy

  • Luther was branded a “heretic” and guilty of heresy

    • the refusal to accept the beliefs of a church

    • A heretic is someone who disagrees with the Church’s views

Diet of Worms

  • Diet: a special meeting

  • The Pope AND the Holy Roman Emperor attended this meeting

    • Told Luther he has to recant (take back) all the bad stuff he said about the church… but Luther said “NOPE!”

  • Luther was an outlaw now and headed back to Wittenberg

    • But he had built a large following of many German nobles, princes, and knights

  • The Prince of Saxony (Prince Fredrick) captured him outside Worms

    • Fredrick kept him safe while he translated the Bible into German

  • People no longer had to rely on the church to translate for them… they could interoperate the Bible for themselves!

    • Translation + Printing Press = thousands of people being able to read the Bible

And so started the Reformation!



  • The movement to change the Christian church for the better that ended up dividing Christianity

  • Catholic VS. Protestant



  • Those following the pope

  • Started calling itself the Roman Catholic Church… Catholic means “universal”

  • Those following the teaching of Martin Luther

  • They protested practices of the Church based in Rome= Protestant Church


  • The views of Martin Luther don’t just affect people in Germany, but ALL over Europe!

John Calvin

  • French scholar

  • Moved to Switzerland because the king of France was a devout Catholic

  • Teachings spread to the Netherlands, Scotland, and Central Europe

  • Wanted to organize churches in a different way

  • Followers in Scotland called Presbyterians

  • Followers in France called Huguenots

  • Followers in England and later the colonies called Puritans


  • England was a big deal... They had the most powerful military at the time and took over a lot of places (like Scotland for example)

  • Henry VIII (King of England at the time) had pamphlets printed making Luther look bad

  • Pope rewarded him with the title: Defender of the Faith

  • So the Pope and Henry were best friends.. For a while.

Henry VIII

  • Henry’s wife was Catherine of Aragon

  • First they had a baby boy, but he died at 3 months old 

  • Then they had a little girl, then another, than another, then another, then another

    • All but one died

  • Henry was upset… But not for the reason you may think

    • Upset because he needed a MALE heir to pass the throne down to and to carry on his name

  • So he ask the pope if he can divorce his wife

  • In the 16th century the pope had to approve it which almost NEVER happened

  • The Pope said “NOPE. Deal with it.”

  • In 1534 England broke away from the Church and became a Protestant nation… The Church of England

    • Anyone who disagrees with the head of the Church of England (King Henry VIII) will be beheaded


The Council of Trent

  • 1545-1563

  • Series of meetings

    • 25 in all

  • Did away with sale of indulgences

  • Wrote a new statement of beliefs to summarize the teachings of the Catholic church

  • Encouraged priests to live modestly and care for the poor

  • Affirmed that the pope should lead the church

  • By the end, the church realized they needed to focus on spiritual needs

Teresa of Avila

  • Founded many new convents in Spain and encouraged nuns to lead their lives of service to others

Ignatius of Loyola

  • Dreamed of fame and glory before a war injury

    • All he could do was sit around and read when his leg was blown off by a canon

      • Only had the Life of Jesus and books on Saints

  • Traveled to convert Muslims but the Pope wanted him on his team

    • This new order of “priests” was called the Society of Jesus or the “Jesuits”

  • Preached Catholicism


  • Priests who were the members of the Society of Jesus

  • Educated the young with catholic doctrine

  • Spread their message to Africa, China, Japan, and the American colonies

  • Francis Xavier

    • Jesuit missionary who carried the gospel from Spain all the way to India and the Far East

What more can the Catholic Church do to stop the spread of Protestantism?– The Counter-Reform!—The Counter- Reform

  • The Index or Forbidden Books

    • Told people that books and pamphlets on Protestant ideas were dangerous and wrong

      • So they banned them!

      • Published a list that loyal Catholics should not read

  • The Inquisition!

    • Means “examine” or “investigate”

    • Arrested and punished people who did not agree with the churches beliefs.. Do we remember what these people were called?

Europe Splits and Turns Bloody

  • Germany

    • Holy Roman Emperor led Catholic forces against a league of Protestant States before deciding each German price could decide to either be Catholic or Protestant

  • France

    • Civil war broke out1562-1598

    • Fighting broke out 9 times

    • 1572: more than 10,000 Huguenots killed

  • Netherlands

    • Ruled by Catholic Spain

    • Protestants waged a bloody revolt eventually gaining independent Protestant Dutch states

  • England

    • Swung back and forth from Catholic to Protestant, back to Catholic… etc.

    • Cause A LOT of problems for England for a VERY long time

Unit 4


Leading up to the Islamic Empires

  • 1300’s Mongol Armies(from Central Asia)

    • Invaded Persia and Mesopotamia.

  • Mongol’s…..

    • Pillaged, burned, destroyed, & were ­­­Muslim

  • Mongol invasion marked

    • bad times in Islamic History

While Europe experienced the Renaissance the Islamic World also started to recover

  • 1400-1700’s

  • 3 new Muslim Empires appeared

    • Ottoman Empire

    • Safavid Empire of Persia

    • Mughal Empire of India

The Ottoman Empire 1300-1500’s

  • Osman (os-MAHN )

    • Was a member of a ­­­Nomadic Tribe in present day Turkey.

    • He had a dream..

    • His son & grandson carried on that dream

      • Became known as ­­­Ottomans (People of Osman)

  • After conquering Asia Minor the Ottomans moved to invade Eastern Europe


  • Capital of the ­­­Byzantine Empire

  • Prize to capture

  • 2 month siege on the city, until the Ottoman Sultan used his special forces, Janissaries, to attack.

  • After the victory…

  • The Sultan went to the Hagia Sophia (city’s largest Christian Church)……gave thanks to Allah.. And ordered the church be turned into a Mosque.

  • Then, he renamed the city ­­­Istanbul

Janissaries: Slave Warriors of the Sultan

  • Christian Boys (Eastern Europe)

  • Taken from their families

  • Forced to become ­­­slaves of the Sultan and convert religions

  • Isolated taught fighting techniques

  • Loyal to the ­­­Sultan

    • Well rewarded

    • Well controlled

Suleyman (SOO-lay—mahn)

  • Ruled Ottoman Empire at its’ height in 1600’s

  • Bright Military Leader

  • Liked luxury items

    • Known as Suleyman the ­­­Magnificent by outsiders

    • Known as Suleyman the ­­­Lawmaker by the Ottomans

  • Created laws

    • For all people living in the Ottoman Empire

    • People could appeal clear up to the ­­­Sultan if they felt the law was unjust.


Early Safavid Empire

  • Group of nomads conquered ­­­­­Persia

  • Their first Emperor, or Shah, was Ismail.

  • Ismail tried to conquer lands belonging to the Ottomans, but was unsuccessful, and lost many battles.

Student pages:

  • 9. In the early sixteenth century a group of Muslim nomads from the north, called the Safavid, invaded and conquered Persia. Soon after, they began fighting with the Ottomans.

  • 10. The Ottomans and the Safavids were enemies because:

    • Land

    • Religion- Islam

      • The Ottomans- the Sunni (SOO-nee) branch

      • The Safavids- the Shi’ite (SHEE-iyts) branch

  • 11. Differences between Suuni and Shi’ites:

    • Sunni: believed the most capable Muslim should lead

    • Shi’ite: believed that the Islam leader should always be someone from Muhammad’s family

16th Century Fighting

  • Throughout most of the 16th century, the Ottomans under Suleyman the Magnificent beat the Safavids in battle.

  • What advantages did the Ottomans have?

    • Better weapons, discipline, and numbers!

New Shah in Town

  • In 1587, Shah Abbas I came to power.

  • He copied the Ottoman fighting techniques

    • Captured slaves for his army

    • Got his army the best equipment

  • Won back most of the land taken by the Ottoman Turks.

Peak of Safavid

  • Occurred under Abbas

  • Persian carpets and pottery became popular as far away as Western Europe

  • The Shah supported poets and painters

Breaking from the Past

  • Early Muslims believed that only Allah could make a living thing, therefore, people should not portray anything living in art.

  • Persian painters rejected this idea, and painted lifelike paintings.

Connecting to Earlier Units

  • It was not coincidence that there were similarities in what happened in Europe and what happened in the Safavid Empire.

  • (#12) There was trade between Europe and Persia, so Persian artists had access to Renaissance ideas. They used their techniques in their own works.


  • In the 1520s, while Suleyman ruled in Istanbul and the Reformation fractured Christendom, a Muslim chieftain from Central Asia invaded northern India. His name was Babur (BAH-bur), and he founded a dynasty of rulers known as the Mughals. Babur’s grandson Akbar (AK-bur) went on to conquer most of northern and central India. Under Akbar in the second half of the sixteenth century, the Mughal’s build a large and powerful empire.

The Mughal Empire: Akbar

  • Most of the people in India followed Buddhism or Hinduism (mostly Hinduism)

  • Akbar ruled an empire of religious and cultural diversity by treating his people with respect

  • He did away with the dhimmi(or tax) that non-Muslims had to pay to live under a Muslim ruler

  • Banned the killing of cows, a sacred Hindu animal

  • Scholars of all different religions gathered in his palace

  • He felt like all religions has something worth teaching

  • Hired painters to make a portrait for him who learned their techniques from the Safavid painters (who learned from the Renaissance painters)

  • Respected the culture of the Safavids

  • Isfahan (the capitol under Akbar) had mosques built with brightly colored tiles and huge domes

Taj Mahal

  • Constructed from 1632-1653

  • Has both Indian and Persian elements


Before the Ming

  • Ruled by the Mongols (not to be confused with Mughals!)

  • The people:

    • Paid high taxes

    • Had little say in government

    • Endured terrible famines

  • It was just not a good time!

Zhu Yuanzhang

  • Peasant who lived during Mongol rule

  • Joined a Buddhist monasteries to escape famine but the Mongols burned it down!

  • Joined a rebel group and became their leader

  • His group beat out all the other rebel groups and he took over the southern part of the empire

  • Took over the Mongol capital of Dadu and begun building a new empire

Ming= Brilliant

  • Named the “Ming” dynasty because Ming means brilliant

  • Civil Service: The body of government officials appointed to help run a government

  • Recruited from schools but they had to pass a rigorous test

  • Arts and crafts flourished

  • Perfected ceramic making by using other colors

  • Capitol moved and renamed Beijing

  • Took 14 years to rebuild

  • Few Chinese and no foreigners were allowed in the city... It was forbidden!

The Forbidden City

  • The Emperor’s home, office and retreat

  • Designed to show the magnificence of the Ming Dynasty

Zheng He

  • Skilled Chinese sailor who sailed with a fleet of 62 LARGE ships and 225 SMALL ships all around the world

  • Brought back captives from 36 different countries

  • FUN FACT: from an African King, he was given giraffes to take to the Emperor

  • After Zheng died, exploration came to a halt because China had to deal with a threat from the north, the Mongols again 

The Great Wall

  • Original was wall was built in c. 200 BC and greatly strengthened under the Ming Dynasty to keep the Mongols out

  • The Ming Dynasty managed repelled invaders and ruled China for nearly 300 years, from 1368 to 1644

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