Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted

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(Szczuczyn); Marian Turski, ed., Losy żydowskie: Świadectwo żywych, vol. 1 (Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Żydów Kombatantów i Poszkodowanych w II Wojnie Światowej, 1996), 207, 209, 216 (Warsaw); Doba-Necha Cukierman, A Guardian Angel: Memories of Lublin (East Bentleigh, Victoria: Ester Csaky, 1997), 105, 148, 153, 170 (a policeman named Lutek Melski stationed in Firlej near Lublin); Wiktoria Śliwowska, ed., The Last Eyewitnesses: Children of the Holocaust Speak (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1998), 8 (a policeman named Pitera sheltered the Aleksandrowicz family in Kraków), 12 (Wacław Nowiński, a Polish policeman, used to visit the Berłowicz family in the Warsaw ghetto and brought food to them), 94 (a policeman named Stokowski in Warsaw would not arrest Maria Leszczyńska Ejzen’s mother at the time of her husband’s capture by the Germans; instead he took her to his home and helped her by giving her clothing and money), 125 (a policeman received a report about Saba Aleksander and her daughter, who were passing as Poles in Warsaw, but took no further action after speaking with the mother), 145 (Sabina Wylot was rescued by a Polish policeman who convinced the German military police who apprehended her and other Jewish children smugglers in Warsaw that she was not Jewish); Tomaszewski and Werbowski, Zegota, 111–12, 160 (Warsaw), and the revised edition Żegota, 105, 148 (Warsaw); Hochberg-Mariańska and Grüss, The Children Accuse, 111, 114, 166, 183 (various policemen in Kraków); Benjamin Bender, Glimpses Through Holocaust and Liberation (Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 1995), 87–88 (Częstochowa); Kurek, Your Life Is Worth Mine, 147 (Kraków), 151 (Bochnia), 152 (Tarnów), 153 (Tarnopol), 161 (Łabunie near Zamość), 220 (Otwock); Doba-Necha Cukierman, A Guardian Angel: Memories of Lublin (East Bentleigh, Victoria, Australia: E. Csaky, 1997), 148; Cyprys, A Jump For Life, 10, 155 (a Polish railway guard found a letter from a child addressed to his mother in the Warsaw ghetto which he entrusted to a Polish policeman to deliver to the mother); Donald L. Niewyk, ed., Fresh Wounds: Early Narratives of Holocaust Survival (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 94, 96 (near Łuków); Shalom Cholawsky, The Jews of Bielorussia during World War II (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998), 136 (Kurzeniec); Stanisław Taubenschlag (Stanley Townsend), To Be a Jew in Occupied Poland: Cracow, Auschwitz, Buchenwald (Oświęcim: Frap Books, 1998), 33 (the author enlisted the help of two Polish friends, who continued to work in the police force after the German invasion, to attempt to track down a denouncer); Allan Levine, Fugitives of the Forest (Toronto: Stoddart, 1998), 105 (Żołudek); Yaffa Eliach, There Once Was a World: A Nine-Hundred-Year Chronicle of the Shtetl of Eishyshok (Boston: Little, Brown, 1998), 598, 601, 606 (Raduń); Isakiewicz, Harmonica, 219 (a policeman in Warsaw freed a teenaged boy picked up for smuggling); Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 248–49 (assistance to Siedlce ghetto residents by Home Army members who infiltrated the criminal police); Paulsson, Secret City, 89 (a policeman named Eliasz Pietruszka arranged Irma Morgenstern’s escape from the Warsaw ghetto and found her shelter), 147 and 264 n.31 (several examples in Warsaw); Chodorska, Godni synowie naszej Ojczyzny, Part One, 123 (a Polish policeman warned a Jewish family of the impending deportation in Skała, thus giving them a chance to escape from the ghetto), 141 (Franciszek Banaś, a member of the Home Army who has been awarded by Yad Vashem, was directed to work as a policeman in the Kraków ghetto from which he smuggeled out Jews), 183–84 (a policeman in Piotrowice near Lublin warned a Polish family to get rid of their Jewish charges); Michał Czajka, Marta Janczewska, and Apolonia Umińska-Keff, eds., Relacje z czasów Zagłady Inwentarz: Archiwum ŻIH IN-B, zespół 301: Nr. 2001–3000/Holocaust Survivor Testimonies Catalogue: Jewish Historical Institute Archives, Record Group 301: No. 2001–3000 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny Instytut Naukowo-Badawczy, 2002), vol. 3, 102 (Jan Kubicki, a policeman in Warsaw, assisted Kira Heinsdorf), 218 (a police officer in Kurzeniec helped Helena Baranowicz and her child to escape from an execution column); Michał Grynberg, ed., Words To Outlive Us: Voices From the Warsaw Ghetto (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt, 2002), 323, (Warsaw), 330–32 (a Warsaw policeman named Rysiek); Andrzej Chwalba, Dzieje Krakowa, vol. 5: Kraków w latach 1939–1945 (Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 2002), 33 (Major Franciszek Erhardt, a police commander in Kraków, was executed by the Germans for collaborating with the Home Army); Henryk Grynberg, Drohobycz, Drohobycz and Other Stories: True Tales from the Holocaust and Life After (New York: Penguin Books, 2002), 197–98 (a Jew was released from a police-station in Praga with the words: “Get out of here, change your address, and if you survive, remember from time to time that there were decent people here, even among those who worked for the police”); Sylwia Szymańska, Ludność żydowska w Otwocku podczas Drugiej wojny światowej (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 2002), 86 (Otwock), 90 (Karczew); Jerzy Jacek Bojarski, ed., Ścieżki pamięci: Żydowskie miasto w Lublinie—losy, miejsca, historia (Lublin and Rishon LeZion: Norbertinum, Ośrodek “Brama Grodzka–Teatr NN,” Towarzystwo Przyjaźni Polsko-Izraelskiej w Lublinie, Stowarzyszenie Środkowoeuropejskie “Dziedzictwo i Współczesność,” 2002), 31 (a policeman sheltered a Jewish woman in Lublin); Liokadia [Leokadia] Jeromirska, “Bogushia,” Yalkut Moreshet: Holocaust Documentation and Research [Tel Aviv], vol. 1 (Winter 2003): 98 (Białołęka); Norman Davies, Rising ’44: ‘The Battle for Warsaw’ (London: Macmillan, 2003), 110 (a “Blue” policeman in Warsaw tipped off a family living outside the ghetto that an anonymous informer had given their address to the Gestapo and a raid could be expected); Laskey, Night Voices, 69–70 (after her arrest, a Jewish woman was assisted by a Polish policeman, who fed her, counselled her what to say and do at the Gestapo office, and even attempted to vouch for her), 129 (a Jewish woman who escaped from the Łódź ghetto enlisted the help of a Polish policeman, who had joined the police force as a cover for his resistance activities, to escort her in safety to Warsaw); Chodakiewicz, Between Nazis and Soviets, 174 (the Polish policeman Zdzisław Flaszecki saved Nuchim Rozenel of Kraśnik from deportation to the Bełżec death camp); Martin Dean, “Microcosm: Collaboration and Resistance during the Holocaust in the Mir Rayon of Belarus, 1941–1944,” in David Gaunt, Paul A. Levine, and Laura Palosuo, eds., Collaboration and Resistance During the Holocaust: Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania (Bern: Peter Lang, 2004), 226 n.12 (Krawczenko, the Polish head of police Mir, saved the life of a Jew); Zylberklang, Z Żółkiewki do Erec Izraela, 171 (the commander of the Polish police in Żółkiewka deliberately neglected to investigate credible reports that a Jewish child was sheltered by Poles in the village of Różki); Wiszniewicz, And Yet I Still Have Dreams, 61–62 (a Polish policeman in Warsaw took in a young Jewish child for payment); Jakub Gutenbaum and Agnieszka Latała, The Last Eyewitnesses: Children of the Holocaust Speak, vol. 2 (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2005), 10 (a policeman in Warsaw refused to arrest a Jewish child delivered to him by blackmailers), 109 (Polish policemen released a Jewish child brought to a Warsaw police station by blackmailers), 226 (a Polish policeman brought Joanna Sobolewska-Pyz, a child born in 1939, out of the Warsaw ghetto, hiding her under his jacket, and left her with her rescuer), 290 (a Pole by the name of Czapla, who served in the German police in Katowice, sheltered a Jewish rescued a Jewish girl), 348–49 (a policeman at the Gestapo headquarters in Warsaw vouched for a Jewish child he had never seen before and secured her release); Avraham Aviel, A Village Named Dowgalishok: The Massacre at Radun and Eishishok (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2006), 25–26, 127, 183–84, 262–63 (Raduń); Martin Ira Glassner and Robert Krell, eds., And Life Is Changed Forever: Holocaust Childhoods Remembered (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2006), 167–70, (a Polish policeman in Łosice sheltered a Jewish girl; other policemen took bribes to help Jews escape from the town during a German raid); Sebastian Piątkowski, Dni życia, dni śmierci: Ludność żydowska w Radomiu w latach 1918–1950 (Warsaw: Naczelna Dyrekcja Archiwów Państwowych, 2006), 246 (Jews came forward after the war in defence of Franciszek Troll, the commander of the First Commissariat of the Polish police in Radom, for helping Jews in the ghetto and rescuing the large Den family during its liquidation); Tomasz Kawski, Kujawsko-dobrzyńscy Żydzi w latach 1918–1950 (Toruń: Adam Marszałek, 2006), 263 (Polish policemen saved the life of Samek Izrael after his escape from a German camp); Marian Skwara, Pruszkowscy Żydzi: Sześć dekad zamkniętych zagładą (Pruszków: Powiatowa i Miejska Biblioteka Publiczna im. Henryka Sienkiewicza w Pruszkowie, 2007), 218 (the policeman Józef Malinowski rescued several Jews with false identity documents passing as Poles; when he was charged with collaboration after the war, one of those he rescued testified on hus behalf); Taitz, Holocaust Survivors, vol. 2, 509 (a Polish policeman sheltered three Jewish women, among them the sisters Hannah Rydelnik Sukiennik and Genia Rydelnik Saionz, who escaped from a labour camp in Upper Silesia); Halina Grubowska, Haneczko, musisz przeżyć Montreal: Polish-Jewish Heritage Foundation of Canada, 2007), 23 (a Polish policeman in Warsaw identified a carriage carrying Jews, stopped by a German patrol, as Poles); Barbara Engelking, Jacek Leociak, and Dariusz Libionka, eds., Prowincja noc: Życie i zagłada Żydów w dystrykcie warszawskim (Warsaw: IFiS PAN, 2007), 402 (policemen in Jeziorna near Warsaw and Wołomin); Władysław Świacki, “Pamiętnik przechowany w beczce (Grajewo: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół 9 PSK, 2007) (Grajewo); Elżbieta Rączy, Pomoc Polaków dla ludności żydowskiej na Rzeszowszczyźnie 1939–1945 (Rzeszów: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2008), 150 (a policeman in Przemyśl helped obtain a false identity card), 153 (a policeman commader named Kolarczyk helped a Jewish family to escape from detention in Szerzyny near Jasło), 260–61 (a policeman named Władysław Cieśla from Jarocin near Nisko); Krzysztof Czubaszek, Żydzi z Łukowa i okolic (Warsaw: Danmar, 2008), 192, 203, 251, 254 (several policemen in and near Łuków allowed Jews to escape); Bill Tammeus and Jacques Cukierkorn, They Were Just People: Stories of Rescue in Poland During the Holocaust (Columbia, Missouri and London: University of Missouri Press, 2009), 29–30 (a Polish policeman and police chief in the village of Kalembina near Strzyżów allowed a Jewish teenager to leave the police station after her arrest on suspicion of being Jewish), 34–39, and Interview with Sheila Peretz Etons, April 30, 1990, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (a Polish policeman named Czesiek assisted the family of Isaac Peretz in the ghetto in Chełm, secured the release from jail of Bella Peretz, who was arrested for engaging in illegal trade, and then sheltered Bella Peretz and her young daughter Sarah for two years in his home on the outskirts of the town); Moshe Beirach, Aus dem Ghetto in die Wälder: Bericht eines jüdischen Partisanen 1939–1945 (Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuch, 2009), 85 (a Polish policeman in Lida saved the author and his wife when they were about to be executed after an SS selection); Nahum Bogner, At the Mercy of Strangers, 265 (a police office in or near Lublin took in a Jewish girl who wandered in the area as a nanny for his little son); Sebastian Piątkowski, “Za pomoc Żydom osadzeni w więzieniu radomskim,” Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, no. 3 (2009): 43 (Bolesław Waściński, a policeman from Grabów, was imprisoned for helping a Jewish woman); Mateusz Wyrwich, “Obcy we własnym mieście,” Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, no. 3 (2009): 79 (Jan Karpiński was released by the Blue police in Warsaw after he was turned in); Marcin Urynowicz, “Pamięć i zapomnienie,” Tygodnik Powszechny (Kraków), August 9, 2009 (a Polish policeman named Masalski, Tarszczuk and others smuggled a Jewish family of three out of the ghetto in Wołomin); Namysło, “Kto w takich czasach Żydów przechowuje?...”, 19 (Leon Kniknicki, a police commander from Ciepielów, sold a rifle to a Jew, who betrayed him when apprehended by the Germans), 47 (a Polish policeman from Brańsk warned a rescuer that the German gendarmes suspected him of assisting Jews); Sebastian Piątkowski, Więzienie niemieckie w Radomiu 1939–1945 (Lublin: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2009), 74 (Bolesław Waściński, a policeman from Grabów nad Wisłą, was imprisoned for helong a Jewish woman); Jerzy Diatłowicki and Janusz Roszkowski, eds., Żydzi w walce 1939–1945: Opór i walka z faszyzmem w latach 1939–1945 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny and Stowarzyszenie Żydów Kombatantów i Poszkodowanych w II Wojnie Światowej, 2010), vol. II, 156 (Bernard Zwoliński and Janina Mazur, policemen in Kraków); Leociak, Ratowanie, 64 (Warsaw); Cesha Glazer, Cesha’s Story (Sydney: Sydney Jewish Museum, 2011), 103, 133, 154 (Leon Rybacki, a policeman in Warsaw helped the Gonczanski family and Cesha Glazer); Martin Dean, ed., Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945 (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, in association with the United States Memorial Museum, 2012), vol. II, Part A, 278 (Polish policemen in Pionki who guarded the ghetto looked the other way when Jews were seen escaping), 308 (the Polish police chief in Skaryszew, Roczdinski (?), tried to help the Jews in the ghetto and assisted the Jewish Council), 381 (the chief of the Blue police, Weclaw (?), warned a Jewish leader in the Jeziorna ghetto of a deportation order), 392 (Blue police commander Smarzewski in Łaskarzew helped the local Jews), 395 (Polish policemen warn of the impending deportation), 403 (assistance from two Polish policemen in Łowicz), 417 (Blue policeman Captain Bronisław Marchlewicz assisted Jews in Otwock), 470 (Polish policeman Władysław Rybak was executed in Żelechów for helping Jews), 881 (helpfulness of Polish policemen in Drohiczyn nad Bugiem), 933–34 (some policemen in Piaski abetted the escape of several Jews and in one instance even sheltered Jews, in anticipation of the ghetto’s liquidation); vol. II, Part B, 1310 (a policeman named Janish in Żołudek helped rescue a Jewish woman); Busgang, Działoszyce Memorial Book, 235–36 (policeman Kamerdyniak helped Jews hide in a bunker in Działoszyce); Katz, Gone to Pitchipoï, 191 (the Warsaw poloceman Bolesław Piątkowski assisted the author and his sister); Jan Grabowski, Hunt for the Jews: Betrayal and Murder in German-Occupied Poland (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2013), 220 (a policeman in Dąbrowa Tarnowska allowed Jews to escape during the liquidation of the ghetto); Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 235 (Jan Kozłowski, a policeman, was arrested in Skierniewice for helping Jews and imprisoned in several concentration camps, perishing during the evacuation of a camp in the spring of 1945), 405 (Józef Głowniak, a policeman in Łańcut); Hera, Polacy ratujący Żydów, 131 (Andrzej Adamczyk), 178 (Czapla), 193 (Fabisz), 259 (Konstancin-Jeiorna), 260 (Warsaw), 265 (Korotyński), 293 (Andrzej Ludwikowski), 298 (Władysław Macedoński), 369–71 (various places), 440 (Władysław Świacki), 448 (Franciszek Troll), 466 (Wojtulewicz), 486 (Stanisław Zymkowski); Kalisz and Rączy, Dzieje społeczności żydowskiej powiatu gorlickiego podczas okupacji niemieckiej 1939–1945, 88 (Bednarz, the police commander in Moszczenica near Gorlice), 95, 97 (Jan Fereński, the criminal police commander in Gorlice, intervened with a German commander for the release of two Jews, warned the Jews of an impending Aktion, and vouched for the non-Aryan identity a Jewish woman), 98–101 (several Polish policemen in Bobowa near Gorlice, among them Józef Laska, Jan Kandela, and Jan Hebda, assisted Jews, among them Hugo Steinhaus); Testimony of Szlama Jakubowicz, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 2427 (Blue policemen allowed two Jewish boys to escape from the Warsaw ghetto in July 1941); Testimony of Eda Lichtman, Yad Vashem Archives, file 03/1291, as cited in Wojciech Łukaszun, “Ratunek czy niebezpieczeństwo? Obszary leśne w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie jako miejsce schronienia ludności żydowskiej,” in Waldemar Grabowski, ed., Okupowana Europa: Podobieństwa i różnice (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2014), 126–27, and Eda Lichtman, “From Mielec to Sobibór,” Internet:

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