Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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; Matacz Family, The Righteous Database, Yad Vashem, Internet: ; Stanisław ‘Sliżewski, The Righteous Database, Yad Vashem, Internet: ; Barbara Engelking and Dariusz Libionka, Żydzi w powstańczej Warszawie (Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów, 2009), 204 (Jan Kubicki), 208 (Wacław Nowiński); Kołacińska-Gałązka, Dzieci Holocaustu mówią..., vol. 5, 315 (Paweł Gołąbek). For details of these and many other examples of assistance provided to Jews by Polish policemen see: Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 137–40 (Eliasz Pietruszka, Warsaw—see also Saphier Fox, Out of Chaos, 124–26), 141–42 (Jan Kubicki), 142–44 (Wacław Nowiński), 145–46 (Łęczna), 163 (Zygmunt Okuń, a sergeant in the Warsaw police, and his wife Janina and Wacław Mila, clerks with the Criminal Police), 292–95 (the evidence relating to some policemen in two villages near Siedlce is ambiguous: one of them, who was known as a “Jew-catcher,” warned a Jewish girl whom he recognized to leave the village and assisted her with an alibi; another policeman did not seize that same girl out of pity, and his commander recommended her to a good farmer for pasturing cows); 335 (Warsaw), 400–401 (Warsaw), 449 (Wiesław Malanowicz, a Kripo policeman in Warsaw who was secretly a Home Army member), 603 (for procuring forged documents and sheltering Jews, Michał Kliś, a member of the Home Army counter-intelligence who joined the “Blue” police in Kraków, was arrested and imprisoned in several prisons and concentration camps, dying shortly after the war from ilnesses he acquired there—regarding Michał Kliś, see also Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 313); Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 566 (Warsaw), 586 (Warszawa), 653–56 (Eliasz Pietruszka extended help to several Jews in Warsaw), 704 (Markuszów), 1025 (Warsaw), 1028 (Boguchwała near Rzeszów); Ewa Kurek, Your Life Is Worth Mine: How Polish Nuns Saved Hundreds of Jewish Children in German-occupied Poland, 1939–1945 (New York: Hippocrene, 1997), 220 (Bronisław Marchlewicz, Otwock); “Izrael uhonorował granatowego policjanta,” Rzeczpospolita, July 25, 2005 (Bronisław Marchlewicz); Prekerowa, Konspiracyjna Rada Pomocy Żydom w Warszawie 1942–1945, 135, 177, 207–208 (the “Blue” police extended their protection to the Father Boduen Home in Warsaw, an orphanage where some 200 Jewish children were sheltered), 271; Ludwik Hirszfeld, Historia jednego życia (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1946), 284, 293–94, 312 (Warsaw); Schwarz, The Root and the Bough, 287 (Warsaw); H. Rabin, ed., Szumsk: Sefer zikaron le-kedoshei Szumsk (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Szumsk in Israel, 1968), 21ff., translated as Szumsk: Memorial Book of the Martyrs of Szumsk, Internet: ; Borwicz, Vies interdites, 90 (a Polish policeman released Chochana Rotfeld, a Jewish girl, in Koszyce); Mordechai Zilberman, “With the Nazis,” in Eliezer Sharbit, ed., Sefer Zikaron le-Kehilat Sanok ve-ha-Siviva (Jerusalem: Former Residents of Sanok and Vicinity in Israel, 1970), 535, translated as Memorial Book of Sanok and Vicinity, Internet: (a Polish policeman named Łapiński turned a blind eye to the succesful escape of a group of Jews from the ghetto in Sanok, despite the fact that the escape plans had been betrayed to the Gestapo by Ajzen, a Jewish carpenter from Baligród); Abraham Shiner, “The Policeman Shot and Missed,” in Mark Schutzman, ed., Wierzbnik-Starachowitz: A Memorial Book (Tel Aviv: Wierzbnik-Starachowitz Relief Society in Israel and Abroad, 1973), 321ff, translated as Wierzbnik-Starachowitz: A Memorial Book, Internet: (a Polish policeman in Wierzbnik by the name of Kocharzow hid some belongings for a Jewish acquaintance); Sefer yizkor shel kehilat Dzialoszyce ve-ha-sevivah [Yizkor Book of the Jewish Community in Dzialoszyce and Surroundings] (Tel Aviv: Hamenora Publishing House, 1973), 43 (Działoszyce); Tzurnamal, ed., Lask: sefer zikaron (Izcor-Book), 125; Gedaliah Shaiak, ed., Lowicz: A Town in Mazovia—Memorial Book (Tel Aviv: Lowitcher Landsmanshaften in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia, 1966), xvi (Łowicz); Wolf Zeev Rabinowitsch, ed., Pinsk–Historical Volume: The Story of the Jews of Pinsk 1506–1942, Part Two (Tel Aviv: The Association of the Jews of Pinsk in Israel, 1977), 133 (Pińsk); account of Johanan Kalfus, dated September 18, 1967, Yad Vashem Archives, 03/3284 (2777/232-F), Internet: (the head of the Polish police in Wiśnicz); Isaiah Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution: Collective and Individual Behavior in Extremis (New York: Stein and Day, 1979), 135 (a policeman allowed a young woman to escape after she was caught during a raid on on an estate near Warsaw); Meed, On Both Sides of the Wall, 159 (Warsaw); Jakob Breitowicz, Though Hell To Life (New York: Shengold, 1983), 22–24, 26 (Polish policemen in Krosno turned a blind eye to a large Jewish food smuggling operation); Josef Chrust and Matityahu Bar-Razon, eds., Eternal Flame: In Memory of Dolhinow, Internet: , translation of Esh tamid-yizkor le-Dolhoinow; Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Dolhinow ve-ha-seviva (Tel Aviv: Society of Dolhinow Emigrants in Israel, 1984), 525ff. (three or four Polish members of the small Polish-Belorussian police force in Dolhinów assisted Jews in various ways including escaping from the ghetto and providing shelter outside the ghetto); Bauminger, The Fighters of the Cracow Ghetto, 55 (Kraków); Starkopf, There Is Always Time to Die, 84–86 (Warsaw); Lewin, A Cup of Tears, 38, 143 (Warsaw); Norman Salsitz and Amalie Petranker Salsitz, Against All Odds: A Tale of Two Survivors (New York: Holocaust Library, 1990), 253 (the head of the Polish police in Kolbuszowa gave a warning of the impending liquidation of the ghetto and many Jews escaped); Oscar Pinkus, The House of Ashes, Revised Edition (Schenectady, New York: Union College Press, 1990), 89–91, 139, 142 (policemen in Łosice helped some Jews escape from the ghetto and a policeman sheltered a Jewish girl); Salsitz, A Jewish Boyhood in Poland, 295 (two Polish policemen in Kolbuszowa allowed two Jews to flee); Andrzej Wróblewski, Być Żydem…: Rozmowa z Dagiem Halvorsenem o Żydach i antysemityzmie Polaków (Warsaw: Niezależna Oficyna Wydawnicza, 1992), 126 (Warsaw); Ewa Kurek, Żydzi, Polacy, czy po prostu ludzie… (Lublin: Takt, 1992), 51–52 (Otwock); Grynberg, Księga sprawiedliwych, 345 (a Polish policeman in Warsaw arranged for the release of a Jewish woman and destroyed the arrest report), 458 (a Polish policeman warned a rescuer in Warsaw that her house was under surveillance); Nechama Tec, Defiance: The Bielski Partisans (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 192 (Kołdyszewo); Kott, Still Live, 138 (Lasko, the commander of the Blue police in Stróże near Nowy Sącz, who worked closely with the local Home Army headquarters, got many local Jews across into Hungary during the first years of the war); Calel Perechodnik, Am I a Murderer?: Testament of a Jewish Ghetto Policeman (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press/HarperCollins, 1996), 118 (Legionowo near Warsaw); Blanca Rosenberg, To Tell at Last: Survival under False Identity, 1941–45 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 118, 172 (Warsaw); testimony of Golda Shwartz, July 25, 1993, Yad Vashem Archives, 03/6922, Internet:
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