Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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954 Breitowicz, Through Hell To Life, 26–27.

955 Berger, Constructing a Collective Memory of the Holocaust, 43–44.

956 Chava Kwinta, I’m Still Living (Toronto: Simon & Pierre Publishing Company, 1974), 136.

957 Entry for “Sosnowiec,” Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Poland, vol. 7, Internet: , a translation of Pinkas hakehillot Polin, vol. 7 (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1999), 327–38.

958 Charmatz, Nightmares, 18, 22, 26–32, 35–36, 38–39, 41–44, 46, 50–53. According to Konrad Charmatz, Moishe (Manyek) Merin even tried to become the leader of all the Jewish councils in the German Reich and the conquered territories. The Gestapo allowed him to travel to Berlin, Prague, Warsaw, Łódź, Kraków, and other cities, and at each of these cities he urged the Jewish communities to unite under a central committee, under his leadership. Ibid., 20–21. Merin’s sexual exploitation of Jewish women and girls is referred to again at p. 76.

959 Niewyk, Fresh Wounds, 29.

960 Niewyk, Fresh Wounds, 29.

961 Edward Gastfriend, My Father’s Testament: Memoir of a Jewish Teenager, 1938–1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000), 87–88.

962 Binyamin Orenstayn (Orenstein), “Czestochowa Jews in the Nazi Era (1939–1945),” Czentochov: A New Supplement to the Book “Czenstochover Yidn”, Internet: , translation of S.D. Singer, ed., Tshenstokhover: Naye tsugob-material tsum bukh “Tshenstokhover Yidn” (New York: United Relief Committee in New York, 1958), 39ff.

963 Tzvi Rozenvayn, “Concerning the Workers’ Council in Czestochowa,” Czentochov: A New Supplement to the Book “Czenstochover Yidn”, Internet: , translation of S.D. Singer, ed., Tshenstokhover: Naye tsugob-material tsum bukh “Tshenstokhover Yidn” (New York: United Relief Committee in New York, 1958), 49ff.

964 Waga, The Destruction of Czenstokov, Internet: , translation of Hurbn Tshenstokhov, 129–32.

965 Shlomo Waga, ed., The Destruction of Czenstokov, Internet: , translation of Hurbn Tshenstokhov (Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun Poylishe Yidn in Argentine, 1949), 117–18.

966 Shlomo Waga, ed., The Destruction of Czenstokov, Internet: , translation of Hurbn Tshenstokhov (Buenos Aires: Tsentral-farband fun Poylishe Yidn in Argentine, 1949), 156–57, 160–61, 167.

967 Account of Herta Lustiger in Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 181, 185, 187; Aktion Reinhard Camps, Czestochowa Ghetto, Internet: . According to Henryk Szaniawski, a Jewish policeman who betrayed the hideout of the underground command was pushed in front of the Germans when they surrounded the bunker and was killed by shots fired by the Jewish fighters. See Diatłowicki and Roszkowski, Żydzi w walce 1939–1945, vol. 2, 257.

968 Testimony of Harry Jubas, September 4, 2008, Holocaust Memorial Center, Farmington Hills, Michigan, Internet: .

969 William Glicksman, “Daily Record Sheet of the Jewish Police (District I) in the Czestochowa Ghetto 1941–1942,” Yad Vashem Studies on the European Jewish Catastrophe and Resistance, vol. 6 (1967): 331–57, at 348–49.

970 Jerzy Mizgalski and Jerzy Sielski, eds., The Jews of Częstochowa: The Fate of Częstochowa Jews, 1945–2009 (Toruń: Adam Marszałek, 2012), 35.

971 Arieh L. Bauminger, The Fighters of the Cracow Ghetto (Jerusalem: Keter Press, 1986), 85–87.

972 Yones, Smoke in the Sand, 216.

973 “Bialystok,” in Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Macmillan, 1971), column 809; account of Kalman Barakin in Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 392.

974 Memoirs of Marian Buch “Marek” in Adam Dobroński, ed., Białostoccy Żydzi, vol. 1 (Białystok: Instytut Historii Filii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego w Białymstoku, 1993), 71; S.S. Berkner, “Notatki więźnia getta”, Part One in Adam Dobroński and Waldemar Monkiewicz, eds., in Białostoccy Żydzi, vol. 2 (Białystok: Instytut Historii Filii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego w Białymstoku, 1997), 44, 50. The latter volume contains information about various forms of assistance provided by the Polish Home Army to the ghetto underground movement in Białystok. See Waldemar Monkiewicz, “Za cenę życia: O ratowaniu Żydów w Białostockiem w okresie okupacji niemieckiej,” in Białostoccy Żydzi, vol. 2 (1997), 152–54. For more information about Jewish collaborators (such as Nissel) in Białystok see Gustaw Kerszman, Jak zginąć, to razem (Montreal: Polish-Jewish Heritage Foundation, 2003), 39, 60–61.

975 Bender, The Jews of Białystok During World War II and the Holocaust, 134–36.

976 I. M. Lask, ed., The City of Zloczow (Tel Aviv: Zloczower Relief Verband of America, 1967), column 133.

977 Jack Sutin and Rochelle Sutin, Jack and Rochelle: A Holocaust Story of Love and Resistance (Saint Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf Press, 1995), 59–60.

978 Account of B.A. in Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 295; and the account of Szloma Charchas (Szlomo Charches) in Ajzensztajn, Euch podziemny w ghettach i obozach, 116, and in Grynberg and Kotowska, Życie i zagłada Żydów polskich 1939–1945, 514.

979 Yehuda Bauer, “Jewish Baranowicze in the Holocaust,” Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 31 (2003): 136.

980 Isaac Kowalski, comp. and ed., Anthology on Armed Jewish Resistance, 1939–1945, vol. 4 (Brooklyn, New York: Jewish Combatants Publishing House, 1991), 473.

981 See the account of Zalman Uri Gurevitz in Meyerowitz, ed., The Scroll of Kurzeniac, Internet: , translation of Megilat Kurenits: Ayara be-hayeha u-ve-mota (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Kurzeniec in Israel and the U.S.A., 1956).

982 See the account of Meyshe Kaganovitsh in In Memory of the Jewish Community of Ivye, Internet: , translation of M. [Moshe] Kaganovich, ed., Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Ivye (Tel Aviv: Association of Former Residents of Ivie in Israel and United Ivier Relief in America, 1968).

983 Sulia Wolozhinski Rubin, Against the Tide: The Story of an Unknown Partisan (Jerusalem: Posner & Sons, 1980), 124.

984 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. 2, Part B, 1288.

985 Dov Katzovitch, “With the Partisans and in the Red Army,” in David Shtokfish, ed., Book in Memory of Dokshitz-Parafianow (Israel: Organization of Dokshitz-Parafianow Veterans in Israel and the Diaspora, 1990), Chapter 4.

986 Rajak, Memorial Book of Gluboke, iii.

987 Kahn, No Time To Mourn, 94–95.

988 Yitzhak Stupnik, “We Organize a Partisan Group,” in Yom-Tov Lewinsky, ed., Sefer Zambrow (Zambrove) [The Book of Zambrov: Memories of Our Town Which Had Been Annihilated by the Nazis and Does Not Exist Any More] (Tel Aviv: The Zambrover Societies in U.S.A., Argentine and Israel, 1963), 27 (English section), 183 ff, and in Yom-Tov Levinsky, ed., The Zambrow Memorial Book: In Memory of a Martyred Community That Was Exterminated (Mahwah, New Jersey: Jacob Solomon Berger, 2010), Internet:
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