Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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. A Jew from Włodawa stated that the Jewish police behaved worse than the Germans. See the testimony of Nachum Knopfmacher, June 28, 1961, Yad Vashem Archives, 03/1787.

554 Testimony of Matel Rabinowicz, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 49E, no. 2202, Internet: .

555 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 730–33. The entry notes the existence of the Jewish police and limits their role to providing German officials with valuables.

556 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 867–88.

557 Yitzhak Groskop, “Chelm at the Time of the Hitler Occupation,” in M. Bakalczuk, ed., Commemoration Book Chelm, Internet: , translation of Yisker-bukh Chelm (Johannesburg: Former Residents of Chelm, 1954), 541–42.

558 Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 694.

559 Kalmen Wewryk, To Sobibor and Back: An Eyewitness Account (Montreal: The Concordia University Chair in Canadian Jewish Studies and The Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies, 1999), 25–27.

560 Abraham Finkler, “A Ghetto Without Barbed Wire” and Motl Eisenberg, “Running From Death” in Berl Kagan, ed., Szydlowiec Memorial Book (New York: Shildowtzer Benevolent Association in New York, 1989), 157–59, 172.

561 Zvi Faigenbaum, “Led Like Lambs to the Slaughter,” in Schutzman, Wierzbnik-Starachowitz, 308ff.

562 Suzan E. Hagstrom, Sara’s Children and the Destruction of Chmielnik (Spotsylvania, Virginia: Sergeant Kirkland’s Press, 2001), 98, 108.

563 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 313–14.

564 Hecht, Life Death Memories, 81.

565 Urbański, Zagłada Żydów w Dystrykcie Radomskim, 99.

566 Account of Efraim Farber in Shuval, Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Shebreshin, Polish translation posted online at: .

567 “Kielce Ghetto,” Internet: .

568 Thomas Buergenthal, A Lucky Child: A Memoir of Surviving Auschwitz As a Young Boy (New York: Little, Brown, 2009), 68–70.

569 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 585.

570 Record of Witness Testimony No. 111, January 12, 1946, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: . Another survivor from Tarnów writes: “Through 1942/43, until March, I stayed in the Ghetto; conditions were dreadful. Aryans, co-workers from the Tarnów factory, smuggled food to us, but could be executed for that by the Gestapo.” See Record of Witness Testimony No. 115, January 13, 1946, Voices from Ravensbrück, Polish Institute of Source Research, Lund, Sweden, Internet: < http://www3.ub.lu.se/ravensbruck/interview115.pdf>. For additional examples of betrayals of Jews and their hideouts by Jewish policemen in Tarnów see Serge-Allain Rozenblum, Les temps brisés: Les vies multiples d’un intinéraire juif de Pologne en France (Paris: Éditions du Félin, 1992), 111, 112–13.

571 “Cesia Honig,” Unites States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Internet: .

572 Testimony of Izaak Izrael, dated May 1945, in Grabowski, Hunt for the Jews, 198–208.

573 Interview with Gizela Fudem, December 2004, Internet: .

574 Testimony of Meir Shvimer in Gorlice Book: The Building and Destruction of the Community, Internet: , translation of M.Y. Bar-On, ed., Sefer Gorlice: Ha-kehila be-vinyana u-ve-hurbana (Israel: Association of Former Residents of Gorlice and Vicinity in Israel, 1962), 249.

575 Yoel Rappoport, “This Is How We Were Taken Captive Before the Enemy,” in Bar-On, Gorlice Book, 271ff.

576 Testimony of David Buksboym in Bar-On, Gorlice Book, 251.

577 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 238–39.

578 Sara Bender, “Similarity and Differences: A Comparative Study between the Ghettos in Białystok and Kielce,” in Goda, Jewish Histories of the Holocaust, 81–82.

579 Pinchas Cytron (Zitron), ed., Sefer Kielce: Toldot Kehilat Kielce. Miyom Hivsuduh V’ad Churbanah (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Kielce in Israel, 1957), 240; translated as Book of Kielce: History of the Community of Kielce. From Its Founding Until Its Destruction, Internet: .

580 Cytron (Zitron), Sefer Kielce, 239, 240; translated as Book of Kielce: History of the Community of Kielce. From Its Founding Until Its Destruction, Internet:
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