Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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464 Katsh, Scroll of Agony, 279.

465 Testimony of Selig Schwitzer in Jacob Biber, ed., A Triumph of the Spirit: Ten Stories of Holocaust Survivors (San Bernardino, California: The Borgo Press, 1994), 92.

466 Chaim Yitzchok Wolgelernter, The Unfinished Diary: A Chronicle of Tears (Lakewood, New Jersey: Israel Bookshop Publications, 2015), 148, 177–78. Moshe appears to be Mosze Frydrych, one of the Jews from Działoszyce who pointed out to the Germans wealthy Jews for a cut of the victims’ confiscated property. Since he became a liability, Frydrych was eventually eliminated. See Rączy, Zagłada Żydów w dystrykcie krakowskim w latach 1939–1945, 227.

467 Joseph E. Tenenbaum, Legacy and Redemption: A Life Renewed (Washington, D.C.: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum and The Holocaust Survivors’ Memoirs Project, 2005), 90.

468 Tenenbaum, Legacy and Redemption, 93–96.

469 Yehudi Lindeman, ed., Shards of Memory: Narratives of Holocaust Survival (Westport, Connecticut and London: Praeger, 2007), 133.

470 Lindeman, Shards of Memory, 134.

471 Wolgelernter, The Unfinished Diary, 160, 161.

472 Wolgelernter, The Unfinished Diary, 459.

473 Wolgelernter, The Unfinished Diary, 463.

474 Fay Busgang and Julian Busgang, eds., Działoszyce Memorial Book (New York: JewishGen, 2012), 331.

475 Busgang, Działoszyce Memorial Book, 217.

476 Norman Salsitz, as told to Richard Skolnik, A Jewish Boyhood in Poland: Remembering Kolbuszowa (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1992), 261–64.

477 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 72. The entry for Łask also mentions the brutality of the Jewish police.

478 Z. Tzurnamal, ed., Lask: sefer zikaron (Tel Aviv: Association of Former Residents of Lask in Israel, 1968), 27.

479 Account of Efraim Farber in Dov Shuval, ed., Sefer zikaron le-kehilat Shebreshin (Haifa: Association of Former Inhabitants of Shebreshin in Israel and the Diaspora, 1984), Polish translation posted online at: .

480 Account of Roman Wawrzonek, dated February 2002 (submitted to Poland’s Institute of National Remembrance).

481 Klara Ma’ayan Munzberg, “During the Nazi Occupation,” in Rzeszow Community Memorial Book, Internet: , translation of M. Yari-Wold, Kehilat Raysha: Sefer zikaron (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Rzeszow in Israel and the USA, 1967), 322ff.

482 Armstrong, Mosaic, 216.

483 Hopfeld, At the Mercy of Strangers, 27, 35–36, 38–39, 40, 50–51. For a memoir of a Jewish policeman from Otwock who dispatched his own wife and daughter to Treblinka, see Calel Perechodnik, Am I a Murderer?: Testament of a Jewish Ghetto Policeman (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press/HarperCollins, 1996).

484 Joanna Beata Michlic, “The Aftermath and After: Memories of Child Survivors of the Holocaust,” in Sara R. Horowitz, ed. Lessons and Legacies X: Back to the Sources: Reexamining Perpetrators, Victims, and Bystanders (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2012), 162, 164. While in the Jewish children’s home in Otwock after the war, Cieszyński recognized one of the former Jewish policemen dressed in the uniform of a Polish soldier. Cieszyński denounced him to the authorities, but there is no information as to what, if any, action was taken against him.

485 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 872.

486 Entry for “Bielsk,” Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities in Poland, vol. 8, Internet: , a translation of Shmuel Spector and Bracha Freundlich, eds., Pinkas hakehillot Polin, vol. 8 (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2005) 170–75.

487 Tammeus and Cukierkorn, They Were Just People, 55.

488 Zelig Kalmanovitch, “A Diary of the Nazi Ghetto in Vilna,” YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science, vol. 8 (New York: Yiddish Scientific Institute—YIVO, 1953): 21. See also Biographies: Fania Brantsovskaya, Internet: .

489 Margolis, A Partisan from Vilna, 285.

490 Margolis, A Partisan from Vilna, 288.

491 Margolis, A Partisan from Vilna, 286.

492 Testimony of Fania Feldman, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1872.

493 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 477. See also pp. 266 (Opoczno), 337 (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 497 (Dąbrowa Tarnowska), 509 (Gorlice), 511 (Grybów), 514 (Jasło), 539 (Limanowa), 544–45 (Nowy Sącz), 568 (Rzeszów), 585 (Tarnów).

494 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 291.

495 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 270.

496 Yehuda Bauer, “Buczacz and Krzemieniec: The Story of Two Towns During the Holocaust,” in Yad Vashem Studies, vol. 33 (2005), 264 n.34, 270, 286–87.

497 Testimony of Emanuel Kriegel, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 303, number 196.

498 Żbikowski, Archiwum Ringelbluma, 355.

499 Testimony of Mordechaj Jonisz, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 141.

500 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 620.

501 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 714.

502 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part B, 1429.

503 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 892.

504 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 298.

505 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 277.

506 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 440.

507 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 442.

508 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 352.

509 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 638.

510 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 293.

511 Adam Rutkowski, “Martyrologia, walka i zagłada ludności żydowskiej w dystrykcie radomskim podczas okupacji hitlerowskiej,” Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego, nos. 15–16 (July–December 1955): 93ff.

512 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 444.

513 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 371.

514 “Urzędów,” Virtual Shtetl, Internet:
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