Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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; Esther Bas-Melcer, In the Claws of Destruction (Toronto: Aron Horowitz Publications, 1986), 44; Samuel Lipa Tennenbaum, Zloczow Memoir (New York: Shengold Publishers, 1986), 253; Alan Levy, The Wiesenthal File (London: Constable, 1993), 49; account of Joseph S. Kutrzeba, dated May 1994 (in the author’s possession); the account of Sylvia Richter in Maxine B. Rosenberg, ed., Hiding to Survive: Stories of Jewish Children Rescued from the Holocaust (New York: Clarion Books/Houghton Mifflin, 1994), 83; Helena Szereszewska, Memoirs from Occupied Warsaw, 1940–1945 (London: Vallentine Mitchell, 1997), 292–377; Miriam Kuperhand and Saul Kuperhand, Shadows of Treblinka (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illionois Press, 1998), 64; Thomas T. Hecht, Life Death Memories (Charlottesvelle, Virgina: Leopolis Press, 2002), 175.

318 When three generation of Mortkowicz women were sheltered in Żbików near Warsaw with the Żeromski family, who were active in the Polish underground, their hosts never confided in them. See Matthew Brzezinski, Isaac’s Army: A Story of Courage and Survival in Nazi-Occupied Poland (New York: Random House, 2012), 150–51.

319 See, for example, Schupack, The Dead Years, 91.

320 Isakiewicz, Harmonica, 77.

321 See, for example, the account of Zbigniew Małyszczycki, dated November 23, 1997 (in the author’s possession); Józef Seeman, “Dziennik Partyzanta (1943–1944), Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego, no. 61 (1967): 131; Michel Borwicz, Vies interdites (Tournai, Belgium: Casterman, 1969), 139; Mina Rosner, I Am a Witness (Winnipeg: Hyperion Press, 1990), 79–80; Agata Tuszyńska, “Uczniowie Schulza,” Kultura (Paris), no. 4 (1993): 42; Irene Tomaszewski and Tecia Werbowski, Zegota: The Rescue of Jews in Wartime Poland (Montreal: Price-Paterson, 1994), 139, and the revised edition titled Żegota: The Council for Aid to Jews in Occupied Poland, 1942–1945 (Montreal: Price-Paterson, 1999), 129 (a Jewish charge even threatened to kill a Jewish couple who would fight in the hideout); Adam Neuman-Nowicki, Struggle for Life During the Nazi Occupation of Poland (Lewiston, New York; Queenston, Ontario; and Lampeter, Ceredigion, Wales: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1998), 59 (two quarrelsome Jews hidden by a Pole in Chmielnik received a third Jew “with demonstrable ill will”); Kuperhand and Kuperhand, Shadows of Treblinka, 151–53 (Jews did not allow a Jewish straggler to stay in their bunker because of his lack of caution), 163 (a Polish benefactor warned his charges for arguing and screaming); Naomi Samson, Hide: A Child’s View of the Holocaust (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2000), 71 (quarrelsome children led their own mother to believe she had no chance of surviving with them); Musiał, Lata w ukryciu, vol. 2, 331 (the quarrelsome charges of the Bradło family attracted the attention of villagers in Lubcza, near Ryglice); account of Miriam Banker, who was sheltered in Dubiecko, in Hartman and Krochmal, I Remember Every Day…, 105; Samuel D. Kassow, Who Will Write Our History?: Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2007), 364 (a bunker in Warsaw where 34 Jews were sheltered); Menachem Katz, Path of Hope (New York and Jerusalem: Yad Vashem and The Holocaust Survivors’ Memoirs Project, 2008), 104 (smoking cigarettes in a bunker); Grzegorz Górny, Sprawiedliwi: Jak Polacy ratowali Żydów przed Zagładą (Izabelin-Warsaw: Rosikon, 2013), 240–41 (the deranged daughter of Marceli Lewi-Łebkowski left the hideout while the zoo in Warsaw where they were hidden by the Żabiński family was full of visitors). Another perspective on this phenomenon can be found in Jewish testimonies that describe quarrels and even threats of denunciation among members of Jewish groups who lived in the ruins of Warsaw after the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. Their behaviour was often intolerable for other group members, so one can only imagine what Polish hosts had to endure on account of the quarrels of their Jewish charges. See, for example, Barbara Engelking and Dariusz Libionka, Żydzi w powstańczej Warszawie (Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów, 2009), 302–4.

322 Paweł Knap, ed., “Jak ci się uda uratować, pamiętaj”: Relacje “Sprawiedliwych” i o “Sprawiedliwych” z województwa zachodniopomorskiego (Szczecin: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, Oddział w Szczecinie, 2010), 123–26.

323 Interview with Felix Horn, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, July 19, 1994, 19.

324 Chodorska, Godni synowie naszej Ojczyzny, Part Two, 20–23.

325 Marceli Najder, “Dziennik z bunkra,” Karta, no. 68 (2011): 54–87, here at 63, 66–67, 70–71, 74.

326 Jerzy Koźmiński, “Wspomnienia sprawiedliwego,” Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, no. 11 (November 2005): 86–103, here at 94.

327 Leociak, Ratowanie, 282–83.

328 Reicher, Country of Ash, 198, 201.

329 Isakiewicz, Harmonica, 223–24.

330 Edmund Kessler, Przeżyć holokaust we Lwowie (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 2007), 103; Edmund Kessler, The Wartime Diary of Edmund Kessler: Lwów, Poland, 1942–1944 (Boston: Academic Studies Press, 2010), 114, 125.

331 Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, The Holocaust, and David Duke’s Louisiana (Chapel Hill, North Carolina and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 261.

332 Stanisławczyk, Czterdzieści twardych, 231–34; Zajączkowski, Martyrs of Charity, Part One, entries 110, 418.

333 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 351.

334 Marian Para, Los polacos y los judíos a través de los siglos (Buenos Aires: Ediciones Estudio, 1986), 171–72. The author, who was also a guide in the south of France, recalled that many of the Jews he brought to Switzerland in safety promised profusely to show their gratitude in the future; however, none of these promises ever materialized. Ibid., 174.

335 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 459.

336 Gilbert, The Holocaust, 654; this is based on Tuvia Borzykowski’s diary entry for January 28, 1944.

337 Eliyahu Jones [Yones], Żydzi Lwowa w okresie okupacji 1939–1945 (Łódź: Oficyna Bibliofilów, 1999), 190.

338 Wroński and Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945, 262.

339 Shalom Cholawsky, The Jews of Bielorussia during World War II (Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1998), 163–64.

340 Jakob Friedmann, Reluctant Soldier: A Jewish Partisan’s Story (Caulfield South, Victoria: Makor Jewish Community Library, 2005), 56–57.

341 Robert Kuwałek, “Żydowski ruch oporu,” Strona o Żydach lubelskich, Internet:
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