Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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261 For an account of the betrayal by a Jewish woman of a Home Army member in Miechów who provided her and many other Jews with identity documents, and his arrest and deportation to Auschwitz, see Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 855–59.

262 Wroński and Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945, 348–49.

263 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 412–13.

264 After the arrival in Pilica of Szymon Spitz, a Jewish Gestapo agent from Kraków, the Gestapo from Kraków and Miechów carried out arrests and executions of Poles and Jews. See Jerzy Diatłowicki, ed., Żydzi w walce 1939–1945: Opór i walka z faszyzmem w latach 1939–1945 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny and Stowarzyszenie Żydów Kombatantów i Poszkodowanych w II Wojnie Światowej, 2009), vol. 1, 307.

265 At least sixteen Poles were executed in Przewrotne in May 1943 for helping Jews, after the village was infiltrated by a Jewish Gestapo agent posing as a beggar. See Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 846–47.

266 Kalisz and Rączy, Dzieje społeczności żydowskiej powiatu gorlickiego podczas okupacji niemieckiej 1939–1945, 84–85. After being betrayed by their Jewish charge, Grosser, two Polish benefactors were executed.

267 Upon capture and interrogation by the Germans, a Jewish woman betrayed the Pole who had supplied her with false documents and who had directed Jews to the Baranek family in Siedliska. For an account of the execution the Baranek family, see Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 855–59. See also Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 352–53. Unusually, five members of the Baranek family were recognized by Yad Vashem in 2012.

268 Engelking, Leociak, and Libionka, Prowincja noc, 501, n.234.

269 Franciszek Ząbecki, Wspomnienia dawne i nowe (Warsaw: Pax, 1977), 44–45.

270 Stanisława Lewandowska, Ruch oporu na Podlasiu, 1939–1945, Second revised and expanded edition (Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, 1982), 251.

271 In order to defend the rescuers, the police who apprehended the hidden Jews forged the report and stated that the Jews had just arrived at the farmer’s home; however, upon interrogation by the Gestapo in Jasło, one of the Jews said that the farmers had kept them for three months. Three weeks later the Gestapo sent its unit and executed Józef Augustyn and his wife Józefa on the spot. See Andrzej Żbikowski, “‘Night Guard’: Holocaust Mechanisms in the Polish Rural Areas, 1942–1945: Preliminary Introduction into Research,” East European Politics and Societies, vol. 25, no. 3 (August 2011): 512–29, here at 520.

272 Musiał, Lata w ukryciu, vol. 1, 196.

273 Unfortunately, not all the facts in this account are correct. Both Tadeusz Romaszewski and his sister, Maria Malicka, were employed in the chancery (record office) of the Warsaw cathedral parish of St. John the Baptist. As members of the extreme right-wing Szaniec group (a continuation of the interwar National-Radical Camp “ABC”), they issued scores of false baptismal and birth certificates to endangered Jews, as well as Poles. Maria Malicka was betrayed to the Gestapo by her brother’s fiancée, Irena Lis, who—unknown to the organization—was a Gestapo agent. The Gestapo arrested Maria Malicka and her husband, Marian Malicki, who was sent to Majdanek, where he perished. Maria Malicka was imprisoned in Warsaw, but survived the war. Tadeusz Romaszewski went into hiding. The information about the parson’s death has not been confirmed, and appears to be an embellishment. As a result of this one act of denunciation, scores of Jews and Poles were apprehended by the Germans. The Polish underground issued a death sentence against Irena Lis, but she escaped to Lwów. She was brought to trial after the war. See Damian Sitkiewicz, “Maria Malicka: O pomocy udzielanej Żydom przez organizację narodową Grupa ‘Szańca’,” Kolbojnik: Biuletyn Gminy Wyznaniowej Żydowskiej w Warszawie, no. 1 (Spring 2013): 28–31. For the older literature, see Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 233, 235 (annotation); Prekerowa, Konspiracyjna Rada Pomocy Żydom w Warszawie 1942–1945, 148.

274 Emanuel Ringelblum shared his hideout, a “bunker” on Grójecka Street in Warsaw, with 34 Jews. It was built by a Polish gardener named Mieczysław Wolski under his greenhouse. Discovered by the Germans on March 7, 1944, the Jews sheltered there, together with two their Polish rescuers (Wolski and his nephew, Janusz Wysocki), were executed in the ruins of the ghetto. See Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 23–26, 35; Pilarska, Those Who Helped, 128 (entry 667). Teresa Prekerowa maintains that the denunciation was the work of Jan Lakiński (Łakiński), an 18-year-old informer who had also betrayed members of the Home Army. (On March 30, 1944, the Polish underground pubished a notice that Łakiński had been sentenced to death by a special underground civil tribunal for denouncing Jews and executed. The date of sentencing or execution is not given. However, other sources state the execution took place on February 24, 1944, which was before the hideout was raided, thus casting doubt on Prekerowa’s version.) See Prekerowa, Konspiracyjna Rada Pomocy Żydom w Warszawie 1942–1945, 286; Prekerowa, Zegota, 247. According to another source, however, Lakiński was sentenced to death on March 30, 1944 by a special underground civil tribunal. According to another version, Wolski was betrayed by his ex-girlfriend, Chojecka, after a falling out. See Vladka Meed, On Both Sides of the Wall: Memoirs from the Warsaw Ghetto (New York: Holocaust Library, 1979), 210 (Meed does not record the fate of the Polish rescuers); Samuel Willenberg, Surviving Treblinka (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, in association with the Institute for Polish-Jewish Studies, 1989), 170; Celemenski, Elegy For My People, 191; Samuel D. Kassow, Who Will Write Our History? Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2007), 383; Testimony of Jerzy Gero, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 5714 (this testimony identifies the betrayer as Chojecka). Tadeusz Bednarczyk attributes the betrayal of Ringelblum’s hideout to a Jewish woman, possibly a Gestapo agent, who was refused shelter in that overcrowded hideout. See his Życie codzienne warszawskiego getta, 237; and his Obowiązek silniejszy od śmierci: Wspomnienia z lat 1939–1944 o polskiej pomocy dla Żydów w Warszawie (Warsaw: Grunwald, 1986), 147. It may be that Bednarczyk has confused this event with another similar one involving a rescuer named Marczak. See Zajączkowski, Martyrs of Charity, Part One, 254 (entry 580), 255 (entry 582). Still another, thoroughly discredited, Jewish version has Marczak’s wife reporting her husband and the Jews to SS General Franz Kutschera, the police leader in Warsaw, who had them all executed, including Mrs. Marczak. See Roman Grunspan, The Uprising of the Death Box of Warsaw (New York: Vantage Press, 1978), 172. Grunspan’s fictitious accounts parades around under the deceptive subtitle: “A documentary book about Jewish and Christian lives under Nazi rule in the Warsaw ghetto and in the non-Jewish region of Warsaw.” The author, an obvious charlatan, claims to have been part of a three-member hit squad called “Parasol” (Umbrella) which assassinated General Franz Kutschera, the head of the SS and police for the District of Warsaw, on “Aleja sucha” (sic, Szucha) in Warsaw. The book even contains a photograph showing a crude superimposition of a hand holding a machine gun with the following caption: “To the right you can see the punishing hand of the author with the machine gun that gunned down the Nazi lunatic.” (Ibid., 172, 177.) However, that well-known operation was carried out by the Home Army and bears little resemblance to the tale Grunspan has spun, and in fact preceded the execution of Ringelblum by more than a month. Historian Richard Lukas describes that famous event as follows: “On February 1, 1944, after weeks of planning, a platoon of Pegasus [Pegaz], commanded by twenty-year old Bronisław Pietraszkiewicz, attacked Kutschera’s car on Ujazdowskie Avenue. In an operation lasting scarcely a minute, Kutschera and several other Germans were killed, but four of the attackers, including, Pietraszkiewicz, were killed.” See Lukas, The Forgotten Holocaust, 92.

275 The denunciation of Stefan Prokopek by Gestapo agent Sztutman aka Pruszyński is described later in the text.

276 The Kucharski family agreed to shelter the six-member Jewish Wandelsman (Wandersman) family from their native village of Wierzbica near Miechów. When Naftul Wandelsman left the hideout in January 1943, he was captured by the Germans. He led the Germans to the farm of the Książek family, who were sheltering two Jews, and then to the farm of the Nowak family, where they found a Jew in the stable. Finally, he brought the Germans to the home of his rescuers, the Kucharski family. In total, the Germans executed 15 Poles, among them children, from three families. See Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 853–54; Bartoszewski and Lewon, Righteous Among Nations, 605; Pilarska, Those Who Helped, 84–85, 98, 101.

277 Rączy, Pomoc Polaków dla ludności żydowskiej na Rzeszowszczyźnie 1939–1945, 112 n.61.

278 Barbara Stanisławczyk, Czterdzieści twardych (Warsaw: ABC, 1997), 39, 64 (Marchaty), 72 (Czortków).

279 Blatt, From the Ashes of Sobibor, 201.

280 Piotr Woźniak, Zapluty karzeł reakcji: Wspomnienia AK-owca z więzień w PRL (Warsaw: no publisher, 1985), 51–52.

281 Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 103.

282 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 324.

283 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 329.

284 Kalisz and Rączy, Dzieje społeczności żydowskiej powiatu gorlickiego podczas okupacji niemieckiej 1939–1945, 87.

285 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 344.

286 Gutman and Bender, The Encyclopedia of the Righteous Among the Nations, vol. 5: Poland, Part 2, 884; Leociak, Ratowanie, 39, based on the testimony of Władysław Wójcik, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 5267.

287 Żbikowski, Polacy i Żydzi pod okupacją niemiecką 1939–1945, 340.

288 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 86.

289 Aleksandra Namysło, “Represeje na polskich obywatelach za udzielanie pomocy ludności żydowskiej w świetle akt procesowych niemieckich sądów specjalnych,” in Adam Sitarek, Michał Trębacz, and Ewa Wiatr, eds., Zagłada Żydów na polskiej prowincji (Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego; Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, Oddział w Łodzi, 2012), 375–76, 378; Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 92.

290 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 96.

291 Aleksandra Namysło, “Represeje na polskich obywatelach za udzielanie pomocy ludności żydowskiej w świetle akt procesowych niemieckich sądów specjalnych,” in Sitarek, Trębacz, and Wiatr, Zagłada Żydów na polskiej prowincji, 375–76, 378–79.

292 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 107.

293 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 76.

294 Namysło and Berendt, Rejestr faktów represji na obywatelach polskich za pomoc ludności żydowskiej w okresie II wojny światowej, 95.

295 Rączy, Pomoc Polaków dla ludności żydowskiej na Rzeszowszczyźnie 1939–1945, 114.

296 Rączy, Pomoc Polaków dla ludności żydowskiej na Rzeszowszczyźnie 1939–1945, 112–16, 143, 198.

297 Simon Lavee (Łukawiecki), Jewish Hit Squad: The Łukawiecki Partisans Unit of the Polish Armia Krajowa, 1941–1944 (Jerusalem and Springfield, New Jersey: Gefen, 2015), 3–18.

298 Paweł Szapiro, ed., Wojna żydowsko-niemiecka: Polska prasa konspiracyjna 1943–1944 o powstaniu w getcie Warszawy (London: Aneks, 1992), 163; Wacław Piekarski, Obwód Armii Krajowej Sokołów Podlaski “Sęp”, “Proso” 1939–1944 (Warsaw: n.p., 1991), 25–27; Wojciech Gozdawa-Gołębiowski, “Powiat węgrowski w latach okupacji niemieckiej 1939–1944,” in Arkadiusz Kołodziejczyk and Tadeusz Swat, eds. Węgrów: Dzieje miasta i okolic w latach 1941–1944 (Węgrów: Towarzystwo Miłośników Ziemi Węgrowskiej, 1991), 357–58; Wojciech Jerzy Muszyński, W walce o Wielką Polskę: Propaganda zaplecza politycznego Narodowych Sił Zbrojnych (1939–1945) (Biała Podlaska: Rekonkwista, and Warsaw: Rachocki i S-ka, 2000), 294–95; Andrzej Krzysztof Kunert, ed., Polacy–Żydzi, Polen–Juden, Poles–Jews, 1939–1945: Wybór Źródeł, Quellenauswahl, Selection of Documents (Warsaw: Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walk i Męczeństwa, Instytut Dziedzictwa Narodowego, and Rytm, 2001), 267–68; Joanna Kierylak, “12 sprawiedliwych z Paulinowa,” February 10, 2009, Internet:
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