Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted

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115 Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution, 80.

116 Helene C. Kaplan, I Never Left Janowska … (New York: Holocaust Library, 1989), 59–60.

117 Ibid., 63.

118 Ibid., 69–70.

119 Ibid., 83.

120 June Friedman, Under Providential Guidance, 1991, Internet: <>.

121 Eva Hoffman, Shtetl: The Life and Death of a Small Town and the World of Polish Jews (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997), 6.

122 Timothy Snyder, Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning (New York: Tim Duggan books, 2015), 300.

123 B.W. Ben-Barak, “Borchover ‘Gang’ (Partisan Action),” in N. Blumenthal, The Book of Bortschoff, Internet: , translation of Sefer Borszczow (Tel Aviv: Association of Former Residents of Borszczow in Israel, 1960), 303ff.

124 David J. Landau, alias Dudek, Janek and Jan, Caged: A Story of Jewish Resistance (Sydney: Macmillan, 2000), 115.

125 Ibid., 285–86.

126 Kołacińska-Gałązka, Dzieci Holocaustu mówią..., vol. 5, 135.

127 Shimon Redlich, Together and Apart in Brzezany: Poles, Jews, and Ukrainians, 1919–1945 (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2002), 128.

128 Bakowska, Not All Was Lost, 181.

129 Testimony of Fruma Bregman, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1984, page 12, noted in Michał Czajka, Marek Jóźwik, Teresa Mahorowska, and Apolonia Umińska-Keff, eds., Relacje z czasów Zagłady Inwentarz: Archiwum ŻIH IN-B, zespół 301: Nr. 901–2000/Holocaust Survivor Testimonies Catalogue: Jewish Historical Institute Archives, Record Group 301: no. 901–2000 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 2000), vol. 2, 370.

130 Testimony of Stanisław (Staszek) Jackowski in Richard C. Lukas, ed., Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust (Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1989), 77.

131 Anita Koszałkowska, “Czas, który nie leczy ran,” Nowa Trybuna Opolska, October 27, 2000.

132 Dana I. Alvi, letter, Los Angeles Times, November 6, 1994.

133 Eva Fogelman, Conscience and Courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust (New York: Anchor Books/Random House, 1994), 96.

134 Testimony of Stella Kreshes in Isakiewicz, Harmonica, 57.

135 Michael Maik, Deliverance: The Diary of Michael Maik. A True Story (Kedumim, Israel: Keterpress Enterprises, 2004), 127.

136 Norman Salsitz with Stanley Kaish, Three Homelands: Memories of a Jewish Life in Poland, Israel, and America (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2002), 134–35.

137 Testimony of Braha Bergman and David Efrati in Isakiewicz, Harmonica, 174, 219; Interview with Sheila Peretz Etons, April 30, 1999, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Adam Kazimierz Musiał, Lata w ukryciu (Gliwice: n.p., 2002), vol. 2, 352 (Grün family sheltered by Stanisław Forgiel in Zabrnie).

138 David Shtokfish, ed., Sefer Drohiczyn (Tel Aviv: n.p., 1969), 26ff. (English section).

139 Issur Wondolowicz, “Between the German Hammer and the Polish anvil,” in Shmuel Kalisher, ed., Sokoly: B’maavak l’haim (Tel Aviv: Organization of Sokoły Emigrés in Israel, 1975), 208ff., translated as Sokoly: In the Fight for Life, Internet: .

140 Samuel Gruber, as told to Gertrude Hirschler, I Chose Life (New York: Shengold, 1978), 74.

141 Interview with Felix Horn, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, dated July 19, 1994, 12 74.

142 Lena Küchler-Silberman, My Hundred Children (New York: Laurel-Leaf/Dell, 1987), 227.

143 Nahum Bogner, At the Mercy of Strangers: The Rescue of Jewish Children with Assumed Identities in Poland (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2009), 84–85.

144 Bogner, At the Mercy of Strangers, 84.

145 Gunnar S. Paulsson, Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002), 157–58.

146 Nelli Rotbart, A Long Journey: A Holocaust Memoir and After: Poland, Soviet Union, Canada (Montreal: The Concordia University Chair in Canadian Jewish Studies and The Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies, 2002), 56–57.

147 Iranek-Osmecki, He Who Saves One Life, 128. See also Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 441.

148 Account of Janina Drobnicka Oleksyn, dated 1990 (in the author’s possession).

149 Thomas Toivi Blatt, From the Ashes of Sobibor: A Story of Survival (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1997), 218.

150 Bartoszewski and Lewinówna, Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej, 712.

151 Gutman and Bender, The Encyclopedia of the Righteous Among the Nations, vol. 4: Poland, Part 1, 83. See also Bartoszewski and Lewin, Righteous Among Nations, 443–44.

152 Asher Tarmon, ed., Memorial Book: The Jewish Communities of Manyevitz, Horodok, Lishnivka, Troyanuvka, Povursk, and Kolki (Wolyn Region) (Tel-Aviv: Organization of Survivors of Manyevitz, Horodok, Lishnivka, Troyanuvka, Povursk, Kolki and Surroundings Living in Israel and Overseas, 2004), 82.

153 Ibid., 194.

154 Testimony of Zelman Baum (Wacław Kozieniec), Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 2425.

155 Marcus David Leuchter, “Reflections on the Holocaust,” The Sarmatian Review (Houston, Texas), vol. 20, no. 3 (September 2000).

156 Martin Gilbert, The Righteous: The Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust (Toronto: Key Porter, 2003), 80.

157 Leon Kahn, No Time To Mourn: A True Story of a Jewish Partisan Fighter (Vancouver: Laurelton Press, 1978), 111–12, 114.

158 George Lubow, Escape: Against All Odds. A Survivor’s Story (New York: iUniverse, 2004), 70. According to the author, “My uncle argued someone else should be given a chance to survive, since my father already had two children on the outside.”

159 Jacob Pat, Ashes and Fire (New York: International Universities Press, 1947), 198–99.

160 Pat, Ashes and Fire, 174.

161 Samuel Drix, Witness to Annihilation: Surviving the Holocaust: A Memoir (Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, 1994), 196.

162 Drix, Witness to Annihilation, 204–5.

163 “Ucieczka z piekła—z Tomaszem Blattem rozmawia Marcin Wroński,” Gazeta Petersburska, 2010. Internet:
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