Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted



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87 Ariel Yahalomi, Przeżyłem… (Będzin: n.p., 2007).

88 Irene and Carl Horowitz, Of Human Agony (New York: Shengold Publishers, 1992), 127, 142.

89 Thon, I Wish It Were Fiction, 58.

90 Elżbieta Rączy, Zagłada Żydów w dystrykcie krakowskim w latach 1939–1945 (Rzeszów: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej–Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, Oddział w Rzeszowie and Uniwersytet Rzeszowski, 2014), 226.

91 Testimony of Wilhelm Tropp, dated January 20, 1947, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw), record group 301, number 2321.

92 Testimony of Anna Weissberg, dated July 2, 1945, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw), record group 301, number 432.

93 Testimony of Zonka (Sophie) Wahl in John J. Hartman and Jacek Krochmal, eds., I Remember Every Day…: The Fates of the Jews of Przemyśl during World War II (Przemyśl: Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk w Przemyślu and Remembrance & Reconciliation Inc, Ann Arbor, 2002), 61.

94 Testimony of Fryda Einsiedler (later Frieda Stieglitz), Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1348.

95 Hartman and Krochmal, I Remember Every Day…, 207.

96 Emily Taitz, Holocaust Survivors: A Biographical Dictionary (Westport, Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 2007), vol. 1, 275.

97 Betti Ajzensztajn, ed., Ruch podziemny w ghettach i obozach: Materiały i dokumenty (Warszawa, Łódź and Kraków: Centralna Żydowska Komisja Historyczna w Polsce, 1946), 54–55; Marcin Janowski, “Polityka niemiecka władz okupacyjnych wobec ludności polskiej i żydowskiej w Przemyślu w latach 1939–1944,” in Kresy Południowo-Wschodnie: Rocznik Przemyskiego Centrum Kultury i Nauki Zamek, vol. 3/4, no. 1 (Przemyśl 2005–2006): 219–20.

98 Maurie Hoffman, Keep Yelling!: A Survivor’s Testimony (Richmond, Victoria: Spectrum Publications, 1995), 123.

99 Sonia and Abram Hurman, as told to Halina Birenbaum, Pod osłoną nocy: Wspomnienia z lat 1939–1945 (Kraków and Oświęcim: Fundacja Instytut Studiów Strategicznych and Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Biekenau w Oświęcimiu, 2007), 48–49.

100 Isaiah Trunk, Jewish Responses to Nazi Persecution: Collective and Individual Behavior in Extremis (New York: Stein and Day, 1979), 101.

101 Rywka Rybak, A Survivor of the Holocaust: 49620 (Cleveland: Tricycle Press, 1993), 4.

102 Her account is recorded in Carole Garbuny Vogel, ed., We Shall Not Forget!: Memories of the Holocaust, Second edition (Lexington, Massachusetts: Temple Isaiah, 1995), 258.

103 Ibid., 260.

104 Oral History Interview with William Koenig, dated November 10, 1987, Phoenix Holocaust Survivors’ Association in affiliation with the Cline Library of Northern Arizona University, Internet: .

105 Zuzanna Schnepf-Kołacz, “‘In the Ciechania Presbytery’: The Story of Saving Zofia Trembska: A Case Study,” Holocaust: Studies and Materials (Warsaw: Polish Center for Holocaust Research), vol. 2 (2010), 365.

106 Testimony of Janina Kroch, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 362. See also Marek Jóźwik, Teresa Mahorowska, and Apolonia Umińska, eds., Relacje z czasów Zagłady Inwentarz: Archiwum ŻIH IN-B, zespół 301: Nr. 1–900 / Holocaust Survivor Testimonies Catalogue: Jewish Historical Institute Archives, Record Group 301: No. 1–900 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 1998), vol. 1, 134. Janina Kroch was later sheltered by Anna Holdenmajer of Brody and survived, as did her mother.

107 Testimony of Salomon Goldman, January 20, 1946, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 1864.

108 Lala Fishman and Steven Weingartner, Lala’s Story: A Memoir of the Holocaust (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1997), 137–38.

109 Testimony of Adela Fiszer, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw) archive, record group 301, number 2525, as cited in Michał Czajka, Maria Młodkowska, and Apolonia Umińska-Keff, eds., Relacje z czasów Zagłady Inwentarz: Archiwum ŻIH IN-B, zespół 301: Nr. 2001–3000/Holocaust Survivor Testimonies Catalogue: Jewish Historical Institute Archives, Record Group 301: No. 2001–3000 (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny, 2001), vol. 3, 216. Adela Fiszer was sent to work in a factory where she met a Pole who smuggled her out and took her to Hungary. In Hungary, she met the brother of another Polish friend of hers from Lwów who provided her with his deceased sister’s Soviet passport. Adela Fiszer was then registered as a Pole. She survived the war and returned to Poland.

110 Ajzensztajn, Ruch podziemny w ghettach i obozach, 23.

111 Jakub Gutenbaum and Agnieszka Latała, eds., The Last Eyewitnesses: Children of the Holocaust Speak, vol. 2 (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2005), 80–81.

112 Testimony of Frieda Koch in Yalkut Moreshet: Holocaust Documentation and Research [Tel Aviv], vol. 2 (Winter 2004): 178.

113 Gutenbaum and Latała, The Last Eyewitnesses, vol. 2, 74.

114 Marcus Markel, “The Remarkable Story of Mordecai Markel,” written in 1990, Internet:
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