Members of the Jewish police were not the only ones who served the Germans; some Jews acted

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(a police officer named Kalinowski who tracked down Jews in hiding was executed near Biłgoraj). In Zwierzyniec, the Home Army tried and executed Ignacy Kulik and his wife, who accompanied the Germans during a round-up of Jews and pointed out Jewish houses. For a monograph dealing with events in a single county (powiat) in southern Poland, see Adam Kazimierz Musiał, Krwawe upiory: Dzieje powiatu Dąbrowa Tarnowska w okresie okupacji hitlerowskiej (Tarnów: Karat, 1993), 32–69, where the author identifies several Poles executed by the Polish underground (Home Army) in the county of Dąbrowa Tarnowska for denouncing or persecuting Jews. In November 1943, the Home Army executed Józef Suchan, the German-appointed mayor of Staszów, for collaborating in the round-up of Jews and other measures directed against Poles, after he was tried and sentenced by the Undeground State court. In some cases, it was enough for the Polish resistance to issue a stern warning to amateur szmalcowniks in order to “neutralize” them. See Celemenski, Elegy For My People, 149. Wacław Noworol, the ringleader of a vigilante group who captured Jews and denounced Polish rescuers, was sentenced to death by the underground Special Civil Court (Cywilny Sąd Specjalny) in Kraków and executed. See Dagmara Swatłek, “For a Coat, a Suitcase, and an Apple: Crimes Against Jews Hiding in the Villages of Falkowa, Wieniec and Janowice in the Light of Post-War Trial Documents,” Holocaust: Studies and Materials (Warsaw), vol. 2 (2010): 399–419, here at 403–6.

53 Eliyahu Yones, Smoke in the Sand: The Jews of Lvov in the War Years 1939–1944 (Jerusalem and New York: Gefen, 2004), 227.

54 Eliasz Bialski, Patrząc prosto w oczy (Montreal: Polish-Jewish Heritage Foundation, 2002), 114, 139–47.

55 “To się dzieje dzisiaj,” (a conversation with Marek Edelman), Tygodnik Powszechny (Kraków), April 18, 1993.

56 Ewa Kurek, Dzieci żydowskie w klasztorach: Udział żeńskich zgromadzeń zakonnych w akcji ratowania dzieci żydowskich w Polsce a latach 1939–1945 (Lublin: Clio, 2001; Lublin: Gaudium, 2004), 172.

57 Stanisław Wroński and Maria Zwolakowa, Polacy Żydzi 1939–1945 (Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza, 1971), 306–7.

58 Dov Weissberg, I Remember… (London and Tel Aviv: Freund Publishing House, 1998), 84.

59 Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust: The Jewish Tragedy (Glasgow: William Collins, 1986), 667.

60 Elżbieta Isakiewicz, Harmonica: Jews Relate How Poles Saved Them from the Holocaust (Warsaw: Polska Agencja Informacyjna, 2001), 176.

61 Berenstein and Rutkowski, Assistance to the Jews in Poland, 1939–1945, 43.

62 Elsa Thon, I Wish It Were Fiction: Memories, 1939–1945 (Hamilton, Ontario: Mekler & Deahl, 1997), 74–75.

63 Taubenschlag (Townsend), To Be a Jew in Occupied Poland, 30–31.

64 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 65.

65 Havi Dreifuss, “‘The Work of My Hands is Drowning in the Sea, and You Would Offer Me Song?!’: Orthodox Behavior and Leadership in Warsaw during the Holocaust,” in Glenn Dynner and François Guesnet, eds., Warsaw: The Jewish Metropolis (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2015), 487.

66 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 70.

67 Sara R. Horowitz, “‘If He Knows to Make a Child…’,” Memories of Birth and Baby-Killing in Deferred Jewish Testimony Narratives,” in Norman J.W. Goda, ed., Jewish Histories of the Holocaust: New Transnational Approaches (New York and Oxford: Berghahn, 2014), 135–51, here at 148. As this family member tells it, the sacrifice of the child is not an example of the degeneration of morality—the valuing of one’s own life above the life of others—but a painful choice on behalf of the collective: “… the Jewish race has to survive.”

68 Moshe Maltz, “Pages about Pain and Death of the Jewish Settlement in Sokal,” in A. Chomel, ed., Sefer Sokal, Tartakov, Varenz, Stoyanov ve-ha-Seviva (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Sokal and Surroundings, 1968), 277–316, translated as Memorial Book of Sokal, Tartakow and Surroundings, Internet: .

69 Testimony of Meier Lencow, Jewish Historical Institute (Warsaw), record group 301, number 805.

70 Natan Gross, Who Are You, Mr Grymek? (London and Portland, Oregon: Vallentine Mitchell, 2001), 246.

71 Zosia Goldberg, as told to Hilton Obenzinger, Running Through Fire: How I Survived the Holocaust (San Francisco: Mercury House 2004), 75.

72 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 433.

73 Irena Bakowska, Not All Was Lost: A Young Woman’s Memoir, 1939–1946 (Kingston, Ontario: Karijan, 1998), 153.

74 Joseph Schupack, The Dead Years ([New York]: Holocaust Library, 1986), 119–20.

75 Edi Weinstein, Quenched Steel: The Story of an Escape from Treblinka (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2002), 116, 119. Reissued as Eddie Weinstein, 17 Days in Treblinka: Daring to Resist, and Refusing to Die (Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2008).

76 Roman Halter, Roman’s Journey (London: Portobello Books, 2007), 264.

77 Sonia Games, Escape Into Darkness: The True Story of a Young Woman’s Extraordinary Survival During World War II (New York: Shapolsky Publishers, 1991), 93, 107.

78 His testimony is recorded in Carol Rittner and Sondra Myers, eds., The Courage to Care: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust (New York: New York University Press, 1986), 53.

79 Account of Stanisław Różycki in Andrzej Żbikowski, ed., Archiwum Ringelbluma: Konspiracyjne Archiwum Getta Warszawy, vol. 3: Relacje z Kresów (Warsaw: Żydowski Instytut Historyczny IN-B, 2000), 562.

80 Sylvia Rothchild, ed., Voices from the Holocaust (New York: New American Library, 1981), 225–26.

81 Rose Zar, In the Mouth of the Wolf (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1983), 108.

82 Testimony of Janina Ekier in Isakiewicz, Harmonica, 247.

83 Alicia Fleissig Magal, From Miracle to Miracle: A Story of Survival (Parker, Colorado: Outskirts Press, 2011), 93.

84 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 324.

85 Dean, Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, vol. II, Part A, 394–95.

86 Sobibor Interviews, Internet:
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