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Appendix





  1. Appendix 1. The gas industry in Azerbaijan.



  2. Source: EIA, 2014, http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=aj

  3. Appendix 2. Southern Gas Corridor



  4. Source: Necknagel Charles, 27 June 2013, RFERL, Retrieved from

  5. http://www.rferl.org/content/nabucco-gas-pipeline-rivals-future-in-doubt/25030223.html, on 20 November 2014






1 Mehdiyeva, Nazrin, Power Games in the Caucasus: Azerbaijan's Foreign and Energy Policy Towards the West, Russia and the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011, Available online at https://books.google.ca/books? hl=en&lr=&id=wQYCAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP7&dq=Analysis+of+Azerbaijan%E2%80%99s+evolving+policy+ +in+gas+industry&ots=tKSALZys-K&sig=nvaiEhyCO2IDwiICbFukgOe8r1A#v=onepage&q&f=false Google Books, p.5.

2 Peter Hopkirk, The Great Game: On Secret Service in High Asia. Oxford (Oxford University Press, 2001)

3 Alexander Cooley, Great Games, Local Rules: The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia. Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 2012, pp.3-4.



4 Sevinj Amirova-Mammadova. “Azerbaijan’s Energy Policy: Natural Gas Supply to 

Europe.” academia.edu, available online at https://www.academia.edu/3302870/Azerbaijan_s_energy_policy_Natural_Gas_supply_to_Europe_ acccesed on May 3, 2015.



5 BBC, “Nagorno-Karabakh Profile - Overview.” News Portal. BBC. N.p., 12 Mar. 2015. available online at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-18270325 accessed on May 3, 2015

6 Pinar Ipek. “Azerbaijan’s Foreign Policy and Challenges for Energy Security.” The Middle East Journal, 63.2 (2009): 227–239, 229.

7 Quoted in Pinar Ipek. “Azerbaijan’s Foreign Policy and Challenges for Energy Security.” The Middle East Journal, 63.2 (2009): 227–239, 231.

8 Jack S.Levy, “Case Studies: Types, Designs, and Logics of Inference,” Conflict Management and Peace Science, Vol.25, No.1, (2008): pp. 1–18.

9 Pinar Ipek, “Azerbaijan’s Foreign Policy and Challenges for Energy Security”, The Middle East Journal, 63.2 (2009): 233, 227–239.


10 Pinar Ipek. “Azerbaijan’s Foreign Policy and Challenges for Energy Security.” The Middle East Journal, 63.2 (2009): 227–239.

11 Official Website of Azerbaijan Presidency, 06 February 2015, “Ilham Aliyev attended “Diversification strategies” roundtable of the Munich Security Conference”, Available at http://en.president.az/articles/14264 , Accessed on 10 May, 2015.


12 Saban Kardas, “Delays In Turkish-Azeri Gas Deal Raises Uncertainty over Nabucco.” March 19, 2010, European Dialogue, available online at http://eurodialogue.eu/energy-security/Delays-In-Turkish-Azeri-Gas-Deal-Raises-Uncertainty-Over-Nabucco, accessed on May 3, 2015.

13 Kardas, 2010.

14 Christian Hübner, European Energy Supply Security in Light of the Ukraine Crisis, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Berlin, 2007

15 Filip Černoch et al, The Future of Natural Gas Security in the V4 Countries. A Scenario Analysis and the EU Dimension, Masaryk University, 2011 summary available online at http://www.ceners.org/research/publications/#v4-gtm-diversification-options accessed on April 12, 2015.

16 Nazrin, 2011, p.5.

17 US. Energy Information Administration, 01 August 2014, Azerbaijan:Analysis, Available at

http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=aj, Accessed on 08 May, 2015.



18 For a summary of Azerbaijan's oil history see Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev. “Azerbaijan’s Oil History Brief Oil Chronology since 1920  Part 2 by.” Azerbaijan International 11.2 (2003), available online at http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/ai112_folder/112_articles/112_chronology.html acccessed on May 9, 2015.


19 Quoted in Ipek, 2009, p.233.

20 Joe R. Feagin,, Anthony M. Orum, and Gideon. Sjoberg, A Case for the Case Study (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), p.1509

21 Alexander Lawrence George and Andrew. Bennett, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social

Sciences (Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.]: MIT Press, 2005), 7.



22 Levy, 2008, pp.2-3.

23 Levy, 2008, p.4.

24 Levy, 2008, p.4.

25 Levy, 2008, p.5.

26 Adapted from Robert K. Yin,, Case Study Research : Design and Methods (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage

Publications, 2009), 5.



27 John Gerring, Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. New York, NY [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012, p.13

28 Kenneth N. Waltz, Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis. (New York: Colombia Press, 2001); Kenneth N. Waltz, Theory of International Politics. (Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1979) laid the foundations of neorealism.

29 Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver, and Jaap De Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998 and Barry Buzan. People, States & Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. London: ECPR Press, 2008.

30 Robert Jervis. “Realism, Neoliberalism, and Cooperation: Understanding the Debate.” International Security 24.1 (1999): 42–63.

31 John J. Mearsheimer. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: Norton, 2001.

32 Andrew K. Hanami, Perspectives on Structural Realism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003

33 Joseph M. Grieco, J.G. John Ikenberry, and Michael Mastanduno. Introduction to International Relations Enduring Questions and Contemporary Perspectives. N.p., 2015

34 Jo Jakobsen, “Neorealism in International Relations – Kenneth Waltz.” http://www.popularsocialscience.com/2013/11/06/neorealism-in-international-relations-kenneth-waltz/. N.p., 6 Nov. 2013.

35 Waltz, 2001.

36 Waltz, 2001, 227-28

37 Elif Dibek. “What Are the Basic Concepts of Neorealism?” https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_the_basic_concepts_of_neorealism, 11 Aug. 2012, accessed Nov 12, 2015.

38 Waltz, 2001, x.

39 Waltz, 2001, x.

40 Jakobsen, 2013

41 Waltz, 2001, 227.

42 Waltz,2001, 227.

43 Waltz, 1979, 65.

44 Waltz, 1979.

45 Jakobsen, 2013.

46 Waltz, 2001, 232

47 Mearsheimer, 2001

48 Davide Fiammenghi. “The Security Curve and the Structure of International Politics: A Neorealist Synthesis.” International security Vol.35. No.4 (2011): pp.126–154.


49 Mearsheimer, 2001.

50 Mearsheimer, 2001

51 Waltz, 2001, x

52 Jakobsen, 2013.

53 Miriam Fendius Elman, “The Foreign Policies of Small States: Challenging Neorealism in Its Own Backyard,“ British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 25, No. 2 (Apr., 1995), pp. 171-217

54 The key works that focus on the role of the state internationally and domestically are Kenneth N. Waltz, Man, the State and War: A Theoretical Analysis (New York: Columbia University Press, 1959) and J. David Singer, 'The Level of Analysis Problem in International Relations', World Politics, 14 (1961), 77-92

55 Llewelyn Hughes and Austin Long, “Is there an oil weapon? Security Implications of Changes in the Structure of the International Oil Market“ International Security, Volume 39, Number 3, Winter 2014/2015, pp.152-189, p.153

56 Reuters. “CORRECTED - CORRECTED-FACTBOX-Nabucco Pipeline Project Facts.” Reuters 17 May 2009 available online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/05/17/nabucco-gas-iraq-idUSLH62948920090517 accessed on November 25, 2014.


57 Meister Stefan and Marcel Vietor, 01/11/2011 South Caucasus:20 Years of Independence, From: https://dgap.org/en/think-tank/publications/further-publications/southern-gas-corridor-and-south-caucasus, Accessed on 13/11/2014

58 Novinite Sofia News Agency, 2008, Sixth Company Joins Nabucco Consortium http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=90070, Accessed 14 November 2014.

59 Nabucco-Pipeline starts detailed technical planning, Press Release.January 8, 2008, Vienna, http://www.nabucco-pipeline.com/press-public-news/press-releases/press-release-20080108.html Accessed 14 November 2014.

60 Nabucco-Pipeline starts detailed technical planning, Press Release.January 8, 2008, Vienna, http://www.nabucco-pipeline.com/press-public-news/press-releases/press-release-20080108.html Accessed 14 November 2014.

61 Loskot-Strachota, Agata, 2008, ´´Nabucco vs. South Stream-Rivalry over Balkan Gas Pipelines.`` CES Commentary. No:3, file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/commentary_03.pdf, Accessed on 07 November 2014.

62 Cornell Svante, MamukaTsereteli and Vladimir Socor, 2005, ´´The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline:Oil Window to the West``, http://www.isdp.eu/files/publications/books/fssc05sc05geostrategic.pdf. Accessed on 30 October 2014:28.

63 News.az, 28 January 2010, Nabucco Pipeline Project lacks leadership - Ilham Aliyev, Available at http://news.az/articles/7766, Accessed on 05 May, 2015.

64 Chyong, Chi-Kong & Vessela Tcherneva, 17 March 2015, Europe’s Vulnerability on Russian Gas, Available from http://www.ecfr.eu/article/commentary_europes_vulnerability_on_russian_gas, Accessed on 30 October 2015.

65 Mammadova. “Azerbaijan’s Energy Policy: Natural Gas Supply to  Europe.”, 2015 academia.edu, available online at https://www.academia.edu/3302870/Azerbaijan_s_energy_policy_Natural_Gas_supply_to_Europe_ acccesed on May 3, 2015.

66 Mehdiyeva, Nazrin, Power Games in the Caucasus: Azerbaijan's Foreign and Energy Policy Towards the West, Russia and the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011p.3.

67 Mehdiyeva, Nazrin, Power Games in the Caucasus: Azerbaijan's Foreign and Energy Policy Towards the West, Russia and the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011, .p.3.

68 Mehdiyeva, Nazrin, Power Games in the Caucasus: Azerbaijan's Foreign and Energy Policy Towards the West, Russia and the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011, p.5.

69 Mehdiyeva, Nazrin, Power Games in the Caucasus: Azerbaijan's Foreign and Energy Policy Towards the West, Russia and the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, 2011, p.2.


70 Elchin Guliyev. “Foreign Direct Investment in Transition Economies   The Case of British Petroleum in Azerbaijan.” Baku, Azerbaijan: N.p., 2014 available online at http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:7sk-CMYxKW4J:ecomod.net/system/files/Foreign%2520Direct%2520Investment%2520in%2520Transition%2520Economies.%2520BP%2520in%2520Azerbaijan.docx+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca accessed on May 07, 2015.

71 Ratner.et.al. Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2013. Web. 1 May 2015 available online at https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42405.pdf.

72 Pinar Ipek. “Azerbaijan’s Foreign Policy and Challenges for Energy Security.” The Middle East Journal, 63.2 (2009): 227–239.

73 International Energy Agency. Energy Policies of IEA Countries 2014 Review European Union. Paris: International Energy Agency available online at http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/EU2014SUM.pdf accessed on May 3, 2015 for a summary of the report see Euroactiv. “EU Dependent on Russian Gas for ‘Foreseeable Future’, Warns IEA.” Euroactiv, accessible online at -http://www.euractiv.com/sections/energy/eu-dependent-russian-gas-foreseeable-future-warns-iea- 310469 accessed on March 5, 2015.

74 International Energy Agency. Energy Policies of IEA Countries 2014 Review European Union. Paris: International Energy Agency available online at http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/EU2014SUM.pdf accessed on May 3, 2015

75 Ratner.et.al. Europe’s Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2013. Web. 1 May 2015 available online at https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42405.pdf., Accessed on 01 May, 2015.

76 Elkhan Nuriev, EU Policy in the South Caucasus  A View from Azerbaijan. Center for European Policy Studies, 2007 available online at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm? Accessed on May 3, 2015.

77 Stephen John Stedman, "Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes," International Security, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Fall 1997), p. 6-7.

78 Michael Economides. “Pipeline Would Loosen Russian Stranglehold On European Natural Gas Supply.” Forbes 19 Nov. 2012 available online at http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2012/11/19/pipeline-would-loosen-russian-stranglehold-on-european-natural-gas-supply/ accessed on April 3, 2015.

79 Elkhan Nuriev, EU Policy in the South Caucasus  A View from Azerbaijan. Center for European Policy Studies, 2007 available online at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm? Accessed on May 3, 2015, p.9.

80 Kirtzkalia Nana, 10 February 2015, First cargo transported by railway from China to Georgia, Trend News Agency, Available from http://en.trend.az/scaucasus/georgia/2362826.html, Accessed on 01 December, 2015.

81 Daly John (Silk Road Reporters), 21 October 2015, How the Caspian Sea is Becoming a Rail Corridor, Available at http://www.silkroadreporters.com/2015/10/21/how-the-caspian-sea-is-becoming-a-rail-corridor/, Accessed on 01 December, 2015.

82 Literally means ´King`s Sea`.

83 SPG Media Ltd. 2009. Shah Deniz South Caspian, Azerbaijan. http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/shah_deniz/. Accessed on 07 October, 2014.

84 Abdelghani Henni, 14 November 2014, Azerbaijan Energized: The Road to Recovery, Society of Petroleum Engineers, From http://www.spe.org/news/article/azerbaijan-energized-the-road-to-recovery

On 04 December 2014.



85 Mishin, Vladimir. 2008. ´´Azerbaijan Wants Its Gas to Flow to Nabucco.``Nezavishimaya gazeta. http://en.ng.ru/energy/2008-03-11/6_nabucco.html. Accessed on 07 October, 2014.

86 Statoil.com, 2007, Shah Deniz and the South Caucasus Pipeline (SCP), Accessed on 13 November 2014,

http://www.statoil.com/en/About/Worldwide/Azerbaijan/Pages/ShahDeniz.aspx



87 Christian Hübner. European Energy Supply Security in Light of the Ukraine Crisis. Berlin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, July 2014., Facts & Findings Series, p.3.

88 Christian Hübner, July 2004, European Energy Supply Security in Light of the Ukraine Crisis. Berlin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Facts & Findings Series. p.6.

89 Stefan Meister and Marcel Viëtor. “The Southern Gas Corridor and the South Caucasus.” South Caucasus – 20 Years of Independence. Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, p.338

90 Europetrole, 14 February 2011, “Nabucco Statement on EU-Azeri strategic gas deal”, Available at http://www.euro-petrole.com/nabucco-statement-on-eu-azeri-strategic-gas-deal-n-i-4823, Accessed on 10 May, 2015.

91 Guarascio Francesco, 24 July 2012, “UPDATE 2-Azeri energy minister backs Nabucco-West gas pipeline”, Reuters , Available at http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/07/24/azeri-nabucco-idUSL6E8IOFZA20120724, Accessed on 08 May, 2015.

92 Vladimir Socor, 30 May 2013, “Comparative Advantages of Nabucco-West Offset by Lack of Financing”, Eurasia Daily Monitor, Volume:10, Issue:102, Available at http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=40958&no_cache=1#.VU0Fi46qqko, Accessed on 06 May, 2015.

93 ABC.az, 12 February 2013, “SOCAR: Azerbaijan not sure of Nabucco West realization”, Available at

http://abc.az/eng/news_12_02_2013_71625.html, Accessed on 10 May, 2015.



94 Pantazi Christian, 01 July 2013, HotNews Interview with the European Commissioner for Energy Gunther Oettinger, Available at http://m.hotnews.ro/stire/15104603, Accessed on 09 May, 2015.

95 Georgi Gotev, 05 March 2015, “Bulgaria wants to revive Nabucco, Azerbaijan says pipeline name not important”, EurActive.com, Available at http://www.euractiv.com/sections/energy/bulgaria-wants-revive-nabucco-azerbaijan-says-pipeline-name-not-important-312645, Accessed on 08 May 2015.

96 Chazan Guy, October 2008, “Turkmenistan Gas Field is one of World’s Largest”, The Wall Street Journal, From

http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB122409510811337137, Accessed 15 November 2014.



97 Eurogas press release, March 2014, “Drop in 2013 EU gas demand emphasizes need for swift change”,

from http://www.eurogas.org/statistics/, Accessed on 15 November 2014.



98 Natural Gas Europe. “Could There Be a ‘Central Asian Nabucco?’ Will Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan Cooperate on the Southern Gas Corridor?.” Natural Gas Europe 10 Nov. 2014: available online at http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/turkmenistan-azerbaijan-southern-gas-corridor-central-asian-nabucco accessed on May 9, 2015


99 Jarosiewicz, Aleksandra, 2009, ´´The Russian-Turkmen gas war,`` East Week Analytical Newsletter, No:21(171). http://osw.waw.pl/en/epub/EW/2009/090603/01.htm, Accessed on 10 November 2014.

100 Jarosiewicz, Aleksandra, 2009, ´´The Russian-Turkmen gas war,`` East Week Analytical Newsletter, No:21(171). http://osw.waw.pl/en/epub/EW/2009/090603/01.htm, Accessed on 10 November 2014.

101 Murat Sadykov, 8 May 2014, “Turkmenistan ups gas Exports to China Again”, Eurasianet,

Retrieved from http://www.eurasianet.org/node/68354, On 16 November, 2014.



102 Ibrahimov Rovshan, Trans-Afghan Pipeline:Will Ambitions Convert into the Reality, 15 May, 2008, The Journal of Turkish Weekly, http://www.turkishweekly.net/comments.php?id=2903 Accessed on 19 October 2014.

103 Valiyev Anar, Septemnber 2009, “Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan’s Dispute over the Caspian Sea: Will it

Impede the Nabucco Project?”, PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No.87,

Available at http://www.gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/pepm_087.pdf, Accessed on 06 May, 2015, p.3.


104 Valiyev Anar, Septemnber 2009, “Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan’s Dispute over the Caspian Sea: Will it

Impede the Nabucco Project?”, PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No.87, Available at http://www.gwu.edu/~ieresgwu/assets/docs/pepm_087.pdf, Accessed on 06 May, 2015.



105 Jarosiewicz, Aleksandra and Justyna, Gotkowska. 2009. ´´Germany`s RWE to invest in the gas sector of Turkmenistan.`` East Week. http://osw.waw.pl/en/epub/EW/2009/090729/02.htm. Accessed on 07 December, 2014.

106 Zaur Shiriyev, 11 March 2015, “Turkmenistan, Turkey and Azerbaijan: A Trilateral Energy Strategy?”,

Eurasia Daily Monitor, Volume:12, Issue:45.




107 The South Stream gas pipeline was supposed to transfer Russian gas through the Black Sea to Bulgaria and further to Austria. However, this pipeline was abandoned in December 2014. See Ladka Mortkowitz Bauerova, December 2, “Putin Abandoning South Stream Pipeline Brings Relief to Ukraine”, Bloomberg Business, Available at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-12-02/putin-abandoning-south-stream-pipeline-brings-relief-to-ukraine, Accessed on 07 May, 2015.
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