Uceratio linguae (traumatica) (Traumatic) ulceration of tongue
Ulcus duodeni Duodenal ulcer
Ulcus pepticum Peptic ulcer
Ulcus ventriculi chronica Chronic gastric ulcer
Ulcus ventriculi Gastric ulcer
Volvulus intestini Volvulus of intestine
1 The aim of this project is the innovation of language courses at Masaryk University so that they reflect the connection with praxis.
2 However, not all Christian English words are of Latin origin. Some of them were adopted from pagan terminology. For instance, the domestic words God or ēastron (modern-English Easter) were given a new meaning under the influence of Christianity (Vachek, and Firbas 15). Similarly, old-English gōdspell (modern-English gospel) is a loan translation/calque from Greek εὐαγγέλιον“good news” (Vachek, and Firbas 16).
3 In the case of some nouns, there exist adjectives of home origin next to Latin ones. They are often formed by the prefixes –ly or –ish. However, their meaning and use may differ from Latin adjectives, e.g. father – paternal – fartherly; child – childish –infantile (Peprník 86-87).
4While English medical terms are used more and more (stress; shock; screening; AIDS “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome”; CT “computer tomography”; VP shunt “ventriculoperitoneal shunt”), terms of Arabic origin (Latin alcohol, from Arabic alkuhl, alkohl; Latin alchymia, from Arabic alkimiyā; in English alcohol; alchemy), French origin (Latin migraena, English migraine) and Italian origin (Latin malaria, from Italian mala aria “bad air”) still stay in minority (Kábrt, and Kábrt jr. 157, 597, 566).
5 A similar stylistic change can be observed in Czech. As in English, the term of Latin origin tuberkulóza is preferred to Czech souchotiny, which is perceived as archaic today.
6 Beside the lexemes which are adjectives by their origin (e.g. hard palate), there are also some adjectives formed from verbs (e.g. descending colon; hidden part of duodenum).
7 In general English, it is used for “the part of a machine or piece of equipment that opens and closes in order to control the flow of air or liquid” (Macmillan 1653). In medical Latin and English, it fulfills a similar function inside vessels of the human or animal body.
8 Its metaphoric meaning is based on specification of the original general meaning.
9 It is used in the metaphoric meaning “layer” here. However, it originally related to Roman clothes, which was similer to a shirt. On the contrary, this connotation is absent in the case of the English term.
10Lingua geographica is the Latin equivalent to this term. This disease was named after white maps which surround bald patches on the affected tongue.
11 It corresponds with Latin glossitisrhombica mediana. The term was formed according to inflammatory lesions of a rhombic shape which occur on the surface of the tongue as a typical symptom of this disease.
12 The original meaning is “a long thin part of a plant with a flower, fruit, or leaf at the end (Macmillan 1452)”.
13 In Latin, globus refers to “an object of the round shape”.
14 The original meaning is “ornamental plate or tablet”; the meaning “bacteria deposits on teeth” is secondary (Harper).
15 There are two forms of this disease. For so called tropical sprue, the formation of ulcers in the mouth and chronic enteritis is typical. It usually occurs in connection with the stay in tropical regions. Non-tropical sprue or coeliac disease is characterized as“a disease in which the small intestine is hypersensitive to gluten, leading to difficulty in digesting food” (“Sprue2”).
16 A cherub is a mythical being, an angel partly with a human body, partly with an animal body. His task was to carry the God´s throne and guard sacred places (Ottova všeobecná encyklopedie 496).