Masaryk university faculty of education


Latin-English glossary of clinical terms from the field of gastroenterology



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Latin-English glossary of clinical terms from the field of gastroenterology

(Dens) distomolaris Distomolar

(Dens) paramolaris Paramolar

Abrasio dentis Dental abrasion

Abscessus anorectalis Anorectal abscess

Abscessus fossae ischiorectalis Abscess of ischiorectal fossa

Abscessus glandulae salivariae Abscessus of salivary gland

Abscessus hepatis Hepatic abscess/abscess of liver

Achalasia cardiae Achalasia of cardia

Achlorhydria Achlorhydria

Ageusia Ageusia

Alveolitis Alveolitis

Angina abdominalis Abdominal angina

Angiocholecystitis Angiocholecystitis

Ankylosis dentis Dental ankylosis

Anodontia Anodontia

Aplasia cementi Aplasia of cementum

Appendicitis acuta perforans Acute appendicitis with perforation

Appendicitis acuta Acute appendicitis

Appendicitis chronica Chronic appendicitis

Ascariasis; Ascaridosis Ascariasis; Ascaridosis

Atrophia glandulae salivariae Atrophy of salivary gland

Atrophia linguae Atrophy of tongue

Atrophia papillarum lingualium Atrophy of tongue papillae

Attritio excessiva dentium Excessive attrition of teeth

Bezoar Bezoar

Borborygmus Borborygmus

Carcinoidum Carcinoid

Cardiospasmus Cardiospasm

Caries cementi Caries of cementum

Caries dentini Caries of dentine

Caries dentis Dental caries

Cheilitis exfoliata Exfoliative cheilitis

Cheilitis glandularis Glandular cheilitis

Cheilitis Cheilitis

Cheilosis Cheilosis

Cherubismus Cherubism

Cholangitis Cholangitis

Cholecystitis acuta Acute cholecystitis

Cholecystitis chronica Chronic cholecystitis

Cholecystolithiasis Cholecystolithiasis

Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis

Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis

Cholera Cholera

Cholestasis Cholestasis

Cholesterolosis Cholesterolosis

Cirrhosis hepatis biliaris Biliary cirrhosis

Cirrhosis hepatis cardialis Cardiac cirrhosis of liver

Cirrhosis hepatis macronodularis Macronodular cirrhosis of liver

Cirrhosis hepatis micronodularis Micronodular cirrhosis of liver

Cirrhosis hepatis postnecrotica Postnecrotic cirrhosis of liver

Cirrhosis hepatis Cirrhosis of liver

Coeliakia Coeliac disease

Colica biliaris Colic of gallbladder

Colitis ulcerosa Ulcerative colitis

Colitis Colitis

Coma hepaticum Hepatic coma

Constipatio Constipation

Cystis follicularis Follicular cyst

Cystis gingivalis Gingival cyst

Cystis radicularis Root cyst; Radicular cyst

Defectus eruptionis dentium Disturbances in tooth eruption

Defectus odontogenesis Disorder of odontogenesis

Degeneratio hepatolenticularis Hepatolenticular degeneration

Degeneratio pulpae dentis Pulp degeneration

Dens evaginatus Dens evaginatus

Dens invaginatus; Dens in dente Dens invaginatus; Dens in dente

Dentinogenesis imperfecta Dentinogenesis imperfecta

Dentitio praecox Precocious dentition

Diarrhoea Diarrhoea

Diastema Diastema

Diverticulitis Diverticulitis

Diverticulosis Diverticulosis

Duodenitis Duodenitis

Dyspepsia Dyspepsia

Dysphagia Dysphagia

Dysplasia dentini Dentine dysplasia

Empyema vesicae felleae Empyema of gallbladder

Enteritis regionalis Regional enteritis; Crohn’s disease

Enteritis Enteritis

Enterobiosis; Oxyuriasis Enterobiosis; Oxyuriasis

Enterocele Enterocele

Enterolithiasis Enterolithiasis

Enteropathia Enteropathy

Enteroptosis Enteroptosis

Enterorrhagia Enterorrhagia

Enterostenosis Enterostenosis

Epiplocele Epiplocele

Epulis fibromatosa Epulis fibromatosa

Epulis gigantocellularis Epulis gigantocellularis

Erosio dentis Dental erosion

Erythroplakia Erythroplakia

Exostosis maxilae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular exostosis

Fissura ani Anal fissure

Fistula ani Anal fistula

Fistula glandulae salivariae Fistula of salivary gland

Flatulentia Flatulence

Foetor ex ore; Halitosis Bad breath; Halitosis

Gangraena pulpae dentis Pulpal gangrene

Gastrinoma Gastrinoma

Gastritis atrophica Atrophic gastritis

Gastritis corrosiva Corrosive gastritis

Gastritis hypertrophica Hypertrophic gastritis

Gastritis phlegmonosa Phlegmonous gastritis

Gastritis Gastritis

Gastroduodenitis Gastroduodenitis

Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis

Gastroptosis Gastroptosis

Gingivitis acuta Acute gingivitis

Gingivitis chronica Chronic gingivitis

Gingivitis Gingivitis

Globus hystericus Globus hystericus

Glossalgia; Glossodynia Glossalgia; Glossodynia

Glossitis areata exfoliativa; Lingua Glossitis areata exfoliativa; Geographic

geographica; Glossitis migrans tongue; Benign migratory glossitis

Glossitis atrophica Atrophic glossitis

Glossitis rhombica mediana Median rhomboid glossitis

Glossitis Glossitis

Glossopathia Glossopathy

Glossopyrosis Glossopyrosis; Burning tongue

Granuloma apicis dentis Apical granuloma

Granuloma pyogenicum Granuloma pyogenicum; Septic granuloma

Haematemesis Haematemesis

Haemoperitoneum Haemoperitoneum

Haemorrhagia gastrica Gastric haemorrhage

Haemorrhagia intestinalis Intestinal haemorrhage

Helminthosis Helminthosis

Hepatitis fulminans Fulminant hepatitis

Hepatodystrophia Hepatodystrophy

Hepatoptosis Hepatoptosis

Hepatosis Hepatosis

Hernia abdominalis Abdominal hernia

Hernia acquisita Acquired hernia

Hernia congenita Congenital hernia

Hernia diaphragmatica Diaphragmatic hernia

Hernia epigastrica Epigastric hernia

Hernia femoralis Femoral hernia

Hernia incarcerata Incarcerated hernia

Hernia inguinalis Inguinal hernia

Hernia inguinalis directa Direct inguinal hernia

Hernia inguinalis indirecta Indirect inguinal hernia

Hernia inguinalis obliqua Oblique inguinal hernia

Hernia ischiadica Ischiadic hernia

Hernia lumbalis Lumbar hernia

Hernia obturatoria Obturator hernia

Hernia paraumbilicalis Paraumbilical hernia

Hernia scrotalis Scrotal hernia

Hernia umbilicalis Umbilical hernia

Hernia ventralis Ventral hernia

Hydrops vesicae felleae Hydrops of gallbladder

Hyperplasia appendicis Hyperplasia of appendix

Hyperplasia cementi Cementum hyperplasia

Hyperplasia maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular hyperplasia

Hyperplasia tunicae mucosae oris Hyperplasia of oral mucosa

Hypertrophia glandulae salivariae Hypertrophy of salivary gland

Hypertrophia linguae Hypertrophy of tongue

Hypertrophia papillarum foliatarum Hypertrophy of foliate papillae

Hypertrophia papillarum lingualium Hypertrophy of tongue papillae

Hypodontia Hypodontia

Hypoplasia cementi Hypoplasia of cementum

Hypoplasia enameli Enamel hypoplasia

Hypoplasia maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular hypoplasia

Hyposalivatio Hyposalivation; Dry mouth

Icterus Icterus; Jaundice

Ileitis terminalis Terminal ileitis

Ileitis Ileitis

Ileus Ileus

Ileus paralyticus Paralytic ileus

Insulinoma; Nesidioma Insulinoma; Nesidioma

Intussusceptio; Invaginatio Intussusception; Invagination

Invaginatio colica Invagination of colon

Invaginatio enterica Invagination of small intestine

Jejunitis Jejunitis

Leucokeratosis nicotinica palati Leucokeratosis nicotinica palati; Smoker´s palate

Leucoplakia Leukoplakia

Lingua plicata Plicated tongue

Lingua villosa nigra Black hairy tongue

Macrodontia Macrodontia

Macrognathia maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular macrognathia

Malocclusio Malocclusion

Materia alba Dental plaque; Materia alba

Megacolon Megacolon

Melaena Melaena

Melanosis coli Melanosis coli

Mesiocclusio Mesiocclusion; Mesial occlusion

Mesiodens Mesiodens

Meteorismus Meteorism; Tympanites

Microdontia Microdontia

Micrognathia maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular micrognathia

Mucocele glandulae salivariae Mucocele of salivary gland

Nausea Nausea

Necrosis pulpae dentis Necrosis of pulp

Occlusio intestini Occlusion of intestine

Odontalgia; Odontodynia Odontalgia; Odontodynia; Toothache

Odontoclasis Odontoclasis

Odontodysplasia regionalis Regional odontodysplasia

Odontogenesis imperfecta Odontogenesis imperfecta

Odontolithos subgingivalis Sublingual dental calculus

Odontolithos supragingivalis Supragingival dental calculus

Odontolithos; Calculus dentis Odontolith/Dental calculus/Tartar

Odynophagia Odynophagia

Oesophagitis peptica Peptic oesophagitis

Oesophagitis Oesophagitis

Oligodontia Oligodontia

Osteomyelitis maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular osteomyelitis

Osteoradionecrosis maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular osteoradionecrosis

Ostitis Ostitis

Pancreatitis acuta Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatitis chronica Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatitis haemorrhagica acuta Acute haemorrhagic pancreatitis

Pancreatitis purulenta Suppurative pancreatitis

Periadenitis mucosa necrotica recurrens Periadenitis mucosa necrotica recurrens

Periadenitis Periadenitis

Pericoronitis acuta Acute pericoronitis

Pericoronitis chronica Chronic pericoronitis

Pericoronitis Pericoronitis

Periodontitis acuta Acute periodontitis

Periodontitis apicalis acuta Acute apical periodontitis

Periodontitis apicalis chronica Chronic apical periodontitis

Periodontitis chronica Chronic periodontitis

Periodontitis Periodontitis

Periostitis maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular periostitis

Peritonitis biliaris Biliary peritonitis; Bile peritonitis; Peritonitis due to bile

Peritonitis purulenta Suppurative peritonitis

Peritonitis tuberculosa Tuberculous peritonitis

Peritonitis Peritonitis

Perlèche/Cheilitis angularis Perlèche/Cheilitis angularis

Porphyria cutanea tarda Porphyria cutanea tarda

Proctalgia fugax Proctalgia fugax

Proctalgia Proctalgia

Proctitis Proctitis

Proctocolitis Proctocolitis

Progenia Progenia

Prognathia Prognathia

Prolapsus recti Rectal prolapse

Pruritus ani Pruritus ani

Ptyalismus Ptyalism; Drooling

Pulpitis acuta Acute pulpitis

Pulpitis chronica Chronic pulpitis

Pulpitis Pulpitis

Pylephlebitis Pylephlebitis

Pylorospasmus Pylorospasm

Pyrosis Pyrosis; Heartburn; Acid indigestion

Ranula Ranula

Rectosigmoiditis Rectosigmoiditis

Regurgitatio Regurgitation

Retrognathia maxillae/mandibulae Maxillary/mandibular retrognathia

Ructus; Eructatio Ructus; Eructation

Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella enteritidis

Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella typhimurium

Salmonellosis Salmonellosis

Scybalum Scybalum

Sial(o)adenitis Sial(o)adenitis

Sialectasia; Sialectasis Sialectasia; Sialectasis

Sialolithiasis Sialolithiasis

Sigmoiditis Sigmoiditis

Sprue Sprue

Steatorrhoea Steatorrhoea

Stenosis pylori Pyloric stenosis

Stercolithos Stercolith

Stomatitis aphthosa Aphthous stomatitis

Stomatitis herpetica Herpetic stomatitis

Stomatitis ulcerosa Ulcerative stomatitis

Stomatitis vesiculosa Vesicular stomatitis

Stomatitis Stomatitis

Taeniasis Teniasis

Taurodontia Taurodontism

Tenesmus Tenesmus

Torus mandibularis Torus mandibularis

Torus palatinus Palatine torus; Torus palatinus

Trichinosis; Trichinellosis Trichinosis; Trichinellosis

Trichuriasis Trichuriasis

Uceratio linguae (traumatica) (Traumatic) ulceration of tongue

Ulcus duodeni Duodenal ulcer

Ulcus pepticum Peptic ulcer

Ulcus ventriculi chronica Chronic gastric ulcer

Ulcus ventriculi Gastric ulcer

Volvulus intestini Volvulus of intestine



Xerostomia Xerostomia


1 The aim of this project is the innovation of language courses at Masaryk University so that they reflect the connection with praxis.

2 However, not all Christian English words are of Latin origin. Some of them were adopted from pagan terminology. For instance, the domestic words God or ēastron (modern-English Easter) were given a new meaning under the influence of Christianity (Vachek, and Firbas 15). Similarly, old-English gōdspell (modern-English gospel) is a loan translation/calque from Greek εὐαγγέλιον “good news” (Vachek, and Firbas 16).

3 In the case of some nouns, there exist adjectives of home origin next to Latin ones. They are often formed by the prefixes –ly or –ish. However, their meaning and use may differ from Latin adjectives, e.g. father – paternal – fartherly; child – childish – infantile (Peprník 86-87).

4 While English medical terms are used more and more (stress; shock; screening; AIDS “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome”; CT “computer tomography”; VP shunt “ventriculoperitoneal shunt”), terms of Arabic origin (Latin alcohol, from Arabic alkuhl, alkohl; Latin alchymia, from Arabic alkimiyā; in English alcohol; alchemy), French origin (Latin migraena, English migraine) and Italian origin (Latin malaria, from Italian mala aria “bad air”) still stay in minority (Kábrt, and Kábrt jr. 157, 597, 566).

5 A similar stylistic change can be observed in Czech. As in English, the term of Latin origin tuberkulóza is preferred to Czech souchotiny, which is perceived as archaic today.

6 Beside the lexemes which are adjectives by their origin (e.g. hard palate), there are also some adjectives formed from verbs (e.g. descending colon; hidden part of duodenum).

7 In general English, it is used for “the part of a machine or piece of equipment that opens and closes in order to control the flow of air or liquid” (Macmillan 1653). In medical Latin and English, it fulfills a similar function inside vessels of the human or animal body.

8 Its metaphoric meaning is based on specification of the original general meaning.

9 It is used in the metaphoric meaning “layer” here. However, it originally related to Roman clothes, which was similer to a shirt. On the contrary, this connotation is absent in the case of the English term.

10 Lingua geographica is the Latin equivalent to this term. This disease was named after white maps which surround bald patches on the affected tongue.

11 It corresponds with Latin glossitis rhombica mediana. The term was formed according to inflammatory lesions of a rhombic shape which occur on the surface of the tongue as a typical symptom of this disease.

12 The original meaning is “a long thin part of a plant with a flower, fruit, or leaf at the end (Macmillan 1452)”.

13 In Latin, globus refers to “an object of the round shape”.

14 The original meaning is “ornamental plate or tablet”; the meaning “bacteria deposits on teeth” is secondary (Harper).

15 There are two forms of this disease. For so called tropical sprue, the formation of ulcers in the mouth and chronic enteritis is typical. It usually occurs in connection with the stay in tropical regions. Non-tropical sprue or coeliac disease is characterized as “a disease in which the small intestine is hypersensitive to gluten, leading to difficulty in digesting food” (“Sprue2”).

16 A cherub is a mythical being, an angel partly with a human body, partly with an animal body. His task was to carry the God´s throne and guard sacred places (Ottova všeobecná encyklopedie 496).




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