Management of Dental Patients Taking Anticoagulants or Antiplatelet Drugs



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Management of Dental Patients Taking Anticoagulants or

Antiplatelet Drugs

Dental Clinical Guidance



August 2015

August 2015

The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP) is an initiative of the National Dental Advisory Committee (NDAC) in partnership with NHS Education for Scotland. The Programme provides user-friendly, evidence-based guidance on topics identified as priorities for oral health care.

SDCEP guidance aims to support improvements in patient care by bringing together, in a structured manner, the best available information that is relevant to the topic and presenting this information in a form that can be interpreted easily and implemented.
Supporting the provision of safe, effective, person-centred care.

©Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme

SDCEP operates within NHS Education for Scotland. You may copy or reproduce the information in this document for use within NHS Scotland and for non-commercial educational purposes.

Use of this document for commercial purposes is permitted only with written permission.

ISBN 978 1 905829 27 9

First published August 2015



Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme,

Dundee Dental Education Centre, Frankland Building, Small’s Wynd, Dundee DD1 4HN

Email scottishdental.cep@nes.scot.nhs.uk

Tel 01382 425751 / 425771

Website www.sdcep.org.uk

Contents


1 Introduction 9

1.1 Scope of the Guidance 9

1.2 Development and Presentation of the Guidance Recommendations 10

1.3 Supporting Tools 11

1.4 Statement of Intent 12

2 Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs 13

2.1 What are Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs? 13

2.2 The New Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs 14

3 Assessing Bleeding Risk 16

3.1 Which Dental Procedures Have the Highest Bleeding Risk? 16

3.2 Which Patients Have the Highest Bleeding Risk? 19

3.2.1 Bleeding risks associated with different anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs 19

3.2.2 Bleeding risks associated with other medical conditions 20

3.2.3 Bleeding risks associated with prescribed or non-prescribed medications 22

3.3 Advice for Assessing Bleeding Risk 24

4 Managing Bleeding Risk 27

4.1 Haemostatic Measures 27

4.2 Management of Patients in Remote and Rural Locations 29

4.3 Contacts and Referrals 29

4.4 General Advice for Managing Bleeding Risk 31

5 Treating a Patient Taking Warfarin or another Vitamin K Antagonist 33

6 Treating a Patient Taking an Antiplatelet Drug(s) 36

7 Treating a Patient Taking a Novel Oral Anticoagulant 41

7.1 Management for Procedures with a Low Risk of Bleeding Complications 44

7.2 Management for Procedures with a Higher Risk of Bleeding Complications 45

8 Treating a Patient Taking an Injectable Anticoagulant 47

9 Drug Interactions Between Anticoagulants or Antiplatelet Drugs and Other Medications 49

10 Research and Audit 49

10.1 Recommendations for Research 49

10.2 Recommendations for Audit 50

Appendix 1. Guidance Development 51

Appendix 2. Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs Available in the UK 59

Appendix 3. Indications for Anticoagulant or Antiplatelet Therapy 62

Appendix 4. Interactions with Drugs Prescribed by Dentists 66

References 69


Summary of Recommendations

This summary lists the key recommendations and abbreviated versions of the advice provided within the guidance. The summary is not comprehensive and for a full appreciation of the recommendations, the basis for making them and other points for consideration it is necessary to read the whole guidance.



Assessing Bleeding Risk (Refer to Section 3)

Assess whether the required dental treatment is likely to cause bleeding and, if so, whether it has a low or higher risk of bleeding complications (Table 1).

Ask the patient about their current or planned use of anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs and other prescribed and non-prescribed medications.

Ask the patient whether their drug treatment is lifelong or for a limited time.

Ask the patient about any medical conditions that they have.

Ask about the patient’s bleeding history.



Managing Bleeding Risk – General Advice (Refer to Section 4)

For a patient who is taking an anticoagulant or antiplatelet drug(s) and requires dental treatment unlikely to cause bleeding (Table 1):

Treat the patient following standard procedures, taking care to avoid causing bleeding.

For a patient who is taking an anticoagulant or antiplatelet drug(s) and requires dental treatment likely to cause bleeding with a low or higher risk of bleeding complications (Table 1):

If the patient has another relevant medical condition(s) or is taking other medications that may increase bleeding risk (Sections 3.2.2 and 3.2.3), consult with the patient’s general medical practitioner or specialist, if required.

If the patient is on a time-limited course of anticoagulant or antiplatelet medication, delay non-urgent procedures where possible.

Plan treatment for early in the day and week.

Perform the procedure as atraumatically as possible, use appropriate local measures and only discharge the patient once haemostasis has been achieved.

If travel time to emergency care is a concern, place particular emphasis at the time of the initial treatment on the use of measures to avoid complications.

Advise the patient to take paracetamol, unless contraindicated, for pain relief.

Provide the patient with written post-treatment advice and emergency contact details.

Follow the drug group specific recommendations and advice (Sections 5 to 8).



Treating a Patient Taking Warfarin (Refer to Section 5)

For a patient who is taking warfarin or another VKA, with an INR below 4, treat without interrupting their anticoagulant medication.

(Strong recommendation; low quality evidence)

For dental treatment likely to cause bleeding, with a low or higher risk of bleeding complications (Table 1):

Ensure that the patient’s INR has been checked, ideally no more than 24 hours before the procedure. If the patient has a stable INR, checking the INR no more than 72 hours before is acceptable.

If the patient’s INR is 4 or above, delay treatment until their INR has been reduced. For urgent treatment, refer the patient to secondary dental care.

If the patient’s INR is below 4, treat according to the general advice for managing bleeding risk (Section 4) and:

Consider limiting the initial treatment area.

For procedures with a higher risk of post-operative bleeding complications (Table 1), consider carrying out the treatments in a staged manner.

Actively consider suturing and packing (Section 4).



Treating a Patient Taking an Antiplatelet Drug(s) (Refer to Section 6)

For a patient who is taking single or dual antiplatelet drugs, treat without interrupting their antiplatelet medication.

(Strong recommendation; low quality evidence)

For dental treatment likely to cause bleeding, with a low or higher risk of bleeding complications (Table 1):

Treat the patient according to the general advice for managing bleeding risk (Section 4) and:

If the patient is taking aspirin alone:

Consider limiting the initial treatment area.

For procedures with a higher risk of post-operative bleeding complications (Table 1), consider carrying out the treatments in a staged manner.

Use local haemostatic measures to achieve haemostasis.

If the patient is taking another single antiplatelet drug or dual antiplatelet drugs:

Be aware that bleeding may be prolonged (up to an hour).

Limit the initial treatment area.

For procedures with a higher risk of post-operative bleeding complications (Table 1), consider carrying out the treatments in a staged manner.

Actively consider suturing and packing (Section 4).

If the patient is taking another drug combination:

Consult with the patient’s general medical practitioner or prescribing physician.



Treating a Patient Taking a Novel Oral Anticoagulant (NOAC) (Refer to Section 7)

For a patient who is taking a NOAC and requires a dental procedure with a low risk of bleeding complications, treat without interrupting their anticoagulant medication.

(Conditional recommendation; very low quality evidence)

Treat the patient according to the general advice for managing bleeding risk (Section 4) and:

Plan treatment for early in the day.

Limit the initial treatment area.

Actively consider suturing and packing (Section 4).

For a patient who is taking a NOAC and requires a dental procedure with a higher risk of bleeding complications, advise them to miss (apixaban, dabigatran)/delay (rivaroxaban) their morning dose on the day of their dental treatment.

(Conditional recommendation; very low quality evidence)

Treat the patient according to the general advice for managing bleeding risk (Section 4) and:

Plan treatment for early in the day.

Consider carrying out the treatments in a staged manner.

Actively consider suturing and packing (Section 4).

Advise the patient when to restart their medication.



Treating a Patient Taking an Injectable Anticoagulant (Refer to Section 8)

For a patient who is taking an injectable anticoagulant and requires dental treatment likely to cause bleeding, with a low or higher risk of bleeding complications (Table 1):

Consult with the patient’s general medical practitioner or specialist.

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