Competency (Mandatory, Elective)* from ARRT Clinical Experience Requirements (http://arrt.org/education/mr) Head and neck
Abdomen and pelvis
Special imaging procedures
*Refer to ARRT Competency Requirements for mandatory and elective requirements.
Computers in Imaging and Medical Informatics
Content introduces knowledge in computing and information processing. It presents computer applications in the radiologic sciences related to image capture, display, storage and distribution. Additional content is designed to provide the basic concepts of patient information management. Medical records management, including privacy and regulatory issues, are examined. The role of the technologist is identified and discussed. In addition, this content imparts an understanding of the components, principles and operation of digital imaging systems found in MR, image data management, storage and data manipulation (post-processing). Factors that impact image acquisition, display, archiving and retrieval are discussed.
This course is required to develop an understanding of computers in the imaging environment. The subjects are formatted in individual outlines and can be sequenced according to the desired level of knowledge. Topics include: computers, computer components and characteristics, digital imaging (image acquisition, data management, storage, data manipulation (post-processing), display, archiving and retrieval), patient information systems, picture archiving and communication system (PACS), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), hospital information systems (HIS) and radiology information systems (RIS).
Prerequisites Medical terminology – a course in terminology used in the medical profession.
Contrast – repetition time (TR), echo time (TE), inversion time (TI), and flip angle (FA)
Anatomy of interest
MR image formation
Analog to digital converter
Role of the MR technologist
Determining the cause(s) of artifacts
Optimizing acquisition parameters to reduce artifacts
Quality Assurance and Post-processing Image display
Image quality (SNR)
Image quality (image contrast)
Maximum intensity projection (MIP)
Region of interest (ROI)
Liquid crystal display (LCD)
Cathode ray tube (CRT)
Degraded thermal film
Image quality display
Recorded detail/spatial resolution
System components and function
Access to report information
Access from multiple locations
Procedural factors display
Date of examination
Parameters and options
Documenting an ordered exam
Electronic orders – Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE)
Image acquisition errors
More contrast resolution
Appropriate for exam
Evidence of processing error
Computer Advancements for Imaging The Internet
Internet vs. intranet
Access to information
Security of patient information
Enhancer to customer service
Ethics and Law in the Imaging Sciences
Content__Ethics_and_Ethical_Behavior'>Content provides a fundamental background in ethics. The historical and philosophical bases of ethics and the elements of ethical behavior are discussed. The student examines a variety of ethical issues and dilemmas found in clinical practice.
An introduction to legal terminology, concepts and principles also are presented. Topics include misconduct, malpractice, legal and professional standards. The importance of proper documentation and informed consent is emphasized.
Content Ethics and Ethical Behavior Origins of history of medical ethics
Ethical Issues in Health Care Individual and societal rights
Technology and scarce resources
Access to quality health care
Human experimentation and research
Medical/health care research
Legal Issues Parameters of legal responsibility
Patient personal information
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Confidentiality of patient information
Components of malpractice
Legal and professional standards
Sources of Law
Civil and Criminal Liability
Legal risk reduction
Patient Consent Definition
Condition for valid consent
Documentation of consent
Fundamentals of Imaging Science and Health Care
Content provides an overview of the foundations in radiologic science and the practitioner’s role in the health care delivery system. The principles, practices and policies of the health care organization(s) are examined and discussed in addition to the professional responsibilities of the MR technologist.
Content The Health Science Professions Radiologic technology
General education is an integral part of MR technologist development. The content assists in developing the communication, human diversity, scientific inquiry, critical-thinking and judgment skills required to perform the responsibilities of an entry-level MR technologist. Knowledge gained from general education serves to enhance the content and application of the MR curriculum.
General education provides personal enrichment and exploration outside the confines of the technical curriculum. The general education content objectives in this curriculum purposely are labeled “global content objectives” to give program officials flexibility in determining specific college-level credit-bearing course work that will satisfy these objectives. A program must offer a minimum of 15 credit hours of general education course work. The minimum 15 credit hours must include Communications and Mathematics/Analytical Studies. For the remaining general education credits, institutions are encouraged to require courses from different categories, such as the Social/Behavioral Sciences, Natural Sciences, Computing or Humanities/Fine Arts, to insure a diversified educational experience.
Required post-secondary general education gained through college credit bearing course work must meet the global content objectives listed below:
Required Post-secondary General Education:
• Write, read, speak and listen critically
• Develop the ability to perceive, gather, organize and present information
• Locate, evaluate and synthesize material from diverse sources and points of view
• Mathematical/Logical Reasoning
• Apply problem-solving or modeling strategies
• Arts and Humanities
• Develop knowledge and understanding of the human condition
• Demonstrate respect for diverse populations
• Develop an understanding of ethics and the role they play in personal and professional lives
• Recognize and critically examine attitudes and values
• Information Systems
• Develop knowledge base for using computerized systems
• Use technology to retrieve, evaluate and apply information
• Social/Behavioral Sciences
• Adapt interactions to meet cultural/psychological needs of people
• Develop an understanding of individual and collective behavior
• Promote the development of leadership skills
• Develop capacity to exercise responsible and productive citizenship
• Function as a public-minded individual
• Natural Sciences
• Understand and apply scientific method
• Make informed judgments about science-related topics
• Develop a scientific vocabulary
MR Imaging Procedures
This content provides the student with imaging techniques related to the central nervous system (CNS), neck, thorax, musculoskeletal system and abdominopelvic regions. The content covers specific clinical application, coils that are available and their use, considerations in the scan sequences, specific choices in the protocols (e.g., slice thickness, phase direction and flow compensation), and positioning criteria. Anatomical structures and the plane that best demonstrates anatomy are discussed as well as signal characteristics of normal and abnormal structures.
This content outlines the critical criteria relevant to acquiring high-quality images of various anatomical regions. Due to different considerations for the various regions in the body, imaging protocols vary. The student studies the variations in imaging parameters for specific body regions and the resultant effect on signal characteristics and the anatomy represented. Evaluation criteria for determining the quality of images provides MR technologists with a better understanding of what constitutes a high-quality image. In a competency-based educational system, this content is completed prior to competency examinations.
Prerequisites MR physical principles. Overview of imaging parameters and terminology, safety and patient care procedures.
Sectional anatomy. Human anatomy in axial, sagittal and coronal planes. Other planes are discussed when appropriate to particular anatomy. Correlating anatomy to MR images. (May take place simultaneously with Imaging Procedures.)
Pulse sequences and image formation. Physical principles of magnetic resonance, relaxation characteristics, signal production, pulse sequences, signal-to-noise and parameter influences, fluid flow compensation and demonstration, and image formation.
MR instrumentation. Equipment used to produce the MR signal and image, specific coil designs, quality assurance measures and equipment safety
Upon completing the clinical education, students will be able to:
State the coils available for MR and their specific application.
Describe considerations in designing an imaging protocol and state the application of protocols in specific situations.
Demonstrate proper patient screening.
Demonstrate knowledge of scanning menus, archival procedures and display functions.
Demonstrate proper windowing levels and widths.
Demonstrate proper use of MR-safe monitoring devices.
Demonstrate how to prepare contrast materials and use MR injectors.
State positioning criteria for different areas of the body.
State advantages and disadvantages of axial, sagittal, coronal and oblique images (i.e., what structures are best demonstrated).
Describe common pulse sequences used to evaluate the different areas of the body.
State tissue signal characteristics of anatomical structures with and without contrast.
Explain the use of contrast media in evaluating pathology.
Describe common artifacts that occur during imaging.
Describe the differences between adult and pediatric pulse sequences in MR.
Describe the differences in tissue signal characteristics between adult and pediatric examinations.
Describe the criteria for imaging windows for different areas of the body.
Describe the MR characteristics of blood as seen on arterial and venous magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).
Identify how field strength affects the ability to visualize select pathology.
Describe the MR tissue characteristics of select pathological processes.
Discuss saturation pulses, which help to identify arteries and veins.
Identify the common indications and common pathologyfor the central nervous system, soft tissue structures of the head and face, orbit, nasopharynx, oropharynx, neck, and spine, the abdomen, the musculoskeletal system, the soft tissue pelvis that includes the male and female reproductive systems, the chest, the heart, mediastinum, the brachial plexus and breast exams.
Demonstrate effective communication skills with patients, their family members and staff.
Demonstrate MR safety and protective practices associated with MR examinations.
Cite the components of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord.
Identify the normal anatomic location of the components of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord, on diagrams and scan images.
Describe the normal MR tissue characteristics of the components of the brain and spine.
Explain the principles of MR spectroscopy.
Discuss the current and future development of in vivo spectroscopic diagnosis of disease processes.
Discuss the hardware requirements for MR spectroscopy.
Describe and discuss the various imaging planes and pulse sequence parameters that maximize the diagnostic value of an MR scan of the central nervous system including the brain and spine.
Describe the normal MR tissue characteristics of the soft tissue structures of the head and face, orbit, nasopharynx, oropharynx, neck and spine.
Describe the effects of blood flow characteristics on image quality, including laminar turbulent, vortex and stationary or stagnant flow.
Identify common pathology of the soft tissue structures of the head and face, orbit, nasopharynx, oropharynx, neck and spine on MR images.
Identify common vascular lesions on MRA images.
Identify the normal anatomic location of the soft tissue structures of the head and face, orbit, nasopharynx, oropharynx, neck, spine and vasculature of the neck on scan images.
Review the components of the abdomen.
Identify the normal anatomic location of the abdomen components on diagrams and scan images.
Describe the normal MR tissue characteristics of the components of the abdomen.
Describe and discuss imaging planes and pulse sequence parameters that maximize the diagnostic value of an MR scan of the abdomen.
Discuss the different types of MRA procedures, when they are used and the characteristics of the resultant images.
Identify common pathology of the abdomen on MR images.
Review the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system.
Identify the normal anatomic location of musculoskeletal system components on diagrams and scan images.
Describe and discuss the imaging planes and pulse sequencing parameters that maximize the diagnostic value of an MR scan of the upper extremity, lower extremity, shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle.
Identify common pathological conditions seen in the musculoskeletal system on MR images.
Review the components of the soft tissue pelvis including the male and female reproductive systems.
Identify the normal anatomic location of the components of the male and female pelvis on diagrams and scan images.
Describe the normal MR tissue characteristics of the components of the male and female pelvis.
Describe and discuss imaging planes and pulse sequence parameters that maximize the diagnostic value of an MR scan of the pelvis including the male and female reproductive systems.
Identify common pathology of the pelvis, including the male and female reproductive systems and their tissue characteristics on MR images.
Review the components of the chest, heart, mediastinum, brachial plexus and breast.
Identify the normal anatomic location of the components of the chest, heart, mediastinum, brachial plexus and breast on diagrams and scan images.
Describe the normal MR tissue characteristics of the components of the chest, heart, mediastinum, brachial plexus and breast.
Describe and discuss imaging planes and pulse sequence parameters that maximize the diagnostic value of an MR scan of the chest, heart, mediastinum, brachial plexus and breast.
Discuss the various saturation techniques used in breast imaging.
Identify common pathology of the chest, heart, mediastinum, brachial plexus and breast on MR images.