Lord of the flies: 1-allegorical element and realistic accuracy are considered essential in lord of the flies. Discuss

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(1) Lord of the flies:

1-allegorical element and realistic accuracy are considered essential in lord of the flies. Discuss (2)

Lord of the Flies is an allegorical novel in that it contains characters and objects that directly represent the novel’s themes and ideas. Golding’s central point in the novel is that a conflict between the impulse toward civilization and the impulse toward savagery rages within each human individual. Each of the main characters in the novel represents a certain idea or aspect of this spectrum between civilization and savagery. Ralph, for instance, embodies the civilizing impulse, as he strives from the start to create order among the boys and to build a stable society on the island. Piggy, meanwhile, represents the scientific and intellectual aspects of civilization. At the other end of the spectrum, Jack embodies the impulse toward savagery and the unchecked desire for power and domination. Even more extreme is Roger, who represents the drive for violence and blood lust in its purest form. Furthermore, just as various characters embody thematic concepts in the novel, a number of objects do as well. The conch shell, which is used to summon the boys to gatherings and as an emblem of the right to speak at those gatherings, represents order, civilization, and political legitimacy. Piggy’s glasses, which are used to make fire, represent the power of science and intellectual endeavor. The sow’s head in the jungle, meanwhile, embodies the human impulse toward savagery, violence, and barbarism that exists within each person. Throughout Lord of the Flies, Golding uses these characters and objects to represent and emphasize elements of the themes and ideas he explores in the novel.

(2) The Necklace:

1-write an outline of: The Necklace

"The Necklace" is a short story that gives an important moral. You should always be grateful for what you have, as things can always be worse. Matilda Loisel and her husband are an average middle class couple. Matilda longs to be above this, and dreams of the life of luxury and is miserable with the life she has. In an attempt to make his wife 

Happy, Mr. Loisel gets an invitation to a social party of important stature. His wife is upset because she has nothing to wear. He gives her the money he was saving to buy himself a gun, so she can buy herself a dress. She then becomes upset because she has no jewelry to wear. She borrows a beautiful diamond necklace from a friend. She loses the necklace at the party. After searching for a week, they realize they must replace the necklace. They use their entire savings, and even take out loans to pay for the replacement diamond necklace. Now they have no money and must both work tirelessly to pay off their debts. Years later, Matilda is withered and worn from working so hard. She runs into her friend on the street one day and confesses to her that they replaced the necklace, and the means by which they did it. In return her friend explained that the necklace was not real diamonds, and was only worth 500 francs and not the 36,000 francs they had paid to replace it.

*2- The Necklace draws a touching portrait of the power of will. Discuss.

*3- The necklace is a good example of the power of will. Discuss.

4-trace the sufferings and pain of both Mr. and Mrs. Loisel after the loss of the necklace.

They visit many jewelers, searching for a similar necklace, and finally find one. It costs 40,000 francs, although the jeweler says he will give it to them for 36,000. The Loisels spend a week scraping up money from all kinds of sources, mortgaging the rest of their existence. They began to live a life of crippling poverty. They dismiss their servant and move into an even smaller apartment. Monsieur Loisel works three jobs, and Mathilde spends all her time doing the heavy housework. This misery lasts ten years, but at the end they have repaid their financial debts. Mathilde’s extraordinary beauty is now gone: she looks just likes the other women of poor households. They are both tired and irrevocably damaged from these years of hardship.

5-attempt a short critical analysis of the necklace.


A young woman named Mathilde Loisel is married to a little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction. They live a poor life, which Mathilde hates. One day, they are invited to a grand ball where the rich people will be. Mathilde buys a new gown from her husband’s savings intended to buy him a gun for shooting larks, for his hobby. To go with that very elegant gown, she borrows a diamond necklace from her friend Madame Forestier. At the ball, Mathilde is prettier than any woman there. When they arrive home after that ball, she discovers that the borrowed necklace is gone. She and her husband try to find it, but are not able to, so they buy another one exactly the same, for thirty-four thousand francs, from its original price of forty francs; such a very big amount of money for the couple. They use up Mathilde’s husband's inheritance, borrowed from usurers, and they work odd jobs for ten years just to make up for that amount. After a decade, Mathilde sees Madame Forestier by chance, and after those years, finally confesses that the necklace she returned was a replacement. Madame Forestier is shocked, and tells her that the necklace she lent her was fake, worth at most five hundred francs.

There are three main characters in this short story:

1.   Mathilde Loisel, the wife

2.   The little clerk of the Ministry of Public Instruction, the husband

3.   Madame Forestier, the friend who lent Mathilde a diamond necklace


a)  Introduction

Mathilde, the main woman character in this short story, is being described as unhappy because of her and her husband’s being poor.

b)  Rising Action

The complication starts when she and her husband are invited to a rich people’s ball. She buys a new gown, and to go with it, she borrows an elegant diamond necklace from her friend Madame Forestier.

c)  Climax

The peak of this short story iswhen Mathilde discovers that she lost the diamond necklace.

d) Falling action

 To replace the lost diamond necklace, Mathilde and her husband buy another one exactly the same, for thirty-four thousand francs, from its original price of forty francs, such a very big amount of money for the couple. The eighteen thousand francs was inherited by her husband from his father, and the rest of the amount he borrows from various sources.

e)      Denouement

       The problem resolves itself, though in a negative manner, when Mathilde and Madame Forestier meet again after ten years, and the latter tells the former that the diamond necklace she borrowed was fake.


a)  place – in Paris

b)  time- sometime in the 18th century

c)  weather conditions - good

d)  social conditions- Mathilde Loisel and her husband were poor

e)  mood or atmosphere – Mathilde is not contented of her poor life. When she loses the borrowed diamond necklace, she and her husband become anxious. Then they buy a new one to replace the lost one, and they live a stressful life in order to pay their debts  incurred to buy such necklace.


The Point of View used in this short story is the Omniscient Limited - The author tells the story in third person (using pronouns they, she, he, it, etc).  We know only what the character knows and what the author allows him/her to tell us. We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us.


in my opinion, the literary devices used in this story are Symbolism and Irony. For Symbolism, the borrowed necklace symbolizes being wealthy, which Mathilde has been longing to be. While wearing it, she feels so superior. Meanwhile, for Irony, such borrowed necklace looks so sophisticated but is actually fake.


For me, the theme Things are not always as they appear to be and also Be content on what you have are applicable to this story.


The conflict here are of Man vs. Himself, and Man vs. Society—Mathilde has been struggling as a poor woman because of her desire to “fit in” the society.

(3) The jewelry

1-discuss the plot of guy de Maupassant The jewelry.

2-discuss the plot of guy de Maupassant The jewelry.

Monsier latin is a traditional man he married the woman he love and they stayd happy together ..she coverd all the expense of the house and made it looked like luxury house by her husband's salary even she like jewlry she decided to buy false ones to save money..she took care for him too much…she was dealing with his needs providing more , she liked theater and opera but he didn’t like it..he had gone with her lotta if time but then he told her that he don like to go any more and he asked her to go alone next times after trying to persude him with out any result she accepted and decided to go alone, one day it was very cold and rainy out side she came very late from the opera and she was too sick and then she died.her husband lived miserabla live for a while because of her death in addition too that he discovered that his salary ismn't enough to cover his expense and he started to wounder how did she do that>? So he decided to choose something from her jewelry to sale

(4) -A Christmas Carol

1-Trace Charles Dickens's treatment of the miser in a Christmas carol.

2-examine the plot of Christmas carol with special emphasis on its theme.

3-Foucusing on the character of Ebenezer Scrooge, give a critical summary of the plot of a Christmas carol, pointing out the moral lesson conveyed.

Dickens used three ghost to treat the miser of scrooge, first ghost, 'The Ghost of Christmas Past', appears and shows him scenes from his past life. These scenes start with him being a happy person but move on to depict how unsocial, money obsessed and depressingly workaholic he became over the years. The scenes start from his childhood and extend to his abandoned fiancee, Belle.

*The second one was The Ghost of Christmas Present', visits to show him the happy and content life of his nephew Fred and his clerk Bob. He is particularly moved to compassion when he sees Bob's handicapped son, Tiny Tim, who is terminally ill and cannot be treated due to the large expenses required for the treatment. Scrooge then realizes his ruthlessness and the fact that he is paying too less to his clerk. He is further moved when, despite everything, the clerk's family still remembers him in their prayers and wishes the best for him.

the last ghost, 'The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come', who shows him how things will end up for him if he continues to live this way. He sees that his death is rejoiced by everyone around him and he is buried in a messy graveyard with a cheap tombstone. Brought to realization by the visions, Scrooge begs the ghost for another chance to make his life more meaningful. He wakes up on Christmas morning as a changed man with a kind, generous and benevolent heart. 

Moral lessons:

1- Be kind and generous and everyone will love you and you will be happy. 

2-  Evil social forces are at work to destroy hardworking business men - Beware! 

3- Money can't buy happiness. And also: let go of the past! Scrooge is burdened with the weight of his sister's death and his rejection of his sweetheart. That is why he despises Christmas so much! BUT SERIOUSLY, LET GO OF THE PAST!! Think of how many times you regretted doing something???

4-to know something about writer's life and social background is the first step in appreciating his literary achievement. How far do you agree with this statement? Support your answer with special reference to Charles dickens and his Christmas carol.

I'M totally agree with that statement becaue morals given in a Christmas carol made us know some information about dicken's life, we notice it between the lines,dickens was taken out of school at a young age to work in a filthy warehouse by force, therefore he knows by experience what it is like to work and be poor at a very young age. This past experience inspired him to write A Christmas Carol in a way to express a message that rich people can use their money to donate to the suffering of the poor.

5- A Christmas carol is built on an episodic narrative structure in which each of the main passages has fixed and obvious meaning. Discuss

A Christmas Carol is an allegory in that it features events and characters with a clear, fixed symbolic meaning. In the novella, Scrooge represents all the values that are opposed to the idea of Christmas--greed, selfishness, and a lack of goodwill toward one's fellow man. The Ghost of Christmas Past, with his glowing head symbolizing the mind, represents memory; the Ghost of Christmas Present represents generosity, empathy, and the Chri stmas spirit; and the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come represents the fear of death and moral reckoning. The Cratchits represent the poor, whom Dickens portrays with warmth and sympathy while seeking to draw attention to their plight.

6-discuss the structure of a Christmas carol.

A Christmas Carol is a fairly straightforward allegory built on an episodic narrative structure in which each of the main passages has a fixed, obvious symbolic meaning, In the novella, Scrooge represents all the values that are opposed to the idea of Christmas--greed, selfishness, and a lack of goodwill toward one's fellow man

7-comment on:

Why, it isn't possible that I can have slept through a whole day and far into another night. It isn't possible that anything has happened to the sun, and this is twelve afternoons.

That quotation belong to scrooge epenzeer when he woke up at 12 after noons and heard the church bells ringing,he wa too surprised and shocked because he slept at 2 a.m , and now, the clock showing that the time is 12!

Then he started to wounder if he slept a whole day or it was just a dream or what happened to him,after too much thinking he couldn't find a persuede explaination of that, and the he rememberd that the first ghost,his dead friend,told him that the second ghost will come to him at 1 a.m.

8-write a character sketch of: Scrooge

The miserly owner of a London counting-house, a nineteenth century term for an accountant's office. The three spirits of Christmas visit the stodgy bean-counter in hopes of reversing Scrooge's greedy, cold-hearted approach to life.

(5) -Oliver twist

1-the characters in Oliver twist are either paragons of innocence or monsters of evil. Discuss

 The novel is full of characters who are all good and can barely comprehend evil, such as Oliver, Rose, and Brownlow; and characters who are all evil and can barely comprehend good, such as Fagin, Sikes, and Monks.

*2-write an essay on Charles dickens's treatment of the ways that orphans face in the society.

3-write a character sketch of:

A: Oliver

Oliver is born in a workhouse to an unknown woman whose name, the reader learns much later, is Agnes Fleming. He is sensitive, compassionate, kind, loyal, and gentle, and no matter how much he is abused and mistreated, he retains these qualities as well as his deep faith in the innate goodness of people. At times he seems rather naïve; for example, when he sees the members of Fagin's gang practicing picking Fagin's pockets and when he goes out with them to steal but has no idea they are thieves until they run off and he is apprehended for the deed. An example of his loyalty is his love...

B: Mrs. Mann.

The superintendent of the juvenile workhouse where Oliver is raised. Mrs. Mann physically abuses and half-starves the children in her care.

Mrs. Mann is an elderly lady who is in charge of the baby farm where Oliver spends his first nine years of his life. She is selfish, hypocrite, cruel, and inhuman. When Mr. Bumble visits her in order to get Oliver again to the workhouse, where he was born, she is trying to flutter him in order to please him. She cares only about herself. She knows what is good for the children, but she knows what is better for her. She appropriates the great part of money weekly stipend meant for the children for her own. She does not feed the children and locks them in a coal-cellar for punishment.

4-in Oliver twist, Charles dickens indicates that children of unknown fathers are innocent victims. Discuss

Dickens introduced oliver,ther hero of the novel,as an innocent victim of the society,he didn't choose any thing in his past or present, he born to find him self an orphan,homeless,controlled by other evils, he is trapped in a world where his only options seem to be the workhouse, Fagin's gang, a prison, or an early grave. 

5-comment on:

do you think this respectful or proper conduct. Mrs. Mann to keep the parish officers a waiting at your garden gate, when you come here upon parochial business connected with the parochial orphans? Are you a weary Mrs. Mann, what you are, as I may say, a parochial delegate, and a stipendary

Mr.buble said that quotation to mrs. Mann when he gone to her to take oliver back.

6-no, no, sir, no, no, sir, I will be good indeed, indeed, indeed I will sir! I am a very little boy, sir; and it is so… so…

(6) -the lament

1-write an outline of: the lament.

(7) -cat in the rain

1-write a critical analysis of cat in the rain.

(8) -animal farm

1-animal farm has been considered as an allegory .How far do you agree? Illustrate your answer.

Animal Farm is an allegory of the Russian Revolution. 

Farmer Jones symbolizes Tsar Nicholas II who was overthrown in 1917; Old Major is a joint symbol for Vladimir Lenin and Karl Marx. Snowball and Napoleon symbolize Trotsky and Stalin, respectively. The dogs and Squealer are symbols of the KGB and Pravda, the Russian newspaper of the '30s. Boxer and Clover represent the proletariat, who are, in the end betrayed by the Communists.

The plot of the book is a thinly-veiled allegory for the Russian Revolution and its aftermath and how, in the end, Stalin as tyrannical as the old tsars.

Because Farms are created by humans not animals.
The Animals represent different views of humans.
The pigs represent dictators or the power hungry who abuse the rights of those below them.

2-animal farm is a glaring example of "political allegory" . Fully comment on the implications of this statement.

3-choose any two of the symbolic character of animal farm and analyze the parts they play in the plot.

4-comment on:

Comrades, you have heard already about the strange dream that I had last night. But I will come to the dream later. I have something else to say first. I don't think, comrades , that I shall be with you for many months longer, and before I die I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom as I have acquired.

5- Write a character sketch on:

(A) Mr. Jones

The often drunk farmer who runs the Manor Farm before the animals stage their Rebellion and establish Animal Farm. Mr. Jones is an unkind master who indulges himself while his animals lack food; he thus represents Tsar Nicholas II, whom the Russian Revolution ousted.

(B) Snowball

 The pig who challenges Napoleon for control of Animal Farm after the Rebellion. Based on Leon Trotsky, Snowball is intelligent, passionate, eloquent, and less subtle and devious than his counterpart, Napoleon. Snowball seems to win the loyalty of the other animals and cement his power.

(9) -fiction:

1-in detail discusses the basic elements of fiction

. 2-briefly introduce the basic elements of fiction.

The elements of fiction are: characterplotsettingtheme, and style. Of these five elements, character is the who, plot is the what, setting is the where and when, and style is the how of a story.

character is any person, personal, identity, or entity whose existence originates from a fictional work or performance.

plot, or storyline, is the rendering and ordering of the events and actions of a story, particularly towards the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect.

Setting is the time and location in which a story takes place.

Theme is the broad idea, message, or lesson of a story.

Style includes the multitude of choices fiction writers make, consciously or subconsciously, as they create a story. They encompass the big-picture, strategic choices such as point of view and narrator, but they also include the nitty-gritty, tactical choices of grammar, punctuation, word usage, sentence and paragraph length and structure, tone, the use of imagery, chapter selection, titles, and on and on. In the process of writing a story, these choices meld to become the writer's voice, his or her own unique style.

(10) -devil

1-attempt a character analysis of "the devil" .

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