Locomotor apparatus



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List of questions for the examination in Human Anatomy

Faculty of Stomatology, the Ist semester (Theory)
LOCOMOTOR APPARATUS

  1. Human Anatomy and its role in medical fundamental and basic disciplines. Methods of

examination used in Human Anatomy.

  1. Individual variability of the body. General notions concerning the norm, variants of norm and

abnormalities.

  1. Bone as an organ: development, structure and functions of the bones.

  2. Classifications of the bones. Structure of tubular bone.

  3. The vertebral column, regional peculiarities. The vertebral column as a whole.

  4. The sternul and ribs – structure, development, anomalies. The thoracic cage as a whole.

  5. Skeleton of the shoulder girdle.

  6. Skeleton of the free upper limb.

  7. Structure of the pelvis.

  8. Skeleton of the free lower limb.

  9. Surface anatomy of the skeleton of the upper and lower limbs.

  10. Bone joints, their anatomical and biomechanical classification.

  11. Synarthroses, their morphofunctional characteristics.

  12. Classification of the diarthroses according to their function, shape of articular surfaces, variability

of the movements.

  1. Obligatory and auxilliary elements of the diarthroses, their importance.

  2. Simple, compound, complex and combined joints.

  3. Joints of the vertebral column.

  4. Joints of the ribs with the vertebrae and sternum.

  5. Joints of the shoulder girdle bones.

  6. The shoulder joint – structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  7. The elbow joint - structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  8. The radiocarpal joint - structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  9. Joints of the hand bones - structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  10. Joints of the pelvic bones. Pelvis as a whole, sex characteristic features.

  11. The hip joint - structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  12. The knee joint - structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  13. Joints of the foot joints – structure, shape, ligaments, movements.

  14. General structure of the muscles. Classification of the muscles. Structure of the muscle as an

organ.

  1. Auxilliary apparatus of the muscles.

  2. Muscles and fasciae of the back – topography, functions.

  3. Muscles and fasciae of the thorax – topography, functions.

  4. Muscles and fasciae of the abdomen – topography, functions. Regions of the anterior abdominal

wall.

  1. The inguinal canal. Weak places of the anterior abdominal wall.

  2. The diaphragm – its structure, topography, functions, weak places.

  3. Muscles of the shoulder girdle and the arm, topography, fasciae and their derivatives.

  4. Muscles and fasciae of the forearm - topography, functions.

  5. Muscles of the hand.

  6. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the pelvis.

  7. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the thigh.

  8. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the leg.

  9. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the foot.


DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


  1. The oesofagus – structure, topography, functions.

  2. The stomach– structure, topography, functions.

  3. The small intestine– structure, topography, functions.

  4. The large intestine– structure, segments, topography, functions.

  5. The liver – structure, topography, functions.

  6. The gall badder – structure, topography, functions. The intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ways.

  7. The pancreas – structure, topography, functions.

  8. The peritoneum, its derivatives, topography, functions.

  9. The spleen, its structure, topography.


RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


  1. The trachea – structure, topography, functions. The bronchial and alveolar tree.

  2. The lungs– structure, topography, functions.

  3. The pleura, pleural cavity – topography, sinuses.

  4. The mediastine – classification, contents.


UROGENITAL SYSTEM


  1. The kidneys – structure, topography, functions, developmental anomalies.

  2. The ureters and urinary bladder – structure, topography, functions.

  3. The testis, epidydimis, tunics. The spermatic ways. The spermatic cord.

  4. The male urethra– structure, topography, functions.

  5. The prostata, seminal vesicles - structure, topography, functions.

  6. The spermatic cord – portions, contents.

  7. The ovaries - structure, topography, functions.

  8. The uterine tube - structure, topography, functions.

  9. The uterus - structure, topography, functions.

  10. The external female genital organs.

  11. The perineum - structure, topography, functions.


NERVOUS SYSTEM


  1. The spinal cord – external structure, topography, internal structure.

  2. Segmental structure of the spinal cord, the roots, spinal ganglia, formation of the spinal nerves.

  3. The rhombencephalon – components, topography, functions.

  4. The IV-th ventricle – topography, walls, communications. Topography of the gray matter of the rhomboid fossa.

  5. The mesencephalon - structure, topography, functions.

  6. The diencephalon - structure, topography, functions. The III-d ventricle - topography, walls, communications.

  7. The telencephalon – components. External conformation of the cerebral hemisphere.

  8. Localization of the functions in the cerebral cortex.

  9. The basal nuclei - topography, structure, functions.

  10. The white matter of the cerebral hemisphere. The lateral ventricles – topography, portions, communications.

  11. Spinal meninges – structure, topography, intermeningeal spaces, communications.

  12. Cerebral meninges – general structure, topography, derivatives, spaces, communications, functions.

  13. The endocrine glands – classification, structure, topography, functions.

  14. The vegetative nervous system, general notions, centers, the highest vegetative centers.

  15. Sympathetic part of the vegetative nervous system. The sympathetic trunk – general structure, topography, portions.

  16. Vegetative plexuses of the thoracic and abdominal cavities – formation, distributions, regions of supply.

  17. The brachial plexus – formation, topography, branches, regions of supply.

  18. The lumbar plexus – formation, topography, branches, regions of supply.

  19. The sacral plexus – formation, topography, branches, regions of supply.


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


  1. The heart – its chambers, structure of the walls, topography.

  2. The heart valves – structure, localization, points of auscultation of the heart murmurs.

  3. The pericardium. Conductive system of the heart.

  4. Vascularization and innervation of the heart.

  5. Systemic and pulmonary blood circulations.

  6. The aorta – its origin, traiect, topography.

  7. Arteries of the upper limb – route, topography, branches, anastomoses.

  8. Thoracic part of the descending aorta – topography, branches.

  9. The abdominal aorta – route, topography, branches.

  10. Common iliac and internal iliac arteries – origin, topography, branches.

  11. Arteries of the lower limbs – origin, topography, branches.

  12. Vena cava superior – origin, topography, tributaries.

  13. System of the portal vein. Vena porta – origin, topography, tributaries.


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