dentalanatomy,the science of the structure of the teeth and the relationship of their parts. The study involves macroscopic and microscopic components
dentist, a person who is training to diagnose and treat abnormalities of the teeth, gums, and underlying bone, including conditions caused by disease, trauma, and heredity.
dentistry, the evaluation, diagnosis, and/or treatment (nonsurgical, surgical, or related procedures) of diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area, and/or the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the body;
3- prosthetic dentistry
4- periodontic dentistry
Gentral dental term
Abutment a tooth, root, or implant used for support and retention of a fixed or removable prosthesis.
Adaptation 1. an alteration that an organ or organism undergoes to adjust to its environment. 2. a close approximation of a tissue flap, an appliance, or a restorative material to natural tissue. 3. an accurate adjustment of a band or a shell to a tooth. 4. a condition in reflex activity marked by a decline in the frequency of impulses when sensory stimuli are repeated several times
Abscess a localized accumulation of suppuration in a confined space formed by tissue disintegration
types of abscess, alveolar abscess, apical abscess, gingival abscess a superficial periodontal abscess occurring within the free gingival sulcus surrounding the tooth, frequently caused by the impaction of food.
Peri apical abscess, an abscess involving the apical region of the root, alveolus, and surrounding bone as a result of pulpal disease.
Adams' clasp,n a retention clasp to stabilize removable appliances by engaging the mesiobuccal and distobuccal surfaces of buccal teeth
abstraction teeth or other maxillary and mandibular structures that are inferior to (below) their normal position; away from the occlusal plane.
Abnormal tooth mobility excessive movement of a tooth within its socket as a result of changes in the supporting tissues caused by injury or disease.
Abrasion 1. the abnormal wearing away of a substance or tissue by a mechanical process. 2. the pathologic wearing away of tooth structure by an external mechanical source, most commonly incorrect toothbrushing methods.
Occlusal Adjustment a grinding of the occluding surfaces of teeth to develop harmonious relationships between each other, their supporting structures, muscles of mastication, and temporomandibular joints
aglossia a developmental anomaly in which a portion or all of the tongue is absent.
Agnathia an absence of the mandible
alginate a salt of alginic acid (e.g., sodium alginate), which, when mixed with water in accurate proportions, forms an irreversible hydrocolloid gel used for making impressions or molds of the dentition.
alloy1. a solution composed of two metals dissolved in each other when in the liquid state. n 2. the product of the fusion of two or more metals.
alveolectomy process of removal of alveolarbone alveolitis, the inflammation of a tooth socket
amalgam (dental amalgam alloy), an alloy, one of the constituents of which is mercury
amalgam tattoo a solitary discrete gray, blue, or black discoloration of tissue usually located in the gingiva, alveolar ridge, or buccal mucosa caused by small amounts of dental amalgam that became embedded under the surface. amalgamation n the formation of an alloy by mixing mercury with another metal or other metalsis unsightly,
ameloblast an an epithelial cell associated with the enamel organ that, during tooth development, secretes enamel matrix.
amelogenesis, the process during which the enamel matrix is formed by ameloblasts.
amelogenesis imperfecta, a broad category of developmental disturbances in the structural formation of enamel. The disease is divided into four main types (type 1, Hypoplastic; type 2, Hypomaturation; type 3, Hypocalcified; type 4, mixed) and 15 subtypes, which range from mild to severe.
anesthesia the loss of feeling or sensation, especially loss of tactile sensibility, with or without loss of consciousness, resulting from the use of certain drugs or gases that serve as inhibitory neurotransmitters.
angle, cusp1. the angle made by the slopes of a cusp with the plane that passes through the tip of the cusp and is perpendicular to a line bisecting the cusp; measured mesiodistally or buccolingually. Half of the included angle between the buccolingual or mesiodistal cusp inclines. n 2. the angle made by the slopes of a cusp with a perpendicular line bisecting the cusp; measured mesiodistally or buccolingually.
ankylosis, bony, a joining of bone with tooth or bone with bone that causes total loss of movement.
Anodontia the complete failure of teeth to form; the total absence of teeth.two types of anodontia
1-partial anodontia nan obsolete term referring to hypodontia or oligodontia.
2-total anodontia, nan obsolete term referring to anodontia
anomaly an aberration or deviation from normal anatomic growth, development, or function.
dental anomaly an abnormality in which a tooth or teeth have deviated from normal in form, function, or position.
Anteversion the tipping or tilting of teeth or other maxillary and mandibular structures too far forward (anterior) from the normal or generally accepted standard.
Antrum a general term for cavity or chamber that may have specific meaning in referencing certain organs or sites in the body. For example, referring to paranasal sinuses, the maxillary sinus can be referred to as a maxillary antrum.
Aphagia the inability to swallow.
appliance a device used to provide function or therapeutic effect.
Aqueous containing or relating to water.
dental arch the composite structure of the dentition and alveolar ridge or the remains thereof after the loss of some or all of the natural teeth.
edentulous dental arch, a dental arch from which all natural teeth are missing. Also called the residual alveolar ridge
articulation 1. a joint where the bones are joined together. See also joint. 2. the relationship of cusps of teeth during jaw movement.
Asepsis the condition of being without infection; of being free of viable pathogenic microorganisms.
Attrition the normal loss of tooth substance resulting from friction
baby bottle tooth decay a dental condition that occurs in children from 1 to 3 years of age as a result of being given a bottle at bedtime, resulting in prolonged exposure of the teeth to milk, formula, or juice with a high sugar content
bifurcation the division of a tooth's roots into two parts or branches.
bleaching the use of a chemical oxidizing agent to lighten tooth discolorations. Preferred term is whitening
bruxism the involuntary gnashing, grinding, or clenching of teeth. It is usually an unconscious activity, whether the individual is awake or asleep; often associated with fatigue, anxiety, emotional stress, or fear, and frequently triggered by occlusal irregularities, usually resulting in abnormal wear patterns on the teeth, periodontal breakdown, and joint or neuromuscular problems.
Bur a rotary cutting instrument of steel or tungsten carbide, supplied with cutting heads of various shapes.
Burnishing a process related to polishing and abrading; the metal is moved by mechanically distorting the normal space lattice. Commonly accomplished during the
calculus (dental) a hard deposit on the exposed surfaces of the teeth and any oral prosthesis within the oral cavity. It is composed of calcium phosphate.
canal, the portion of the root that contains the pulp tissue and is surrounded by dentin.
Caries dental Decay
the decay of a tooth. term is cavity
cemental caries (root surface), n the decay of the cementum that occurs as a result of gingival recession and exposure of the root surface. See also caries, cervical
enamel caries the decay that occurs in the enamel of a tooth because of a fissure or the collection of bacterial plaque. It appears first as white spots, which later darken to brown.
Cariogenic contributing to the advancement of caries. Often used in the context of describing sugary foods.
Cariogenesis the process during which cavities develop in teeth
Cellulites a diffuse inflammatory process that spreads along facial spaces
cement, n a material that produces a mechanical interlocking effect on hardening.planes and through tissue spaces without gross suppuration.
Cementoblast the cell that forms the organic matrix of cementum. Derived from the inner aspect of the dental sac during the initial formation of cementum or from the mesenchymal cell of the periodontal membrane after completion of primary cementogenesis. The cementoblast, trapped within cellular cementum, becomes a cementocyte
Cementogenesis the formation of cementum, the calcified connective tissue that covers the roots of teeth, from the epithelial root sheath.
Cementum a specialized, calcified connective tissue that covers the anatomic root of a tooth, giving attachment to the periodontal ligament
Centric objectionable as a noun) describing jaw and tooth relationships. See also position, centric; relation, centric; occlusion, centric.
handpiece, straight, a handpiece whose axis is in line with the rotary instrument
Cementation attachment of an appliance or a restoration to natural teeth or attachment of parts by means of a cement
clasp, bar, n a clasp with arms that are bar-type extensions from major connectors or from within the denture base; the arms pass adjacent to the soft tissues and approach the point of contact on the tooth in a cervicoocclusal direction.
Decalcification nan older term for the loss or removal of calcium salts from calcified tissues. Newer term is demineralization
deciduous that which will be shed (exfoliated). Older term pertaining specifically to the first dentition. Preferred term is primary.
dental cooperative, n a dental facility organized to provide dental services for the benefit of subscribers and not for profit. There is no discrimination as to who may subscribe, and each subscriber has equal rights and voice in the control of the cooperative. The operation of the cooperative usually rests with a lay board of directors elected by subscribers
dental neglect, n the purposeful denial of the minimum amount of oral healthcare or maintenance required to sustain functioning periodontium and teeths. The caretaker may exhibit a disregard for the patient's health, and may focus primarily on pain relief for the patient. It is considered a warning sign of possible child or elder abuse.
dental pathology, n that branch of dentistry that deals with all aspects of dental disease
dental public health, n may also be called public health dentistry. The science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice that serves the community as a patient rather than the individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis( community dentistry. )
denticle pulp nodule, pulpstone), a calcified body found in the pulp chamber of a tooth;
dentate having teeth
dentifrice tooth past to clean and polish the teeth. Contains a mild abrasive, a detergent,&a flavoring agent
dentin portion of the tooth that lies subjacent to the enamel and cementum.
Dentition the natural teeth in position in the dental arches types of dentition
1-. deciduousdentition as, primarydentition
2- mixed dentitionthe teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the primary teeth are exfoliated. This period usually begins with the eruption of the first permanent molars and ends with the exfoliation of the last primary tooth. Also called the transitional dentition. See also ugly duckling stage
3-permanent dentition, (secondary dentition, permanent teeth) the 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to with the shedding (exfoliation) of the primary teeth.
4-artificial dentition the artificial substitutes for the natural dentition. as denture
denture an artificial substitute for missing natural teeth and adjacent tissues
dentogenesis formation of the connective tissue, dentin, from odontoblasts during the development of the tooth.
dentulous having the natural teeth present in the oral cavity. Opposite term: edentulous
root canal filling, material placed in the root canal system to seal the space previously occupied by the dental pulp.
filling, treatmenta temporary filling, usually of a sedative nature, used to allay sensitive dentin before the final restoration of the cavity.
gingivitis, hemorrhagic the gingivitis characterized by profuse bleeding, especially that associated with ascorbic
occlusion,1. the act of closure or state of being closed.n 2. a contact between the incising or masticating surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular teeth
mouthwash, a mouth rinse possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. Only some are approved by the ADA for treatment of gingivitis.
polishing the process of making a surface smooth and glossy or giving luster to a surface, usually by friction.
restorative materials materials used to reconstruct the hard tissues of teeth lost through trauma or disease.
Types of restoration material
Temporary restoration an artificial prosthesis used for a limited period to provide protective function and esthetics until a definitive prosthesis can be fixed into place
Porcelain restoration an indirect restoration made from a ceramic material that is cast in a laboratory prior to insertion in the oral cavity and finished during placement.
Xerostomia dryness of the oral cavity resulting from functional or organic disturbances of the salivary glands and lack of the normal secretion, primarily caused by prescribed medications. Dryness, loss of basic environment, and resultant overgrowth of oral microorganisms frequently lead to rampant caries(hyposalivation)
ulceration, the process of forming an ulcer or of becoming ulcerous.
General medical terms
Abdomen:- the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis.
abduction, the process of abducting; opposite of adduction.
adduction, the process of bringing two objects toward each other; the opposite of abduction
1. the passage of a substance into the interior of another by solution or penetration.
2. the taking up of fluids or other substances by the skin, mucous surfaces, absorbent vessels, or dental materials so that they are removed.
3. the process by which radiation imparts some or all of its energy to any material through which it passes.
abstinence self-restraint, especially from harmful substances
dehydration1. the removal of water (from the body or tissue). 2. a decrease in serum fluid coupled with the loss of interstitial fluid from the body. It is associated with disturbances in fluid and electrolyte balance.
Diabetes a deficiency condition involving carbohydrate metabolism and characterized by increased urination
fermentation a chemical change that is brought about in a substance by the action of an enzyme or micro-organism, especially the anaerobic conversion of foodstuffs to certain products such as acetic fermentation, alcoholic fermentation.
fertility the ability to reproduce
acellular not composed of or having cells
Acinus 1. saclike cavity present in a gland or the lungs.
hypoxia, metabolic a type resulting from an increased tissue demand for oxygen.
1. a substance that increases rapidity of action or function
2. a catalyst or other substance that hastens a chemical reaction (e.g., for example, NaCl added to water and plaster to hasten the set).
3. a film-developing solution of potassium hydroxide or sodium carbonate used to enlarge the emulsion and to establish an alkaline
acidemia a decreased pH level of the blood, irrespective of changes in the blood bicarbonate.
acidosis pathologic disturbance of the acid-base balance of the body characterized by an excess of acid or inadequate base. Causes include acid ingestion, increased acid production such as that seen in diabetes mellitus or starvation, or loss of base through the kidneys or intestine.
Infection an invasion of the tissues of the body by disease-producing microorganisms and the reaction of these tissues to the microorganisms and/or their toxins. The mere presence of microorganisms without reaction is not evidence of infection.
jaundice a condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of bilirubin (red bile pigment) in the blood and manifested by a yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and cornea. It presents with hemolytic anemias, biliary obstruction, hepatitis, cholangiolitis, and cirrhosis of the liver. Oral mucosa may be pigmented
Acromegaly condition caused by hyperfunction of the pituitary gland in adults. Characterized by enlargement of the skeletal extremities, including the feet, hands, mandible, and nose
Cancer a malignant neoplasm. The term is sometimes incorrectly used to include any neoplasm, whether benign or malignant. Carcinoma and sarcoma are more specific terms.
Action potential n electric impulse consisting of a selfpropagating series of polarizations and depolarizations, transmitted across the cell membranes of a nerve fiber during the transmission of a nerve impulse
Acuity harpness; clearness; keenness.
Auditory acuity, n the sensitivity of the auditory apparatus; sharpness of hearing. The ability to hear a given tone with respect to the degree of intensity required to produce a sensation that is just perceptible
Acuteadj pertaining to a traumatic, pathologic, or physiologic phenomenon or process having a short and relatively severe course. Antonym: chronic
Adjuvant an auxiliary active ingredient that supports the action of the basic drug.
Amenorrhea the absence or abnormal cessation of the menstrual cycle.
Amoeba protozoa that uses extensions of its cytoplasm, called pseudopodia, to move. Some varieties of amoebae are implicated in human infection. Also spelled ameba(s).
Amorphous having no specific space lattice, the molecules being distributed at random.
Anabolism the constructive process by which substances are converted from simple to complex forms by living cells; constructive metabolism.
Analgesia an insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness; a state in which painful stimuli are not perceived or interpreted as pain; usually induced by a drug, although trauma or a disease process may produce a general or regional analgesia.
Adolescence the period of development between the onset of puberty and adulthood. This period is generally marked by the appearance of secondary sex characteristics, usually from 11 to 13 years of age, and spans the teen years
Adrenalectomy the surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands or the resection of a portion of one or both of the adrenal glands.
Adsorption a natural process whereby molecules of a gas or liquid adhere to the surface of a solid.
adverse reactions unfavorable reactions resulting from administration of a local anesthetic; responsible factors include the drug used, concentration, and route of administration.
cartilage, na derivative of connective tissue arising from the mesenchyme. Typical hyaline type is a flexible, rather elastic material with a semitransparent, glasslike appearance. Its intercellular substance is a complex protein (chondromucoid) through which is distributed a large network of connective tissue fibers.
Agenesis the defective development or congenital absence of parts.
Agranulocytosis a decrease in the number of granulocytes in peripheral blood resulting from bone marrow depression by drugs and chemicals or replacement by a neoplasm. Oral lesions are ulceronecrotic, involving the gingivae, tongue, buccal mucosa, or lips. Regional lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis are prevalent
Airway 1. a clear passageway for air into and out of the lungs. 2. a device for securing unobstructed respiration during general anesthesia or in states of unconsciousness.
Ala winglike cutaneouscovered cartilaginous structure on the lateral aspect of the external naris of the nose.
Alkalosis a disturbance of acid-base balance and water balance, characterized by an excess of alkali or a deficiency of acids.
alopecia the loss of hair. Various types with varying causes.
Anemia a term indicating that the concentration of hemoglobin or the number of red blood cells is below the accepted normal value with respect to age and gender. In true anemia the total concentration of hemoglobin, or the total number of erythrocytes, is below normal regardless of concentration values. Symptoms, which may not be evident, include weakness, pallor, anorexia, and those related to the cause of the anemia
Adhesion 1. the attraction of unlike molecules for one another. 2. the molecular attraction existing between surfaces in close contact. 3. the condition in which a material sticks to itself or another material
anorexia,(anohrek´seeuh), n the partial or complete loss of appetite for food
antibodies that react with it when introduced parenterally into an individual or species to which it is foreign
antibiotic,(an´tibaiot´ik), n an organic substance produced by one of several microorganisms, especially certain molds, that is capable, in low concentration, of destroying or inhibiting the growth of certain other microorganisms
antigen a substance(forgien)
, usually a protein, that elicits the formation of antibody
cardiac relating to the heart
artery,n a blood vessel through which the blood passes away from the heart to the various structures.
Bacteremia 1. the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It may be transient, intermittent, or continuous. Transient bacteremia may result from dental procedures such as extraction and adult prophylaxis or it may accompany the early phases of many infections. Continuous bacteremia is a feature of endocarditis. n 2. the presence of bacteria in the blood (e.g., as occurs during adult prophylaxis of a patient with the risk of complications due to bacteremia).
bacteria1. small, unicellular microorganisms of the kingdom Monera. The genera vary morphologically, being spheric (cocci), rod-shaped (bacilli), spiral (spirochetes), or comma-shaped (vibrios). n 2. the phylum in which these microorganisms are classified.
Atrophy a progressive, acquired decrease in the size of a normally developed cell, tissue, or organ. Atrophy may result from a decrease in cell size, number of cells, or both.
benign condition that, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life threatening. It is used particularly in relation to tumors, which may be benign or malignant. They do not invade surrounding tissues and do not metastasize to other parts of the body. The word is slightly imprecise, as some can, due to mass effect, cause life-threatening complications
biopsy,(bai´opsee), n the removal of a tissue specimen or other material from the living body for microscopic examination to aid in establishing a diagnosis